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Full text of "The works of Aristotle, the famous philosopher ..."



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THE 



WOR^KS 



or 



ARISTOTLE. 



THE 



FAMOUS FUILQSOFHER 



IN FOUR PARTS. 



CONTAINING 



L His Complete Master- 
piece ; displaying the se- 
crets of Nature in the Genera- 
tion of man. To which is ad- 
ded, The Family Physi- 
cian ; being approved rem- 
edies for the several Distem- 
pers incident to the hLiman 
Body- 
II. His Experienced Mid- 
wife; absolutely necessary 
for Surgeons, Midwives, 



Nurses and 'Child bearing 
Women 

III. His Book of Prob- 
lems, containing various 
Questions and Answers, rel- 
ative to the S^ate of Man's 
Eod:^. 

IV. His Last Legacy ; un- 
folding tkc Secrets ^f Na- 
ture res^iecting the Ccner-i^ 
tion of Man. 



A NEir EDITION. 



NEfr ENGLAND : 

'Printed for ^12 rFJ)PPTETOR. 



TO TiiE 



"^ 



READER.- 



^ TO fay that Ar'ijlotley the learned author of thefoL 
^ hiving fheeis\ uuas repoued to be the mofi learned philofopher in the 
W'orldj is no more than ivhat enjery intelligent perfon already knouos : 
nor can any think otherivife, 'who -zvillgi've the?nfelnjes time to con- 
fider that be -was thefchollarof Plato (the njoifeft philofopher of his 
time) and under 'wboin Ariftotle profited fo much, that he ivas 
chofen by king Philip of Macedon as the mofl ^worthy and proper fer^ 
fon in his do?ni?iions to be the tutor of hisfon Alexander, by ivhofe 
'wife precepts and ^njlructions Alexander became mafier of fo great 
'ivifdom, iudgment, proivefs, and magnanimity ^ that he juftly ob- 
tained th'a title of the Great, Alexander himfelfivasfo fenfible of 
the ad-uantage he received from the inftrudions of fo great a Stagi- 
rite fforfo Ariftotle 'was called from the country ofStagira^ njohere 
he 'was born J that he often declared he ivas more beholden to his tU" 
tor Ariftotle for the cultii^ation of his mind, than to his father Philip 
for the kingdom of Macedon. ^ 

Ihough Ariftotle applied himf elf to the in'veftigation of the fecrets 
9f nature, yet he 'Was pleafed to bring into a fuller and more true 
light thofe fecrets 'with refpect to the generation of man- Ihis he 
ftyied his Mafter Piece ; and in thts he has made fo thorough a 
Jearchy th^t he has as it 'were turned nature injide out. 

The di'vine records affure us, that the fecrets of nature ha^ve been 
the ftudy of di'verfe illuftrious perfons, equ-ally renouunedfor ivifdom 
and goodnefs \ the fii ft of 'whom, Job has made it fujjiciently e'vi- 
dent by that excellent philofophical account he gi'ves of the generation 
of man, in the tenth chapter of the bookuuhich bears his name, ivhere 
he fays, ^^ Thine hands haue made me, and fafhioncd me together 
round about : Thou haft poured me out as milk and curdled me like 
cheefe : Thou haft clothed me 'withfhin and flefh, and haft, fenced 

me 'With bones and fneuos^^ Da'vid, one of the greateft kings 

of If r a el, ivhofe piety "wasjhperior to his po'wer, being peculiarly 
ftyied a 7nan after God^s o-ivn heart, fays in his di'vine foUloquies 
to his Creator- ^^Thouhaft coi'ered me in my ?nother's 'Womb ', I 
'will praife thee^ for I am fearfully and 'wonderfully made : Mar- 
'vellous are thy 'works, and that my foul knoiveth right 'well. My 
fubftance 'was not hidden from thee 'u^hen I -was infecret, and curi- 
oujly ivrought in the lo'weft parts of the earth : Thine eye did fee my 
fubftance, yet being imperfect ; a?id in thy book, all my mernhers 



TO THE READER. 

"^ujtrf au;v//c77, ivhich in ccnt'inuance iverefq/hioned^ 'vohen-as ydy 
there njcas none of them. 

Lettheiioordsofholyjcb and thofe of Da^id be pug together, 
and I 'will noifcruple to affirjn^ that they make the mofi accurate 
fyftem ofphilofophy refpecting the generation of man that has ever 
yet been penile a \ therefore ivhy fl)ould not the myjleries of nature 
be inquired Into Without cenfure^fince^ from this inquiryy fo much 
praife refounds to the God of nature ! For, the more ^we knoii) of his 
"^-jjo'rks- the ?ncre our hearts ivill be inclined to praife him, as 'ice 
ft^e in the injlance ofDauid abo^ve mentioned. 

That the knonxledge ofthcfecrets of nature is too often abufed by 
?nany perfons, I readily grant ; and think it njery unfortunate 
that there fhould he a generation of fuch profligate perfons in the 
n.t:orld \ but at the fame time do a-ver that this is no objetlion to ibe 
ivcrk\ 

Having faid thus much of the 'wonderful <zvorks of nature in the 
generation ofman^ I Jhall next proceed to ginje the reader the bcjl 
tranfjation prffible 9f that excellent treatife of the ren&TJuned ^rif- 
iotle, ^jjhich hcvcaspleafedtofiyle /?ij MASTER PIECE. 

/ cannot help objer^-vmg, that ha-uing met with a coUection of 
appronjed receipts by the great Hyppocrates, and thinking they 
n^vould be "very acceptable to 7ny readers, I haue -added the fame^hy 
^vay offupplementy at the end of the Ma fie r pic cir. 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 



PART I. 

THE SECRETS OF NATURE DISPLAYED. 

INTRODUCTION. 

IT is ftrangc to fee how things are flighte J only be- 
caiife they are common, though in theniielves worthy the mofl 
ferious confideration, this is the very cafe ofil^e fjbject 1 am 
nov/ treating of. What is more common than the begetting of 
children ? And what is more wonderful than rhe plaftic power of 
natLie, by which children are formed ? For tho"* tliere is radicated 
in the very nature of all creatures, a propenlion which leads 
them to produce the image of themTclves, yet how thefe images 
are produced after thofe propeniions are fatisfie A, is only known 
to thofe who trace the fecret meanders of nature in their private 
chambers, to thole dark receffes of the womb, Vv here this embryo 
receives formation. The original of wh'ch proceeds from the 
divine command, incrcafe and mult:ply. 1 he natural inclination 
and propenfity of bothlexes to each other, theplaflicpower of na- 
ture, is only the energy of the firft bleiling, which to tliis day < 
upholds the fpecies of mankind in the world. 

Nov/ fmce philofjphy informs us, that Nofce tnffnm, is one cf 
the firft lelfons a man ought to learn, it cannot furcly be accounted 
an ufelefs piece of knov^dedge for a man to be aquaintcd witli tlie 
caufe of his own being, or by what fecrcr power cf nature it 
was, that coagulated milk (as a divine author calls it) came to be 
lubilantiated into a human body The explanation of this 
my(i:ery, and the unfolding the plaftic power of nature, in the fe- 
cret workings cf generation and the formation of tlie feed in the 
womb is the fu bje'ct of the following treatife ; a fubject fo necef- 
fary to be known to tlie female fex that many f ;r v ant cf this 
knowledge have perifhed with the fruit of tlseir womb aTo ;vvho 
had they but underftood the fecrets of generation, Vxhicli are 
difplayed in this treaiefe m'ght have been dill living I'orthe 
flike of fuch, I have compiled this work, which I have divided 
into two parts in the following manner 

1(1 I will fliew that nature need not be afliamed of her Vrcrk ; 
and give a particular defcriptionof the parts or organs cf gener- 
ation in man, and afrerwards in woman ; and then to ihe/v ti.e 
\\{s: of thefe parts in the act of coition ; and how politively na- 
ture has adapted theni to the end for which (he ordained theiri. 

2dly, I Will point out the prohibition or reitriction, that the 
Creator of all things and Lord of nature has put upon man by 
th£ inftitution of marriage wich the advantage it brings to nlau- 
kiad- 



(^ ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

.331y, I fhall fhew when either fex may enter into a married 
f!ate, and be fit to anfwer the end of the creation, Sec. 

4thlv, T /liall dilcourfe of virginity, and therein (hew what it is, 
how it is known, b)^ what means it may be loi% and how a per- 
ion may know that it is fo . 

];^ the fecond part, which chiefly relates to married women, 
•jr.ci the prefervation of the fruit of the womb, for tlie propaga 
lion of mankind to the world, I fhall fliew, 

1 ft, what conception is : what is prereqiiifite thereunto : how 
a woman may know when (he hath conceived, aad whether a 
boy or a girl. 

^dly, Shew how a woman that has conceived ought to order 
herfcif, 

3dly, Shew what a w^oman ought to do that is n^ar the time 
of her delivery, and how {he ought to be alTifted, 

4thly, I (hall (Kev/ what are the obftruCtions of conception, 
aad therein difcourfe largely about barrennefs, and fhew wha^ 
are the caufes, and cure thereof, both in men and women, 

■5thly, Dire(St midwives how they could alTift women in the 
time of their lying in, bringing fevcral other material matters 
proper to be fpoken of under each of thefe feveral heads : which 
vvill futriciently render this book what Ariftotle defigned it, Jii? 
Complete Master Piece. 

C H A P. I. 
AparilcuiarDrfcnptionoftheParts and hiftruments of Genera* 
tioTtj both 171 Metiy and Women. 
Section I. 
Of the inflrujnents of generation in men^ *u;uh a particular defcrip- 
tlon thereof 
THOUGH The Inftruments or parts of generation 
\M all creatures, w^ith refpect to their outward form, are not 
parhaps the moft comely j yet in compenfafion of that, nature 
has put upon them a more abundant and tar greater honor than 
on other parts, in ordaining them to be the means by which ev- 
ery fpecies of being is continued from One generation to anoth- 
er, A.nd therefore though a m.an or woman v/ere through the 
bounty of nature, endowed with angelic countenances, and the 
inoii exa6l fymmetry ?nd j^roportion of parts that concurred to- 
gether to the making up of the moll perfect beauty, yet, if they_ 
were defective in the indruments of generation, they would 
not for all tlieir beauty, be acceptable to either of the other fex ; 
fcecaufe they would be t- -.ereby rendered incapable of fatisfying 
the natual propenfions whicli every one finds in himfelf. And 
therefore, lince it is our duty to be acquainted with ourfelves, 
and to fearch out the v/ondeVs of God in nature, I need not 
make any apology for anatomizing the fecret parts of genera- 
tion. 

The organ of generation in man^ nature has placed obvious 
'o the fight, and iS called the yard ; and becaufe hanging with- 
f^ut the belly, is called the penis, a pendendo. It is in form 
long, round, and on the upper fide flatilh, and confifis of skin, 
tendons, veins, arteries, and finevvs, being feated under t)ie 
OfTa Pupis, and Di-dained by nature for a two fold v.ork, vii?. for 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. T 

the evacuating of urine, and conveying the feed into the matrix. 
The urine which it evacuates is brought to it through the neck 
of the Vefica Urinarise, and the feed which it conveys into the 
matrix, is brought into it from the Veficuhie Scniinalcs. But 
to be more particular. 

Befides the common parts, as the cuticle, the skin and the 
Membrana Carnofa/ it has feveral internal parts proper tait, of 
which number there are feven, viz. 

The two nervous bodies ; the Steptun ; the Urethra ; the 
Glands j the Mufcles ; and the veflTels : of each of thefe dif- 
tintUy, in the order I have placed them ; and, firft, of 

The tv/o nervous bodies. Thefe are called fo from their be- 
ing fiirrounded with a thick, white, nervous membrane, though 
their inward fiibftance is fpongy, as confifling principally of 
veins, arteries, and nervou;^ fibres, interv/oven like a net. 
And nature has fo ordered it, that when the nerves are filled 
v/ith animal fpirits, and the arteries with hot and fpiritous blood, 
then the yard is diftended, and becomes ere t ; v/hen the flux 
:'f the fpirit ceafes, when the blood and the remaining fpirits 
lire abforbed, or fucked up by the veins^ and fb the penis be- 
comes limber and flaggy. 

^ The fecond internal pa^t is the Steptun Lucidum, and 
?his is in Subftance white and nervous, or fmewy ; and its of- 
fice is to uphold the two lateral or fide ligaments and the Ure- 
thra. 

3 The tliird is the Urethra, which is on,ly the channel by 
whicli both seed and urine are conveyed out ; it is in fubftance 
foft and loofe, thick and finewy, like that cf the fide ligaments. 
It begins at the neck of the bladder, but fprings not from 
thence, only is joined to it and fo proceeds to the glands It 
has three holes at the beginning, the largeft of which is in the 
midft, which receives the urine into it. The other two are 
fmaller receiving the feed into each feminal vedel. 

4. The fourth is the Glands, which is at the end ofthe penis, 
covered v/ith a very tliin membrane, by reafon of a Praeputium 
or Foreskin, v/hicli in fome covers the top of the yard quite 
clofe, in others not ; and by its moving up and down in the ait 
©f copulation brings pleafure both to man and woman. The ex- 
treme part of this cover, which I call Praeputium, and which is 
fo called a Praeputcifido, from cutting off, as the Jews were com- 
manded to cut it off on the eighth day. The ligaments by 
which it is faftened to the glands is called Fraenum, or the brj- 
dle. 

'S. Tlie fifth thing is the Mufcles, and thefe are four in num- 
*ber, two being placed on each fide 'Ihefe mufcles( which are 
infrrum.ents of voluntary motion, and without which no part of 
the body can move itfelQconfifts of fibrous flelh to make up 
their body ; of nerves for the fenfe ; of veins for their vital 
heat ; and of a membrane or skin to knit them together, and to 
diftingui fn one mufcle from the other, and all of them from the 
fleih. I have already faid there are two of them on each fide ; 
and I now will add, that one on each fide is fliorter and thicker, 
and that their ufe ?sto et^S: the yard, from whence they have ob 



8 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

talned the name of erectors. And having told you that two o- 
thein are thicker and (horter than the other, I need not tell you 
that the other two are longer and thiner ; only I take notice, 
that the office ofthe two laftis to dilate, if youwill, open the low- 
er part of the Urethra, both for making water and voiding tlie^ 
feed, and therefore are called Accelerators 

6 The fixth and lafl: things are the velfels, which confid of 
Veins, Nerves, and Arteries : of which fome pafs by the skin 
and are vitible to the eye, and others pafs more inwardly. For 
indeed the Arteries are difperfed through the body ofthe yard 
much more than the veins, and the difpedion is contrary wife, the 
right artery being difperfed to the left fide, and tlie left to the 
right ; as for the two nerves, the greater is beftowed upon the 
mufcles and the body ofthe yard, ajid the lefs upon the skin. 

Wliat I have hitherto faid relates to the yard, properly fo 
called ; but, becaufe there are fome appendages belonging 
therto, which, when wanted render the yard of no ufe in the 
ii-St of generation, it will alfo be necelTary before I conclude the 
feotion, to fay fomething of them, I mean the flones, or teftlclcs 
fo called becaufe they tefti fy the perfon to be a man ; their num- 
ber and place is obvious ; and as to their ufe, in them the blood 
brought thither by the fp6fmatic arteries is elaborated into feed. 
They have coats or coverings of two fortS: prober and common; 
tlic common are two, and inveft both the teftes : the outcrmoii: 
ofthe common coats, confift ofthe caticula, or true skin, call- 
ed Scrotum, hanging out ofthe abdomen like a purfe. Mem- 
brana Carnofa is m the innermoft. The proper coats are alfo 
two : the outer called Elithoridis or Vaginalis, the inner Aibu- 
giena, into the outer are inferted the Crcmallers: tt; the upper 
part of the teftus are fixed the Epidermis, or Paraftatae, from 
whence arife the Vafa Deferentia Ejaculatoria , which when 
they approach near the neck of the bladder, depofit the feed in- 
to the Siculae Seminales, which are each or two or three ot 
them, lik« a bunch of grapes, and emit the feed into the urethra 
in the ai5t of copulation. Near tholi^ are the Paraftatae, wliich 
are about the bignefs of a walnut, and join to the ne'ck of the 
bladder. Thefe afford ar oily, llippery and fait humor, to be- 
fmearthe Urethra, and trtereby defend it from the acrimony cf 
the feed and urine. Befide thefe velfels, by wiiich the blood is 
conveyed to the tefles or of which the feed' is made, and, the ar- 
teriae fpermaticae, there are alfo two j and, fo likewife are the 
veins, v/hich carry out the remaining blood, which are called 
venae fpermaticae. 

And thus thoje nobhr parts ivefee 

Forfuch the parts of generation be : 

And they 'who carefully furvey ivill find 

Each part is fitted for the tije defign d : 

Ihe purcft bloodivefind if well Tue heed, 

Is in the tefiicles turn'd into feed :. 

Which by moji proper channels is tranfmitted, . 

Into the place by nature for it fitted : 

With higheft fenfe ofpleafure to excite 

In.amorous combatants the more delight ; 



xVRISTOTLE's MASTER PIECE; 9- 

For in this ivork nature doth defign 
Profit and pleafure in one a3 to join* 
Section II. 
Ofthefecretpartsin Women, 
WOMAN, next to man, the nobleft piece of this 
creation, is bone of his bone, and flefh of his flefh, aiartof fec- 
ond felf ; aTid, in a niarried ilate are accounted but one, as the. 
poet fays, 

J^Ian and nJbife are but one right 
Canonical hermaphrodite 

It is therefore the fecret parts of that curious piece of nature 
that we are to lye open, which we will do with as much mod- 
cfly as will confift with fpeaking intelligible. 

The external parts commonly called pudenda (from th6 
rhame facednefs that is in w'oman to have them feen) are the 
lips of the great orifice which are vifible to the eye ; and in 
thofe that are grov/n, are covered with hair, and have- pretty 
ftore of fpongy fat ; their ufe bein^ to keep the internal parts 
from all annoyance by outward accidents. 

Within thefe are the Nymphae, or wqngs, which prefent 
themfelves to the eye when the lips are fevered, and confift of 
foft and fpongy flem, and the doubling of the skin placed at 
the fides of the neck ; they compafs the clitoris, and both in 
form and color refemble the comb of a cock, looking frefli and 
red, and in the aft of coition receive the penis or yard betwixt 
them ; befides which they give paffage both to the birth ancJ 
urine; The ufi^ of the wings and knobs like myrtle berries, 
fluitting the orifice ^nd neck of the bladder,- and by the fwelL 
ing up, caufe titilation and delight in thofe parts, and alfo to 
ob(tru6l the voluntary paifage of the urine 

The next thing is the clitoris, which is a finewy and hard 
part of the womb, replete with fpongy and black matter with- 
in, in the fame manner as the fide ligaments of the yard fufiers 
erection and falling in the fame manner, and both liirs up lufl: 
and gives delight in copulation, for without this, the fair fex 
neither defire nuptial embraces nor have pleafure in them- nor 
conceive by them ; and according to the greatnefs or fmallnefs 
of this part, they are mc^ or lefs fond of men's embraces ; fo 
that it may properly be ftyled the feat of luft. 

Blo'wing the coals of thofe amorous fires^ 

Whichyouth and beauty to be quench' d requires. 
And it may well be fi:iled fo, for it is like a yard in fituafion, 
fubftance, compofition, and ereftion, growling fometimes out of 
the body two inches, but that happens npt but upon fome ex- 
traordinary accident- It confifts as I have faid, of two fpongy 
and skinny bodies which being a difl:inft original from the Os 
Pubis, the'head of it being covered with a tender skin, having a 
hole like the yard of a man, but not through, in which, and the 
bignefs of it only differs 

The next thing isthepafiage of the urine, which is under the 
clitoris, and above the neck of the womb, fo that the urine of a 
women comes not through the neck of the womb, neither is the 
palTage common as in men, but particular, and by itfdf. This 



i#= ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

paflTage opens itfelfinto the fifnure to evacuate the urine ; for 
the fecuring of which from cold, or any other inconveniency, 
there is one of the four caruncles, or flefliy knobs placed be- 
fore it, which fhuts up the paifage 

For thefe knobs, which are in number four, and in refem- 
blance like myrtle berries are placed behind the wings before 
fpoken of, quadrangularly, one againft the other Thefe are 
round in virgins, but hang flagging when virginity is loft — 
'Tis the upi>ermo(i: of theie that nature has placed for the fe- 
curing the urinary palfage from cold, and which is therefore 
fargeft and forked for that end. 

The lips of the womb that next appear ; cover the neck - 
thereof but being feparated difclofe it ; and then two things are 
to be obferved, and, thefe are the neck itfelf, and the hymen, 
more properly called the Clauflrum Virginale, which I Ihall 
treat more at large when I come to (how what virginity is. 
The neck of the womb, I call the channel, is between the fore 
mentioned kfiobs and the inner bone of the womb, which re- 
ceives the man's yard like a (heath : and that it may be dilated 
with the more eafe and pleafure in the a6l of coition, it is fm- 
ewy and a littte fpongy ; and there being in this concavity div- 
ers folds or orbicular platen made by tunicles, which are 
wrinkled, it forms an expanded rofe that may be feen in vir- 
gins : bu^ in thofe that have ufed copulation, it comes by de- 
grees to be extingui(hed ; fo that the inner (ide of the neck of 
the womb appears fmooth, and in old women it becomes more 
hard and grill y. But t-iiough this channel be finking down, 
wreathed, and crooked, yet it is otherwife in the time of copula- 
tion ; as alfo when women are uader the monthly purgation, 
or in labor, bein^ then very much extended^ which is a great 
caufe of their pams. 

The Clauftrum Virginale, commonly called the H}- men is 
that which clofes the neck of the womb ; for betvreen the du- 
plicity of the two tunicles which conftitute the neck of the 
womb, there are many veins and arteries running along, that 
arife from the velfels of both, fides of the thighs, and fo pafs in- 
to the neck of the w^omb, being very large ; and the reafon 
thereof is becaufe the neck of the wom!5 requires to be filled 
with abundance of fpirits to be dilated thereby, that it may the 
better take hold of the penis, fuch emotions requiring great 
heat,. which being more uitent by the aCt of friction, confumes 
a great deal of moifture, in the fupplying of which large vefTels 
are very necelTary : hence it is that the neck of the womb in 
women'of reafonable ftature, is eight inches in length. Bur 
there is alfo another caufe of the largenefs of thefe veiiels, be- 
Cftufe their monthly purgations make their way through them ; 
and for this reafon, women though with child, often continue 
tJriem : for though the womb be. (hut up, yet the palfage in the 
neck of the womb, through which theie veffels pafs, is open% 
And therefore- as foon as you penetrate the pudendum, there 
may be (cen two little pits or holes, and in which are continu- 
ed an humor, which, by being prelfed out in the time of coi- 
tion, does greatly delight thetair f?x. 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. Ui 

T fliall in the next place, proceed to a defcrlption of the womb 
^vhich is the field of generation, without which nothing can be 
done. 1 he parts we have been fpeakin^ of being ordained by- 
nature to convey the feed to ihe womb, which being impreg- 
nated therewith by virtue of the plaftic power of nature, produ- 
ces its own likenefs. 

The womb is fituated in the lower parts of the hypograftrion, 
^being joined to its neck, and is placed between the bladder and 
the ftrait gut, fo that it is kept from fwaying or rolling: yet 
hath its liberty to ftretch and dilate itfelf and alfo to rondu61 it- 
felf according as nature in that cafe difpofes it, it is of a round 
figure fomewhat like a gourd; leffening and growing more acute 
towards one end, being knit together by its proper ligaments, 
and its neck joined by its own fubftance, and certain membranes 
that faften it to the Os Sacrum and the fhare bone It is very dif- 
ferent, v/ith refpe(5t to its largenefs in women efpecially between 
fuchas have hadchildren, and thofe that have had none. It is fo 
thick in fubilance that it exceeds a thumbs breadth , and afier 
conception augments to a greater proportion, and to ftiengthen 
it yet more, it is interwoven with fibres overthwart* both ftrait 
and winding ; and its proper veflTels are veins, artenes and 
nerves ; amongft which there are two little veins which pafs from 
the fpermatic velfels to the bottom of the womb, and tvvO bigger 
from the hypogaftricks, touching the bottom and neck, the 
mouth of thefe veins piercing (o far as the inward cavity 

The womb, befides what I hav^e already mentioned, hath, 
two arteries on both fides the fpermatic velFels and the hypo- 
grafticks, which (till accompany the veins, with fundry little 
•nerves knit and interwoven in the form of a net, which are alfo 
extended throughout, even from the bottom to the pudeada 
themielves, being fo placed chiefly for the fenfe of pleafure, 
fympathetically moving from the head and womb. 

Here the reader ought to obferve, that two ligaments hang- 
ing on either fide of the womb from the ftiare bone, piercing 
through the Peritonaeum and joining to the bone itfelf caufes 
the womb to be moveable, which upon divers occafions either 
falls low or rifes ; the neck of the womb is of the moft exquif- 
-ite fenfc, fo that if it be at any time difordered, either with a 
fchirrofity, too much hot moifture or relaxation, the womb is 
fubject to barrennefs In thofe that are near their delivery, 
there ufually ftays a moft glutinous matter in the entrance, to 
facilitate the birth ; for at that time the mouth of the womb is 
iOpen to a widenefs in proportion to the bignefs of the child 

Under the parts belongmg to generation in women, are alfo 
comprehended the preparatory or fpermatic vefl'els ; the pre- 
paratory velfels differ not in number from thofe in man, for 
they are likewife four, two vedels and two arteries , their rife 
and original is the fame as in man, on the fide of them are two 
arteries which grow from them, differing only in their fize and 
manner of infertion, the right vein iifuing from the trunk of 
the hollow vein, and the left from the emulgent vein ; and on 
the fide of them are two arteries which grow from the arcd^a. 
Thefe preparatory veflTels are fhorter in women than in men. 



12 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

iDecaufe they have a (horter palfage, the flones of a womaa ly 
ing within the belly, but thofe of a man without : but to mak-e 
amends for their (hortnefs, they have far more writhing to and 
fro, in and out, than they have in men ; that fo the fubftance 
tliey carry may be the better prepared, neither are they united 
as they are in men, before they cofne to the flones, but are di- 
vided into two branches, whereof the greater only palFeth to 
the flones, but the leller to the fecundated egg, and this is prop- 
erly called conception. And then fecondly, to cherifh and 
tiourifh it, till nature has framed the chdd, and brought it to 
perfection. Thirdly, it ftrongly operates in fending forth the 
birth, when its appointed time is accomplished, there dilating 
^felf in an extraordinary manner ; and fo aptly removed from 
the fenfes, that no injury accrues to it from thence, retaining 
initfeifa ftrength and power to operate apd caft forth the 
birth. 

The ufe of the preparatory velTels is to convey the blood to 
the tefticles, of which a part is fpent in the nourifhment of 
them, and the produ6lion of thefe little bladders in all things 
refembling eggs, through which the vafa Praeparantia run, and 
are obliterated in them This conveyance of blood is by the 
arteries, but as for the veins, their office is to bring back what 
blood remains from ihe fore mentioned ufe. 

The veliels of this kind are much (horter in women than men, 
by reafon of their nearnefs to the tefticles ; and yet that defect rs 
more than made good by the many intricate windings to which 
they are fubjev!:!: ; for in the middle way they divide ihemfelves 
into two branches of different magnitude ; for, one of them be- 
ingblgger than the other, pafTes to the tefticles. 

The tefticles in women are very ufeful ; for where they are 
defective, generation work is quite fpoiled ; for though thofe 
little bladders which are on their outward fuperfices contain no- 
thing of feed, as the followers of Galen, &c erroneoufly imagine, 
yet they contain feveral eg^s ( about the number of 2.0 in each 
iefticle)one of which being impregnated by the moft fpirituous 
part of man's feed to the act of coition, defcends through the ovi- 
ducts into the womb^ where it is cherished till it becomes a live 
child. The figure of thefe Oveae or eggs, is not altogether 
round, but a little flat and deprefted on the fides, and in their 
lower par4: oval, but where the blood vetfels enter them, that is, 
in the upper part, they are more plain, having but one mem • 
brane about theiti that the heat may have more eafy accefs lo 
the womb, bo4i to the nourifhment of itfelf and theinfant there- 
in. Let me further add. thefe fpermatic veins receive the arte- 
ries as they pafs by the fide of the womb, and thereby make a 
mixture of the vital and natural blood, that tlieir works be 
more perfect. The deferentia, orcarr>ang vefTels fpring from 
the lower part of the flones, and are in color white, fubftance 
finewy, and pafs not through the womb ftraight, but wreathed ; 
they proceed from the womb in two parts, refembling horns, 
whence ♦^^hey are called the horns of the womb. 

The ftones of women are another part belonging to the inflri:- 
*«^er>ts of gerter,iti€>n ; for f'.Th ♦"li'np.i ^h'"y p'^^ ]v4ve as '-^^''' ^ 



AlllSrOTLE's MASTER PiECt . iS 

men but they arealfo differently placed : neither is their bi^nefs 
temperament, fubflance, form,or covering the fame . As to their 
place it is the hoUownefs of the abdomen, reftingupon the mufcles 
of the loins, and fo not pendulous, as in man. And that they are 
fo jplaced is, that by contracting the heat, they may be the more 
fruitful, their office being to contain the ovum, or egg, which 
"being impregnated by the feed of the man, is that from which 
the embryo is engendered. The ftones diifer alfo from mien's in 
their form ; for though they are fmooth in men, tliey are uneven 
in women ; being alfo deprelled or fiattidi in them, though in men 
their form is round and oval. They have alfo in women but 
one skin, whereas in men they have four. Nature having wifely 
contrived to fortify thefe molt againft tlie injuries of the air^ that 
are moft expofed to it ; the ftones of women bein^ within, but 
thofeof men without the belly. They ditferalfo in their fub- 
ftance, being much more foft than thofe of men, and not fo well 
compacted : their bi^nefs and temperature differ, in that they are 
lefs and colder than tnofe in men. Some indeed v/ill have their 
ufe to be the fame as in men. but that is for want of judgment ; 
for Arillotle and Scotus both affirm, that the women have no 
feed, and that their ftones diii'er alfo in their ufe from thofe of 
men ; their ufe being as I have already faid, to contain that egg 
which is to be impregnated by the feed of a man. 

It now remains, that I fay Ibmelhingofthe ejaculatory vefTels, 
which have two obfcure paiTagcs, one on either fide, which in 
fubftanc6 differ nothing from the fperm.atic veins. 1 hey rife in 
one part from the bottom of the womb, but not reaching from 
the other extremity, either to the (tones, or any ether part, are 
(hut up and incapable, adhering to the v. omb,'a3 the colon dorh 
to the blind gut, and winding halfway about ; though the ftones 
are remote from them, and touch them not, yet tliey are tied to 
them by certain membranes refembling the wings of a bat. 
through which certain veins and arteries, paffing froni the end of 
the ftones, may be faid here to have their paflages, proceedmg 
from the corners of the womb to the tefticles, and are accounted 
the proper ligaments by vshich the tefUcles and the womb ar^ u- 
nited and ftrongly knit together. 

Thus the 'womeri' sfecrets I ha-vefuruey'dj 
And let them fee houo curioufj they're 7nade, 
And that though they of differ e?it f exes be^ 
Yet "« the 'vohnle they are the fa?neas 'zve. 
For thofe that have the ftr'iciefi fearchers heen^ 
Find IV c men aiebut men turn' d cutjide in : 
And men if they but caft their eyes about ^ 
May find they' re 'women ii'itj their inficie out. 
Section, ill. 
Of the ufe and ABion of the fe^jeral Pans in JVomen appropriate to 
Generation. 
I SHALL next take a furvey of the parts of generation 
both in men and women, and (hew the ufe and action of thefe 
'parts in the work of generation, which will eccellently inform u^ 
tJiat tiature kas made nothing in vaih. 
B 



14 ARIblOILE's MASTE.R PIECE. 

The external parts in a womati's privities, or that v, hich is 
molt obvious to the eye at tirll, commonly called Pudendum, are 
defigned by nature to cover the great orifice, nature intending 
that orifice to receive the penis or yard in the act of coition and 
alfo to give pafiTage to the urine, and, at the time of birth to the 
child. The ufe of the wings or knobs, like myrtle berries, are 
for the fecurity of the internal part by (hutting up the orifice, 
and neck of the bladder, alfo for delight and pleal'ure j for by 
their Iwelling up, they caufe titration and delight in thofe parts, 
beingprelfed by the man's yard. Their ufe is likevviie to ob- 
ilrutt the involuntary paliage of the urine. 

The ufe and aC:tion of the clitoris in women is like that of the 
penis or yard in men, that is erecting its extreme end,being like 
that of the glands in the men, the feat of the greatelt pleafure in 
the a6t of copulation. fc| is this of the clitoris in women, and 
therefore called the fw^eetnefs of love, and the fury of venery. 

The adion and ufe of the neck of the womb, is the fame 'with 
that of the Penis, that is, eredtion which is occaiioned fundry 
ways ; for Firft, in copulation it is erected and made ftraight fur 
the paiTage of the Penis to the womb. Secondly, while the paf- 
fage is replete with the fpirits and vital blood, it becomes more 
llraight tor embracing the penis. And for the necelFity of ere^t- 
tion there isa two fold reafon : one is, that if the neck of the 
womb was not ere,! fed, the yard could have no convenient "paf- 
fage to the \^:omb. 1 he other is, that it hitiders any hurt or dam- 
age that might enfue through the violent concullion of the yard 
•during the time of copulation. 

Then as the veliels that pafs through the neck of the womb, 
their office is to repknilh it with blood and fpirits, tliat fo as the 
moiftureconfumes through the heat contrav.ied in copulation, it 
may (till by thefe veilels be renewed But their chiei bufinefs is 
to convey nutriment to the womb. 

Thus Nature 7iothing does in fvain produce, 
But fits each part for 'ivhaf s its proper ufe : 
And though of Jrfferent fexes forfn d uue be^ 
Yet be t\K)'ixt theft' there is thatwiity. 
That 'ixe in nothir:g can a greater find^ 
Unlifs the foul that's to the body join d : 
And fare in this Dame Nature' s in the right, 
Ike ftrideil union yields ih^ mofi delight. 
^ CHAP. II ' 

Of the reJlriBion laid upon Men in the ufe of Carnal Copulation ^ by 
"^ the infiitution of Marriage^ njoith the ad-vantage that it brings 
to mankind and the proper time for it. 

THOUGH the ^reat Architecl of the world has 
been pleafed to frame us of ditlerent fexes,and,for the propaga- 
tion and continuation of mankind, has indulged us the mutual 
embracesof each other, the defire whereof* by a powerful and 
fecret inftin; % is become natural to us, yet he would leave them 
to the law of the Creator, who has ordained that every man 
ihall have his own wife ; and, though, fince man, by finning a- 
gainll his Creator, hath fallen from his primitive purity, and 
h^?> multiplied wives and coftgubines, by which the firft inflitu- 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. lo- 

tion is violated, and the grofleft affront given to the Divine Law- 
giver ; for the holy Jefus hath told us, That in the beginning 
marriage was of one man to one women ; fo that as thefe conju- 
gal delights cannot be enjoyed but in a married (late, fb neith- 
er, in that ftate, can they lawfully be participated of with more 
than one wife And it is the breaking of this order that has 
filled the world with confufion and debauchery ; has brough 
diieafeson the body, confumption on the ellates and eternal 
ruin to the foul, if not repented of. Let all thole, therefore, of 
either fex, that-havea defire to enjoy the delights of mutual 
embraces, take care that they do it in a married ilate, with their 
own wives or husbands, or elfe it will become a curfe to them, 
inflead of a bleffing : And, to that end let them conlider what is 
due to tranfgrefTors of his law, who hath faid, Tboz^ fialt not 
commit Adultery Whatever is fpoken of the veneral pleafure, 
is fpoken to thofe who have or may have, a right thereunto, by 
being in a married ftate. For, 

Who to forbidden pleafurt'S a re incUn'dy 
Will find at laft toey leaue ajilng behind. 

Section If. 
Of the hafpinefs of the Married State. 

Matrimony, in the prefent age, is looked upon as a mod iu. 
fupportable yoke ; Wives and husbands are accounted the ^ 
greateft clogs and burthens to thofe who give up the reins to 
their unbridled appetites. Notwithflanding the prefent mode 
of thinking isaga'nd me, I doubt not of making it appear, that 
a married llate is the moft happy condition, (where perfoasare 
equally yoked) that is to be enjoyed on this fide Heaven. 

fhe author arid inflitutor of marriage, and who firll brought 
man and vv^oman together, was no other than he that made them, 
.even the Great Lord of the univerfe, whofe wifdom being in- 
finite, could not but know what condition was good for us ; 
and his goodnefs beinjj equal to his wifdoin, fufHciently Uiews 
the end of this inllitution was the l^p.ppinefs of tlie creature he 
had made ; and indeed man could not be haupy without it ; 
for he faw that it was not good that man (hould be alone, and 
therefore made a woman to complete his happinefs, which was 
not perfe(5f whild he wanted fuch a help mate for him 

The tii-e of the inftitution is alfo very remarkable : for It 
was wh'Kl Adam and his new made bride were clothed witli all 
that virgin purity and innocence with which the}^ were created, 
before they had entertained the leaft converfe with the temper, 
or had given way to one difordered thought ; and yet could cu- 
rioufly furvey the feyeral incomparable beauties and perfec- 
tions of each other without fin, and knew not what it was to lull:. 
It was at this time that the Creator united Adam in the holy 
bands of wedlock. 

'Twas in paradife where the firft match was made ; and which 
could fcarcely have been paradife without it ; for paradife is 
known to be a place of pleafure, wherein they were f urrounded 
with the quintedence of all delights ; where there was nothing 
wanting that might pleafe the eye, charm the ear, or gratify the 
fade; and yet Actam was not happy vvitl:i t]\efe pleafing fvveets 



iS ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

'^till he enjoyed his Eve ; fo that it was a married date which 
completed bis happinefs, and which was a paradife of pleafure 

What an addition to happinefs a good wife makes ! fiich an 
one is tlie beil companion in profperity, and in adverfity the 
fiireft: friend ; the greatefi: aflillance in bufmefs, the only law- 
tiikand comfortable means by which he can have iffiie, and the 
great remedy againll incontinence ,•- and if we believe king Sol- 
omon, The greateft honor unto him that has her. For he tell? 
lis, She is a croivn to her husband Surely thefe are not fmall 
^^dvantages ! 

If married perfons would be careful to do their refpe61ive du- 
ties, there would be but little complaining ; nor would any 
condition in life be fo agreeable as the married (late. How 
much more fatisfa6lion a man receives in the embraces of ^ 
loving wife, than in the wanton dalliances of a deceitful harlot. 
Thus does this fedion unto all relate 
The fleafures ischich attend the married flat e : 
Andjhe^ivs it does ivith innocence confift j 
And thM/o many haa>e thofe tleufures mifs*d'^, 
^Tis their o^wn fault, they iJotll no imferbey 
As in this mirror they may plainly fee. 
Section III. 
At <what ageyoifng M^n and Virgins are capable of carnal copUX. 
lation ; and rjohy they fa ?nuch deftre it* 
I {hall in the prefent fe6tion, make it my bufinefs to Ihew" at 
what age young men and virgins are capable of the marriage 
bed, which becaufe fo many defire before they attain to it, it 
will likewife be necelfary to {hew the caufe of their impetuous 
defires. 

The inclination of virgins to marriage is to be known by ma-^ 

ny fymptdms ; for when they arrive at ripe age, which i^^- 

bout fourteen or fifteen, their natural purgations begin to fiow ; 

' ' ' t ^ .,i...u:^i, >^ ip,pnr^r f^rv(^<^ for the incrcafc of 

and t*ien tne diov.v* „*axvii . „— — ^ .~. ^ 

their bodies, does by its abounding, ftir up their minds to ven- 
erate ; to which alio external caufes may incite them. For 
their fpirits are brisk and enflamedwhen they arrive at this age, 
and their bodies are often more heated by their eating (harp 
and fait things ; and by fplces, by \^ hich their defire of venerable 
embraces becomes very great, and, at feme critical jun6lures 
almoft infupportable. T he ufe of thofe fo much defired enjoy- 
ments being denied to virgins, is often followed by very dan- 
gerous, and fometimes difmal confequences precipitating them 
mto thofe follies that may bring an indelible llain on their fam- 
ilies, or bring on themfelves the Green Sicknefs, or other dif- 
f^afes But when they are married and thofe defires fatisfied by 
their husbands, thofe'dillempers vanifh and thdr beauty retunu 
more gay and lively than before. And this (hong inclination 
r.f theirs may be known by their ea^er gazing at men, and af- 
fe. ling their company, which fufficiently demonftrates that na- 
tgre excites them to defire coition. Nor is this the cafe with 
you'.ig virgins Qnlv, but the fame may be obferved in y<^un^ 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 17 

^v-idows, wliD cannot be fatisfied without that due benevolence 
which they were wont to receive from their husbands. 

At fourteen years of age commonly, the menfes begin to flow 
in virgins ; at which time they are capable of conceiving and 
therefore fit for marriage: though it would be much better 
both for themfelves and their children, if they would not marry 
till eighteen or twenty ; if they are healthy, of ftrong body, and 
ufe themfelves to temperance they may continue bearing till up- 
wards of 50, though generally leave oft between 40 and 50 : for 
the menfes flow longer in fome |than in others ; But when they 
ceafe, they ceafe bearing, and therefore Sarah bearing Ifaac 
after it had ceafed to be with her according to the cuftom of wo- 
men, may w^ell be termed miraculous. 

As for'male youth, when they arrive at 16 or between that 
and feventeen ; having much vital ftrength, they may be capa- 
ble of getting children ; which ability, by the force and heat of 
procreating matter, conllantly increales till 45, 55, 65, and tiien 
begins to flag, the feed by degrees becoming unfruitful, the na- 
ture of fpirits being extinguiihed, and the heat dried up Thus 
it is v.ith them for the mofl part, but many times it falls out 
otherwife in particular inftances as once in Sweden, a man was 
married at 100 years old to a bride of 30, and had many children 
by her ; but he was a man of fo hale a conftitution, and car. 
ried his age fo well, that ftrangers would not have gueflTed hiiu 
at above 60 And in Campania, where the air is clear and teni 
perate, it is ufual for men of 80 years old to marry young vir 
gins, and have children by them ; which fhcws that age in rnan^ 
hinders not procreation, unlefs they be exhaufted in their youth, 
and their yards (hivered up. 

If any ask, why a woman is fooner barren than a man? let 
f«ch know that tile natural heat, which is the caufe of generation 
:s more predominant in men than women : for tlie monthly pur- 
gations of women (hew them to be more moiil than men, and fo 
does alfo the foftnefs of their bodies. And the man exceeding 
her in native heat, concocts the humors into proper aliment, by 
tlie benefit whereof they are elaborated into feed ; but women 
though of a finer make, yet not being fo flrong as men, their 
fatuities arc thereby hindered in their operation. 
Tims nature fo her children is fo k'mdy 
That early they thofe inclinations f.ndy 
IFhich prompts them on to propagate iheir kinii^ 
Hence 'tis a 'virgin her dejires can't /mother ^ 
But reftlefs is 'fill /he be made a mother, 
CHAP. III. 
Of Virginity y 'what it isy honv it may be knouon, by luh at means /; 
may be lofl, and ho'W a perfon may knoiv that it is fo. 
Section I. 
Of n^i Trinity and ^wherein it confifis. 
HAVING treated of the defire young men and vlr^. 
^ns have to mutual embraces, and at what age they are fit for 
them ; I have alfo (hewn that thofe pieafures are only lawful to 
be enjoyed in a married (late ; and have alfo acquainted the read- 
er with the advantage of fuch a co.^dition. But fmce the defire!:; 



iii ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECfi. 

of maiiV alter mutual embraces are fo impetuous that not hav- 
ing an opportunity to enter into a married ftate, they have an • 
ricipated the plealures of matrimony, and loft their virginity be- 
fore hand ; and yet, perhaps, have afterwards pretended to 
bring their virginity to a marriage bed, by which means many an 
honeil rnan has been deceived, and meretricious v/oman efcap- 
ed with impunity : on the other hand, fome virtuous young vir- 
gins, that have come fuch to their husband's beds, nave been 
accufed by the ignorance and credulity of their husbands, to 
have loft tneir virginity before hand, when there has been no 
fuch matter ; therefore to do right in this cafe to both parties, 
my defign in this chapter is to (hew what virginity is, wherein 
it coniifts : how many ways it may be loft, and how a man may 
know that it is fo or not : that fo women may not be wrongfully 
cenfured, or men impofed upon. 

Virginity untouch'dand taintlefs, is the boaftand pride of the 
fairfex. But they generally conwnendit to putitoff : for, as 
good as it is, they care not how foon they are honeftly rid of it. 
And I think they aie in the right of it, for if kept it §rows ufe- 
Jefs, or atlcaft loofes fo much of its value ; a ftale virgin, ( if 
Aich a thing there be ) being looked upon like an old almanack 
out of date. But to fpeak to the purpoie virginity is the chief, 
the prime, the beft of any thing, and is properly the integrity oP 
a woman's privities, not violated by man, or not known by him, 
it being the diftinguiihedcharacteriftic of a virgin, that (he has 
not known man. 

To make tliis more plain, I muft here obferve^ that there is in 
maids, in the neck of the womb, a membraneous produ<ftion cal- 
led the Hymen, which is like the bud of a rofe half blown, and 
this is broken in the firft aCt of copulation with man : and hence 
comes the word Defiora to deflower ; whence the taking of vir- 
ginity, is called detiowering a virgin : for when the rofe bud is> 
expanded, virginity is loft. Certain it is there is in^ the firft adt 
of copulation Ibmething that caufes pain and bleeding: which 
is an evident fign of virginity. But what this is authors are not 
agreed on. Some fay it is a nervous menbrane, a thin skin with 
fmall veins, that bleeds at the firft penetration of the yard. Oth- 
ers fay it is the four caruncles, knobs, or little buds like myrtle 
berries, which are plump and full in virgins, but hang looie or 
flaggy in thofe wlio have ufed copulation, beirig prelfed by the 
yard. Some have obferved the fiefhly circle about the Nymph- 
ae, or neck of the womb, with little obfcure veins, which make 
the membrane not to be nervous but fleihy. But fetting afide 
condie6tures, <he Hymen, or Clauftrum Virginale, is a thia 
membrane interwoven v/ith flefhy fibres, and endowed with nia- 
ny little arteries and veins, fpread acrofs the paflage of the vagi- 
na, beliind the infertion of the bladder, with a hole in the midfV 
for the menfes to flow, fb big, that it will admit the top of one's 
little finger. This is that which is called the Zone, or girdle of 
chaftity ;and where it is found in the form defcribed, it is a cer- 
tai-n note of virginity ; but in the firft a(5l of copulation it is nee- 
:Tariiy violatedj arvd then it js jgenerally ^ccoisipanied with sa 



ARISTOTLE^s MASTER PIECE. iST 

cffufion of blood, which blood, is called the flower>f virginity j 

and when once broke, it never clofes again. 

Section II. 

Hoiv ^virginity may he loft. 

In the former fedion I have (hewn in what virginity confifls, 

a^d that it is loft by the firfl penetration of the yard, which may 

be eafily known by its being attended with an eftVifion of blood 

upon the rupture of the Hymeneal membrane, or Clauftrum Vir- 

finale; but'I muft do the fair fex this juftice, to let the world 
now, that although wherever this is found, it is an undoubted 
token of virginity, yet it will not follow, that where this token is 
wanting, virginity is deflowered ; for the hymen may be corro- 
ded by acrimonious and fretting humors flowing through it with 
the menfes, or it may be violated by the inverfion or filing out 
of the uteras, or of vagina or fheath, which fometimes happens 
even to virgins ; or (which all virgins (hould beware of, for, 
the preservation of their credit, and preventing of fufpicion) 
perhaps the unwary bride has had her menfes but a day or two 
before, in which cafe both the Hymen and inner wrinkled . 
membranes of the vagina are flaggy, weak and relaxed, To 
that no fuch rapture or effufion may happen. It were better 
therefore that when virgins are about to marry, they would 
fix their wedding day at lead fix orfeven days after the menfes 
have done flowing. 

But further, nature hath given greater defires after enjoy- 
ment to fome than to others, and Cuch, though they abllain 
from enjoyment, yet fo great is their defire after it, that they 
may break the Hymen or Clauftrum Virginale ; and fometimes 
it iches to that degree, that they put in their finger, and fo 
break it. Sometimes the midwives break it in the birth ; and 
fometimes it is done by floppage of urine, coughing, violent 
ftraining, or fneezing ; fo that no bleeding at the firlt penetra- 
tion of the husband is not always a fign of unchaflity, or that 
another has been there before him, feeing that the hy menial 
membrane maybe broke fo many otlier ways; but where bleed- 
ing does flow, it is an undeniable token that the perfon was a 
virgin, and never knew man before. And indeed, tho' the Hy- 
men may be broke all thefe ways mentioned, yet it fo rarely 
happens to be broke any other way, that Leo Africanus makes 
mention of it as a general cuftom of the Africans at their wed- 
dings, that the marriage ceremony bein^ over, the bride and 
bride groom are fhut up in a chamber while the wedding dinner 
is preparing ; an ancient woman (lands at the door to receive from 
the bridegroom a flieet, having the bloody token of the wife's 
virginity, which Ibe (hews in triumph to all the guefts, and then 
they feaftwith joy ; but if there is no blood fee n,^ the bride is 
to be fenbhome again to her friends with difgrace, and the difapr^ 
pointed gue(l:s go home without their dinner 

There are others, that make the ftraightnefs of the privities a 
(jgnofvirginity, but this is a very uncertain rule; for this de- 
pends rouch upon the age, habit of the body, and other circum^ 
it^ces* But, though women who have uled carnal copulation;, 



20 ARISTOTLE»s MASTER PIECE. 

arenotfo flraight as virgins, yet this cannot be a certain argu-^ 
ment of virginity, becaufe the privities may be made ilraight by 
the ufe of aftringent medicines I have heard of a courtezan, 
who, though fhe had beisn married, gave herfelf out to be a vir- 
gin, and by the help of a bath of comfrey roots deceived thofe 
with whom (lie had to ^o. 

Others judge of loft virginity by the milk of the bread; but 
fiich perhaps, are ignorant that there is a twofold milk ; the one 
of virgins, the other of fuch as have conceived or brought forth 
children: that of virgins is a malady contrary to nature, made 
of blood from the womb ; turned anto milk by the faculty of the 
breafts ; the other is natural, where there is a child eitherin the 
womb or born: yet the milk (though both are white) differs 
very much both in refpedt to the blood, and diverfity of veins 
that brin^it to the breafts : and that of virgins is thinner, lefs 
in quantity and not fo fweet ; therefore if virgins hapj^n to 
have such milk, they are not for that reafon to be reckoned un- 
chafte. 

Upon the whole the fum of what I have faid upon this head 
of virginity, terminates in this ; that when a man is married and 
findsthetokensof his wife's virginity, upon the firft a6i of cop- 
ulation, he has all the reafon in the world to believe her fuch, but 
if he finds them not, he has not reafon to think her devirginated^ 
if hefindsher otherwifefober andmodeft : Seeing the Hymen 
may be broken fo many other ways, and yet the woman both 
chafte, and virtuous. Only let me caution virgins to take all 
imaginable care to keep their virgin zone entire, that fo when 
they marry, they may be fuch as the great Caefar wiflied his wife 
tabe, not only without fault but without fufpicion alfo. 
7hus hafve^ I 'Virgin innocence fur^ey d^ 
And JheijS d the difference hefwixt lAJifeand ma'id^ 
And that their chajlity they need not fear ^ 
Whofe <virgin token plainly doth appear, 
Nor cenfure thofe in 'whom they do not fo, 
Unlefs the contrary they plainly knoiv. 
For they may yet unfpptted njirgins hey 
Although their ^virgin tokens none can fee. 



ARISTO TLE^s MASTER PIECEt 



PART II. 

't^efecreis of nature difplayed in the Produilion of Mati> 

CHAPTER I. 

What conception is ; nvhjit is prerequijite thereunto \ hoio anjoo- 
man fnay knoiA> ivhetherfie hath concei'vedy and ivhether a hy 
^i'ff girL 

Section I. 

Ofconception^ lobat h is, ^c, 

HAVING, in the firft part of this work, defcrib- 
ecl the inftriiments of generation in both fexes, and the ufe for 
which thofe inftruments were intended by nature, I fliall, in 
the part before me, proceed to fhew what conception is : the 
figns and tokens thereof, and what are the prerequifites there- 
unto : for when once a woman has conceived the work of gen- 
eration is begun, time, with nature's help, will perfect the 
work. 

Now in conception, that which is firft to be regarded, and 
without which it cannot be, is the feed of the man, that being 
the a6live principle, or efficient caufe of the foetus, the m^^*^^;^ 
?5r ^1^.!^ r!5^^-^^^^^ ^^^^^' ^^^ anim^i^ t^^^^ wnich are elaboVa* 
^CvA ir.lC *CCu in tlie tefticles, and from thence by proper veflels 
conveyed into the yard, and in the a(5l of copulation, it is in- 
je6led or emitted into the womb. The next thing is the paf- 
five principle, to the foetus (for there muft be both in order to 
conception) and this is an ovum, or egg, impregnated by the 
man's feed, or being conveyed to it, the womb clofes up, that 
no air may enter therein but the impregnated ovum may fweU 
into a foetus. This is that which is truely and properly con- 
ception, and the prerequifites thereunto I (hall make tne fub- 
iect of the next fe^tion. 

Section II. 
Oftheprerequifit'ies to conception, 
I have fhewn in the former fe<ftion, that there are two things 
tx)be regarded chiefly in conception, to wit, the a6iive and j)af- 
five principle. This in part (hews, that difference of fexes is a 
prerequilite to conception. So nature has ordained there mu(t 
be a proper vehicle for the a(5live principle to be injected there- 
into and there muft alfo be a palTive principle to be imj>regnat- 
^ thereby, fg the woman has no a<5tive principle to impreg- 



22 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

natc. and therefore, without different fexes, there can be no 
conception. 

But this h not all : for it is not enough that there be differ- 
ent fexes, thefe different fexes muft unite, and there mufl be 
coition, in order to conception ; and it is coition, or the mutu- 
a] embraces of both fexes, which nature has made fo defnable 
to each other : which, when authorized in the way that heaven 
has ordained, there is no need of ravifhing : for the fair bride 
will quickly meet her bridegroom with equal vigor. But (ince 
in that theie may be overdoing, and fuch errors committed by 
their giving v/ay to the impetuofity of their defires, as may be 
prejudicial to conception, it will not be amifs to give fome di- 
reaions to make this operation the more effev::tual. 

Section III. 

A ^jisord of dd^vice to both fexes : or^ Dire^ions reffeBing the a6l 

of Coition or carnal copulation 

Though there are fome that defin? not to have children, and 
yet are very fond of noclurnal embraces, to whom thefe 
direflions will be no way acceptable, becaufe it may probably 

froduce thofe effedls which they had rather be without ; yet 
doubt not but the generality of both fexes, when in a married 
^ate have fuch a defire to produce the fair image of them- 
felves, that nothing can be more w elcome to them than thofe 
diret^t'ons that may make their mutual embraces moft effee^hial 
to that tr^^ : and therefore let none think it ftrange that we 
pretend to give directions for the promoting that which nature 
itfelfteacheth all to perform ; fmce 'tisno folecifm for art to be 
a handmaid to nature, and to alliii in her nobleft operations. 
Neither is it the bare performing of that aft which we here dire6t 
to, but the performing it fo as to make it conducive unto the 
work of generation. And fince this a6l is the foundation of gen- 
eration, and without which it cannot be, fome care ought to be 
taken, and confequentiy fo^ue advke given how to perform it 
w^ell : and therein I am fure the proverb is on oUr fidCj w]v.rh 
tells us that what is once well done, is twice done. But yet 
what we (hall advance on this nice fubjet^i, fhall be offered with 
fuch caution, as not to give offence to the chafteft ear, nor put the 
fair fex to the trouble of b]un>ing What I ihall offer will con- 
/ift of two parts. Firfi: fomething previous to it ; and fecondly, 
fomethingconfequential to it. 

For tlie firft, when married perfons defign to follow the pro- 
penfions of nature for the produtifion of the fair image of them- 
felves, let every thing that looks like care and bufmefs be ban - 
iftied from their thoughts, for all fuch things are enemies to Ve- 
nus ; and let their animal and vital ipirits be powerfully exhil- 
arated by fome brisk and generous reiroratives ; and let them, 
to invigorate their fancies, furvey the lovely beautfes of each o- 
ther. and bear the bright ideas of them in their minds ; and if it 
happens, that inftead ofbcauty there is any thing that looks like 
imperfection or deformity (for nature is not alike bountiful to 
all) let them be covered over with a veil of darknefs and qblivi- 
ion. And fmce the utmoil intention of defire is required in this 
'^-3 it may not be amifs for the bridegrocni for the mere eager 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. ^ 

heightening cf this joy, to delineate the fcene of their approach- 
ing happinefs to his fair languilhing bride in fome fuch amorous 
rapture as this, 

NouD, my fair bride, noiv 'will Ijlorm the mint 
Oflooje an. I joy, and rifle all that's in't, 
No-uo my infranchis' d hand on euery Jide^ 
Shall o'er thy naked polijh' d i^oryjlidey 
Freely jh all nouo my longing eyes behold y 
Thy bared fnoiv and thy un drained gold : 
No>- curtain noiv though of tranfparent laiLU, 
Shall be before thy virgin treafure druivn, 
1 imll enjoy thee noTv my fairejl come. 
And fly -101 th me to lore's elyfium^ 
My rudder ivith thy bold hand, like a trfd 
And skillful pilot y thoujbalt fleet y and guide. 
My bark in hues dark channel, nxjhere it /ball 
Dunce, as the bounding 'wanjes do rife and falL 
JVhiljl 7ny tall pinnace in the Cyprian flrair. 
Rides fafe at anchor and unlades the freight. 
Having by thele and other amorous ads (which love can bet- 
ter dictate than my pen) wound up your fancies to the highefl 
ardor, and defires, 

Perform thofe rights natute and hue requires, 
^laiyou haue quench' d each other's am' reus fires. 
When tlic a6f of coition is over, and the JMddegroom has done 
what nature prompted him to do, he oughtTO take care not to 
withdraw too precipitately from the field of love, left he fhould, 
by fo doing, let the cold into the yvomb, which might be of dan- 
gerous coniequence. But when he has given time for the mat- 
rix to clofe up, he may withdraw, and leave the bride to her re- 
pofe which ought to be with all the calmnefs poflible, betaking 
lierfelf to reft on the right fide, and not removmg without great 
cccafion, till Ihe has taken her firft deep. Cougriing and fneez- 
ing, if polTible, fhould be avoided, or any thing that agitates *or 
caufes a motion of the body. Theie amorous engagements 
ihould not be often repeated till the conception is formed. And 
it may not be amif^ to remind the bridegroom, that the fair lafts 
all the year, and ffiat he (hould be careful not to fpend his flock 
lavilhly, as women in general, are better pleaied in having a 
thing once vv^ell done than ofren ill done 

•Section IV. Hoiv a 'woman may kno^o ix^hcn fhe has conceited. 
iVfter the means made ufe of in order to conception, according 
to the directions given before, there is reafon to expeft that con- 
c;eption (hould follow : but as things do not always fucceed ac- 
j^ording to defire, fo therefore conception does not always follow 
upon coition For there are many women, efpecially thofe 
newly married, who know not whether they have conceived or 
not ; after coition : which, if they were aiiured of, they might 
and would avoid feveral inconveniences which they now run up- 
on For after conception a woman finds an alteration in herfelf, 
and yet knows not from w4ience it arifes, ftie is apt to run to the 
doctor and enquire of him what is the matter, who not knowing 
that the is with child, givesh?ra ftroftg portion, whic-h certain- 



U ARI^TOTLE»s MASTER PIECE. 

ly deftroys the conception. There are others, who out of fooK 
ifh bafhful coynefs, though they know that they have conceived 
yet w ill not confefs it, that they may be indrutted how to order 
themfelvcs accordingly. Thoie that are coy may learn in time 
to be wife ; and for the fake of thofe that are ignorant, I (hall fet 
down the figns of conception, that women may know thereby, 
whether they have conceived or not. 

If a woman hath conceived, the vein under her eye will be 
fwelled, i C' under the lower eyelid, the vein in the eyes ap- 
pearing clearly, and the eyes fomething difcolored ; if the wo- 
man hath not her turns upon her, nor hath watched the night 
before, there is a certain fign of her having conceived ; and this 
appears moft plainly juft upon the conception, and holds for the 
firfl two months after* Stop the urine of the woman clofe in a 
glafs or bottle three days, at the expiration of which time ftrain 
ti through a linen rag : if you perceive fmall living creatures in it 
you may inftanly conclude that fhe hath conceived : for the urine, 
which was before part of her own fubftance, will be generative as 
well as its miftrefs 

A coldnefs and chill nefs of the outward parts after copulation, 
{hews a woman to have conceived, the heat being retired to make 
the conception ; and then the veins of the breaft are more clear- 
ly feen than they were before. The tops of the nipples look red- 
.der than formerly ; the body is weakened, and the face difcolor- 
ed, the belly waxeth very fat. becaule the womb cloleth itlelf to- 
gether to nourifti ^K^ cherifh the feed If Hie drinks cold water, 
a coldnefs is felt in the breafts : Ihe has alio a lofs of appetite, four 
iDelchings, and exceeding w eaknels of the llomach ; the breafts 
be^in to fv/eli, and wax hard, not without pain or Ibrenefs ; 
wrmging or griping pains like the cramp, happen in the belly a- 
bove the naval ; alio divers appetites and longings are engender- 
ed. The veins of the eyes are alfo clearly leen, and the eyes 
feem fomething difcolored as a looking glafs will fliew. The ex- 
crements of the guts are voided painfull^, becaufe the womb 
fwelling thrufteth the right gut together : likewife let her take a 
green nettle and put it into her urine, cover it clofely, and let it 
remain all night : if ihe is with child it will be full of red fpots 
on the next morning, if (he is not with child it will be blackifh. 
By thefe experiments lome of which never fail, a woman may 
know whether fhe hath conceived or not, and to regulate herfeif 
accordingly : for 

fThen 'wt>men once njuith chiid concelojed are^ 
They of themfel'vesfiould take ef fecial care. 
Section V. 
Hoiv to knoiv 'whether a 'woman bs i:oncein)ed of a male orfemaU 
Child. 
In the prefent fe(5lion I fhall endeavor to gratify the curioftty 
of many perfons who are very defirous to know whether they 
are conceived of a male or female. For the fatisfa<5Hon of fuch 
I fhall give the fign of a male child being conceived, nnd the re- 
verie thereof that of a female. 

It is then a fign of a male child, when the woman feels it firfl: 
oti the right fide ; i^n male children lie alv.ays on that fide a* 



ARrSTOTLE'3' MASTER PIECE. ^b 

the womb, the woman alfo when rifing froin her chair, doth 
fooner fray herfelf upon the right h^and than on the left. Alfo 
the belly lies rounder and higficr than when it is a female. 
The color of the woman is not fo fwarthy, but more clear than 
when it is a girl. The right fide is more plump and harder 
than the left, the riorht nipple redder. Slie likewifc breeds a 
boy eafier and with lefs pain than a girl, and carries her bur- 
then not fo heavily but is more nimble and Ifirring. 

I will only, as to this, add the following experiments; v/hich I 
never knew fail. If the circle under the wonian's eyes, wlilch 
is of a wan blue color, be more apparent under the right eye, and 
that moft difcolored, (he is with child of a boy ; if the mark be 
moft apparent in her left eye, (he is with child of a girl. The 
other is, let her drojp a drop of her milk in a bafoa of fair w^:er, 
if it finks to the bottom as it drops in, round in a drop, it is a 
girl (he is with child of ; for if it be a boy it will fp read and Iwim 
at the top. This I have often tried and it never failed. ^ 
For ivbether male or female child it be 
Tcu have conceinjed, by tkefe rules you II fee* 
CHAR II. 
Sec. I. Hoiv a Woman Jbould order herfelf in-trder to Concepttbn* 
I AM very well fatisfied ihat many women deflrc 
copulation, not from any delight or fatisfajhiion they take there- 
in, more tjian as it is the means appointed By Him that bids us 
increafe and multiply, for the obtaining of children, and the 
propagation of mankind. And though Yeveral make ufe of co- 
ition to obtain that end, yet we find by experience, that in ma- 
ny, it does not fucceed, becaufe they order not themfelves as 
they ought to do ; for though it muft be granted, that all our 
encfeavors depend upon the divine bleilmg, yet if we are want- 
ing in any thing to ourfelves how can v/e expect tiiat ble'liiig 
to fucceed our endeavors ? My bulinefs theretore in this lediop. 
fliall be to (liew how v/omen that defrre to have childrea ihould 
order themfelves 

Firft, women that are defirous to have children, mufl, in or- 
der thereunto, give themfelves to moderate exercif/ ; for want 
of exercife, and idlenefs, are very great eneinies to the work oi 
generation, and indeed are enemies both to foul ai:d bodyc 
Thole that (ball give themfelves the trouble to obferve it wiU 
find thofe city dames that live high, and do nothing, fcidom 
have children, or if they have, they feldom live whereas, 
thofe poor women that accuitom themfelves to labjr, have ma- 
ny children, and thofe ftrong and ludy. Nor need v.e wonder 
at it, if we confider the benefit that comes by a moderate exer- 
cife and labor ; for it opens the pore3> quickens the (birits, ftirs 
up the natural heat, ftrengthens the body, fe'nfes and fpir.ts, 
comforts the limbs, and helps nature in all her exercifes, of 
which procreation of children is none of the leiilL 

Secondly, women in order to conception, fhould avoid all 
manner of difcontent and the occafion of it ; for difcontent is a 
great enemy Xo conception, and it fo difpirits either man or wo- 
tiun, that it hiriders them from putting forth that vigor, which 
ought to 'be jeXerted in the act of coition. When on the con- 
■ C • ' 



.%6 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

trary, content and fatisfaflion of mind dilate the heart and ar- 
teries," whereby the vital blood and fpirits are freely diftribiited 
throughout the body and thence arile fuch aiie(::t:ions, as pleale, 
recreate and refrefh the nature of man, as hope, joy, love, glad- 
nefs, and mirth Nor does it only comfort and Itrengthen the 
body, but alio the operation and imagination of the mind; 
Which is fo much the more necellary : in fo much the imagin- 
ation of the mother .works forcibly upon the conception of tlu* 
child Women therefore, ought to take great care that their 
imagination be pure and clear, that their child maybe well 
formed. 

' Thirdly, w^pmen ought to take care to keep the womb in 
good order : and to fee that the menfes come down as they 
ought to do, fcr if they are difcolored they are out of order. 
But if the blood comes down pure, theii the women will be ve- 
ry prone to conceive with child, el'pecially if they u(e copula- 
tion in two or three days after the monthly^ term's are flayed. 

Fourthly, a woman that would conceive Ihould obferve that 
fhe does not ufe the act of coition too often ; for fatiety gluts 
the womb and renders it unfit for its office. There are two 
things demondrate this ; i. e that common whores (who often 
>ife copulation) have never, or very rarely any children : fcr 
- the grafs feldom grov/s in a path that is commonly trodden in. 
The other is, that women, whofe husbands have been long ab- 
fent do, after copulation v.ith thern again conceive very 
ruickly 

Fifthly, care fliould be taken that the time of copulation (be 
convenient that there may be no fear of furprize : for fear hin- 
ders conception And then it were the bcft aUo that tlie de- 
ilre of copulation be natural, and not Itirred up by provoca- 
tion; and if it be T^atural, the greater the woman's defire of 
copulation is, the more likely fhe is to conceive. 

i will add no more, but fome authors report, that a load- 

flone carried about a woman, not only caufeth conception, but 

. concord between man and w ife ; if it be true, I would have no 

married woman go without one, both for her own and huf- 

band's quiet. 

Lctallthefalr^ njcho tjoould hanje children fro7n 
Iheirfoft embraces, read 'W^hat's here laid douun^ 
Thoje that to exercife themfelnjes jndiney 
And i?i their lo^^e to he content defgn, 
U'^ho hanje theirmonthly terms tn orde- flji^\ 
And regulate them if they do notfo-^ 
That lo"je's e^nbraces moderately ufe^ 
And to enjoy them a f.t feajon chooje \ 
Ihefe ?n^y J content ivith 'what they' nje done j remain^ 
And need not fear their njjijhes to obtain. 
^eCT. II. HHjat a luoman ought to obfer-ve after conception 
After a woman has conceived, or has reafon to think fo, fhe 
ought to he very careful of herfelf left flie fliould do any thino; 
vfhat might hinder nature in her conception For in the rrlt 
'two months after conception women are very fuhje6{ to mifcar- 
^.^f^cs, becaufe then th*^ ligaments are weak and (oon broken 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. £7" 

To jM-eveat this, let the woman every morning drink a ■ 
draught of fage al^. and it will do her abundance of good. 
And if (igns^of abortion or mifcarriage appear, let her lay a 
toad dipped in tent (in cafe mufcadel cannot be gotten) to the 
navel, for this is very good Or, take a little green tanfy, and 
having bruifed it fprintle it with mufcadel, and apply it to the 
navel i'and (he v/iii find it much better. Alfo tea infufed in ale, 
like fkge ale, and a draught drank every morning, is mod excel- 
lent for fuch women as are fubject to mifcarriages. Alfo take 
juice of tanfy, clarify it, and boil it up into a fyrup, Vvith twice 
its weight in fugar, and let a v^oman take a fpoonful or two of 
it in fuch caies, and it will be an excellent prefervative againft 
mifcarriages. Alfo if ihc can, let her be v>'here the air is "tem- 
perate i-.et her fleep be moderate ; let her alfo avoid all watch- 
ing and immoderate exercife, as alfo difturbing palh'ons, loud 
clamors and fihhy fmells ; and let her abftain from ail things 
which may provoke either urine or the courfes, and alfo fro'm 
ail Hiarp and windy meats ; and leta moderate diet be obferved. 
If the excrements of the guts be retained, ienify the belly v,'ith 
ciyftcrs made of the decodion of mallows and violets, with fu- 
garand common oil ; or make brotli of boiage, bugiois, beets, 
mallovvs, and take therein a little manna but on the contrary, 
if fhe be troubled with a loofenefs of tlie belly, let it not be 
. flopped without the judgment of a phyfician ; for that matter 
all uterine fluxes have am.alignant cj^uality and mull be evacua- 
ted and removed before the flux be ftaved. 

CHAP iii; 

Hgiv the Child Ueth and koi/j it groujeth up in the luomlf of the 
Mother after coneeption. 
Section I 
Hovj the child is formed in the ivomb after conception 

AS To the formation of the child, it is to be noted, 
that after coition the feed lies v.arm in the womb for fix days, 
without any vifible alteration, only that the womb clofes up it 
felf to prevent its ilTuing forth again, and foi tliefecuring it from 
any cold, and all this time it looks like butter or coagulated mij]^ , 
And it would be neceflfary for her who has conceived, to forbeai 
the embraces of her husband all the time, left the conception 
fhould be fpoiled. ^ In three days after, it is altered from the . 
quality of thick milk or butter, and becomes blood, or at leaf: 
refemblesit in color, nature having now begun to work upon 
it J in the next fix days following, that blood beginsto be united 
into one body, grows hard and becomes a little quantity, and to - 
appearance a round lump. And, as in the hrr creation the 
ea^rth was void and without form, fo in this creating work of 
divine pov/er in the womb ; in this fhapelefs embryo lies the firfl 
mafs- Bat in two days after the principal meiubers are formed 
by the plaiftic power of nature, and thefe principal members 
are four in number, viz The heart, the brain, the liver, and 
the tef^icles or fiones. — Three diys aftpr the other members are 
formed, and are. diflingui{hed from the fhoulders to the knees, 
and the heart, liver and fiones, with their appurtenances, do 
t ^vivv bige^r r 1 1 bi)7ger. Four day rafter that/ the feveral m.em- 



ii8 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

bers of the whole body appear, and as nature requ:res,they con- 
JLini^tly and Severally do receive their perfeftion- And fo in the 
appointed dine, the vv'hole creation hath that eflcnce which it 
yr.ght to have in the perfection of it, receiving frciTj God a liv- 
ing foul, therewith put^inp in its noftrils the breath of hfe. 
Thus I have Ihewn the vv hole operation of nature in the fornr.a- 
tion of the child in tlie womb, according to the ener^^y given ii 
by the Divine Creator, Maker, and upholder of all things botn 
ki heaven and earth. 

By fome others more briefly, but to the fame purpofe, the 
formingof the child in the womb of its mother is thus defcribed ; 
three days in the milk, three in the blood, twelve days, from the 
fiefii.and'cighteenthe members, and forty days afterwards the 
child is infpircd with life, being endowed with animmortai living 
loul. 

Section II 
Of the manner of the child^s lying In the n.oomh from the conception 
to the birtb. 

I come now to (View in what manner the child lieth in the womb 
of its mother, whilfl: it is confined in the dark recedes ; firft giving 
the reader the teftimony of two or three of the moft learned .on 
this head. 

The learned Hippocrates affirms that the child, as he is placed 
in the womb, hath his hands upon his knees, and his head bent to 
his feet ; fo that he lies round together, his hands upon hisknees, 
andhis face between them ; fothat each eye toucheseach thumb 
and hisnofe betwixt his knees. And of the fame opinion in this 
matter was Bartholonius the younger. Columbus isof opinion 
that the figure of the child in the womb is round, the right arm 
bowed, the fingers thereof under the ear, above the neck, and 
the head bowed, fo that the chin toucheth the bread, the left 
arm bowed above both bread and face, and proped up by the 
bending^ of the right elbow: the legs are Jilted upwards,^ the 
right oiv/hich is fo lifted up, that the thigh touclieth the belly, 
the knees, the navel, the heel toucheth the left buttock, and the 
foot is turned backandcovereth the fecrets : the left thigh touch- 
eth the belly, and the leg lifted up to the bread, the back lying 
outwards. 

Thus the reader may fee how authors differ herein : but. 
This ought to be noted, that the diflerent pofitions which the 
riiild hath been feen in, hath given occafion to the different 
opinions of authors. For when the wonian is young with dhild 
the embryo is always found of a round figure, a little oblongs 
havir.gthe fpine moderately turned inwards, the thighs folded, 
and a little rai fed, to which the legs are joined, that the heels 
touch the buttocks, the arms bending, v^e hands placed upon 
the knees towards which the head is mclined forwards fo that 
the chin touches the bread ; the fpine of the back is at that, 
time placed towards tlie mother's, the headuppermod, the hands 
forwards, and the feet downwards, and proportionable to its 
growth it extends its members by little and little, wiiich were ex- 
actly formed in the fird month. In this podure it ufually keeps 
till che feve nth or eighth m.«;yith; and then by a natural pro^ 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 29 

penfity and difpofiiion of the upper parts of the body the head is 
turned do^vnwards towards the inward orifice of thie womb, 
tum'bhng as it were over its head ; fo that the feet are upper- 
mod, and tlie face towards the mother's great gut. -r'^.nd this 
turning of the inf:^nt in thiS manner wicli his he.^d doi^nwards, 
towards the latter end of a vroni^m's rechoni;:;: is {o ordered cf 
nature, that it may be the better dilpoled for the birth The 
knowledge of rheie tilings being fo elicniial to the priiidce of a 
midwife J I couhd not omit them 

CKAP. IV. 
OftleQbllru'Bio?7sofcGriC£ption ; ^.'Sith the Canfe and Cure of Bar-- 

YcnnefSy and the Signs of Infiiffic'iency both in Men and Women 

BEFORE I proceed any further, it is highly nec- 
eTary that I treat of the inftraCtions of conception, which nat-^ 
urally leads me to treat of barrennefs the grand cbPuUvn.ion of 
conception. 

■ Section I. Ofharramefs. 

Barrennefs is a natural or accidental dcfefl winch hinders 
conception : ^or that whicli hinders conception caufeih barren- 
nefs. '1 here are feveral caufes wliy conception rnay behiadcr- 
ed : 33 too much heat or cold dries up the feed and makes it 
<. or, rp,t : this, extingu'fhing the life of the feed, and that, mak- 
Mg :t v>a':er'.o.; and unht for generation. Ic may be cawfed alfo 
by liie lioppdge or overflowing of the courfes, and by h,velling 
ulcers^ or inilamations of the womb, or by an excreiience cf 
fieiTi growing about the mouih of the matrix, whereby the iivcd 
is hindered from being injected into the wonib, and want of 
hjve \xi the perfons copulating may alfo hhider conception, as is 
apparent from thofe women w,ho are deiiov/eied a^^ainil their 
will ; no conception foliov/ing any forced copulatioii. 

And here let me cau.jon parents agaiafh one thing tliat often 
caufeth barrennefs, which might ealily be prevented ; and 
that is, againit virgins letting biood in their arm b*?fore thc-r 
courfes come down , thefe come down in virgins ufually in ilvj 
lirli ye-u' of rlie^r age, feidom before the thirteenth, but nev;,: 
befi;re tj:e t.vcifih. Now, becaufe ufually a youiig virgin i:: 
out of order before the fir ft break do'.sn, tlie motlter goes witii 
her to tlje lo^K.^ji, who fhiiing -that fuhiefs of blood is the occa- 
fion of Jier ilincA orders her to let blood in trie ann : upon 
which fhe bccouiCo' well for a time, clie h:perHuous biood be- 
ing taken av ;i> ; and this remedy which is ^A'crie than d;c di(- 
eafe, being repeated four on hve times, the biood cc^ines net 
down at all to \X\i womb, as it doui in o lier \^ s;.;cn, hi':; dries 
up, and is forer-^er bari^a ; whereii^, bad ^^r - - :" ■ v:\ LiDcd in 
the foot it would have brought the bio^ i :d^^ and ib 

>Kive provoked rhe4ernis and prevcnTCL :: . . 

Anothe?- canfe of barrennefs is, for v/unt of convenient, mod- 
erate quality, vdiicli the woman on^hr lo i^ive wiih the man ; 
as, if he be hut \\:<z mud be cold • \i iic '■ e C'S'j^ (lie niOxd ; but 
if they both are dry or b. i ai' .•[" a -r . ccnit^tution , tI:eY 
cannot propagate, though ... ih ;• .;d: a-:. of ::iiem ni..y be 

barreu; hngly confidcred -. ror he or iWz tir. n now a ^-ar* n :uk 
the bai ren lig free, yet; i^d Vvith unapt coniiitadon^ ;U,^y b-.- 
come a - fruiduias the v.;;. 



^^0 ARISTOTLE^ MASTER MECB. 

Another caufe of bafhrennefs may be the difufeof copulation 
fo I fome there are of that frigid conilitution, that they either 
life not the means at all, or elfe perform it with fo much langor 
and coldnefs, that it is not likely it (hould prove efficacious ; for 
the ai^i of coition fhould be performed with the greateft. ardor 
aiid intenienefs of defire imaginable, or elfe they may as well let 
It alone ; a frigid difpol'ition being the effect ojf a cold diftemper 
^m muft be cured by fuch things as heat and nouriOi . For, 

Without good drink and feeding high 

Dejires ^ Venus foon njoill die. 
Such therefore ought to feed upon cockflones aad lamb ftone^ 
Harrow's, partridge's, quail's, and pheafant's eggs, for 'tis an in- 
fallible aphorifm in phyfic, that whatfoever any creature is ex- 
tremely addided to, they operate to= the fame end by their mu- 
tual virtue in the man thiit eats them. Therefore- partridges, . 
quails, fparrows, Sec being extremely addicted to venery, they 
work the fame effe61: in thofe that e^tthem : and this likewile 
is worthy to be noted that in what part of the body the faculty 
is ftrong, as a medicine : as for inftance the virtus procreativu's ^ 
lies in the tefticles ; therefore cock flones, &c. are medicinal in 
this diftemper. Let fuch perfons alfo eat fuch food as is very 
nourifhing, as parfnips, alifanders, skirls, and pine nuts : 
iind let them take a dram of diafatryon in an ele6iuary every 
morning. ^ The Hones of a fox dried to powder a dram taken ev- 
ery morning in tent, is alfo very good in this cafe : and fo~ . 
alfo is a dram of fatyrion root, take'n in like- m.anner» . 

Section. II. 
Ofthejigns. of Infufficiency in Men ; and harrennefs in iJoomen. 

After married people have lived long together, and_both> 
feem likely, and yet neither of them have children, there .often 
arifes dilcontent between them, and both are troubled becaufe 
they know not whofe fault it is. And though authors have 
left feveral ways to know whether the man or woman be defec- 
nve, yet becaufe I cannot coincide in their judgments, I fhall 
pafs them by in filence, and rather lay down a few rules that 
ii>ay be depended upon, than many that are uncertain. But I 
mullfirft premife that women are fubje^l to many infirmities 
JBiore than men, that the caufe of barrennefs is oftener 'in their 
fide that man's. For, if the man has the inftrument of genera- 
tion perfect, being in health, and keeping a regular and tempe- 
rate diet and exercife I knov/ no accidental, caufe of barren- 
nefs in him : whereas the caufe of barrennefs in a woman lies 
fn her womb, and the infirmities incident thereunto : fome of 
whidi are flopping of the menftrua, or their overflowing ; as 
ijfo the falling out thereof, and the inflamation, windinels, heat v 
and drym'fs thereof for, each of which we will prefcribe proper 
qures. 

But to be more particular. 

if a man or woman, in whom the inftruments of generation 
appear no ways defective would know, whether the caufe of bar- 
rennefs be in themfelyes or their bedfellow, let them take a 
fendfulof barley, or any otiJer corii that wiU gFow quicklyi 



ARI5T0TLE»a MASTER PIECE. M 

and fteep half of it in the urine of^ a man and the other half 
in the urine of a woman during the fpace of S4 hours, then 
take it out, and fet each by itfelf in a flower pot or where . 
you may keep them dry. Then water the man's every morning, 
witli his own urine, and the woman's with hers : and that 
which grows is moft fruitful ; and that v/hich does not grow 
denotes the perfon to be barren. Nor let any defpife this 
trial : for feeing phyficians will by urine undertake to tell, a 
perfon of his or her difeafes, why (hould not urine alfo (hew 
whether a perfon be fruitful or not ? But if in man the 
inftrument of generation is not perfeft it will be obvious to the 
fight, and '\£ihc yard be io feeble, that it will not admit of e- 
rection, it can never convey feed into the womb, nor can there 
be in fuch a cafe any conception. But this isfo plain and eafily 
difcerned, that it needs mult be obvious to both parties and the 
man who finds himfelf debilitated ought not to marry. 

ihe cafe can't be fo bad with the woman, though (he' maybe 
Barren, but what her husband may make uk of her, unlefs {he 
be impenetrable, which (though it ^metimes does)but rarely 
happens : and therefore the man is the moll inexcufable if he 
tranfgrefs. 

Betides what I have already mentioned, figns of barrennefs in 
woiTien are ; if fhe be of an over hot conftitution, of a dry body, 
fubject to anger, hath black hair, a thick pulfe, herpurgations 
flow litt e, and' that with pain, and yet hath a violent defire 
to coition : but if /he be of a coldconftitution, then are the figns 
contrary to thofe recited. If barrennefs be caufed through an 
evil quality of the v/orab, it may be known by making a fum- 
igation of red florax, myrrh, ca(iawgod> nutmeg, cinnamon, and 
letting her receive the Ihime of it into her womb, covering her 
very clofe. If the odor palfeth through the bodv up into the 
mouth and noftrils, (he is fruitful. But if fhe feel not the fame 
in her mouth and nofe, it denotes barrennefs one of thefe ways, 
viz. That the feed is either through cold extinguifhed, or 
through heat dilKpated. And if a woman be fufpe^Sted tobe un- 
fruitful, calt natural brimflone, fuch as is digged out of the 
mine, into her urine, and if worms breed therein fhe is fruitful. 
But this (hall fuftice, to be faid of the caufes and iigns of bar- 
rennefs, and it is now time to proceed to the cure. 
Section III. Ofthe cureof barrennefs. 

In the cure of barrennefs refpeel: muft be had to the caufe ; 
ibr the caufe muft be firft removed, and then the womb ftreng- 
thened, and the fpirits of the feed enlivened by corroborat- 
ing applications. 

If barrennefs proceeds from over much heat, let her 
ufe inwardly, fuccory, endive, violets, water lilies, forrelg 
and lettuce, white fyrrups, and conferves made thereof, 
thus. 

Take conferve of borage, violets, fuccory, water lilies of 
«ai:h one ounce, half an ounce of conferve of rofes : diam- 
agarition frigid^ diatrion. fancalon, of each half a dram : 
with fyrup of violets, or of juice of citron make an ek^- 
Uary. 



S^ ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIKCh. 

Let her alfo take of endive, water lilies, borage fiov.ers, of 
each a handful, reiibarb, nrv-rob:«l:inS| of each three drams ; 
with water make a decoclion ; aid to the draining, the lyrup 
relaxative of violets one ounce, fyrup of callia, lialf an ounce 
manna three drams : make all mto a portion. lake of the 
fyrup of mu^wort one ounce, fyrup of maiden hair, two ciunces 
pulv. eledt tnonfat, make all up into a julep. Apply to the reins 
and privities fomentations of thejuice of lettuce, violets, mal- 
lows vineleaves, andknightfliade ; let her alfo anno'nt her fe- 
cret parts with the cooling ointment of galls. Bathes are good 
for her to fit in Let the air be clear, her garments t]:in, her 
food, lettuce, endive, fuccory, and barley : but let her have no 
hot meats, nor ftrong wines," except it be waterifli and thin. 
Reft is good for her both in body and mind : but rtie muft ufe 
little copulation, bat may, fieep as much as il e Avill. 

If barrennefs be occafioned by the predominancy of cold 
extinguilhing the power of the feed, which may be known by_ 
her defiring venery, and reiving no pleafuVe in the Sitt of 
copulation, even while the man is ipending his feed ; her terms 
are phlegmatic, thick, fiimy, and flow aot rightly : Fn this cafe 
let her take fy^up of calamint, mug-vort, betony, of each one 
ounce; water of pennyroyal, feverfew ; hyfop, fage of each, 
two ounces ; and make a julep. Let her take everv morning 
two fpoons fall of cinnamon water, w^ith one KTuple of mith- 
ridate. Alfo let her take oil of anniTeed, one fcruple a«nd a 
half, jeiTemine, diacly Ion [both dinofch diaglang, oi each one 
dram; fugar, four ounces ; with w^ter of cmnamon n>ake 
lozenges, and take of them a dram and a half twice a^ dcy/ 
two hours before meals. Let her alto faften clipping giailes 
to her hips and belly ; aftcllether take ftoroscalamitaone ounce, 
maftic, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, lignum alloes, frank incenie, 
of each half an ounce, musk, ten grains, ambergreafe half afcrjiT- 
pie, with rofe water make a confe-Rion ; divide it into^ 
four parts, of one make a ponum odoratum to fmell to, ii 
fiie be not hillerical : of the fecond make a mafs of pills, and 
let her take three every night; of ^he third make a peifiiry, 
and put it up ; of the fourth make a fumigation for the • 
womb. 

If barrennefs arifes from the faculties of the womb be- 
ing weakened and the Tfe of the feed fuftocated by over 
much humidity flowing on thofe parts, let her take of betto-^ 
ny, marjoram, mugwort, pennyroyal, balm, of each one hand- 
flii : root of onrum, fennel, elecam^pane, of each two drams ; 
anniTeed, cummin feed, of each a dram, with iugar and wa- 
ter a f^inicient quantity, of which make a fyrup, and take, 
three ounces every morning. Then purge with thefe pills, 
fbilovvin^, take of pil ext. two u ru] les diag.i.lior. two 
^rain:, ipecies decafto one fcruple ; laake :he?:i up in*:o 
nine pills: with fyrip of mugwori Alfo take ipec. ^ag-.. 
inlr.ae, diamofchi diambrae, of each Oi^e -^iam ; c nnamon. 
one dram and a half: mace, clovef.. :>u m^igof eac; half a dram: 
iUciar fix ounces, with 'water of feve^'few • make lozenges to bp. 
'-': "- ■- :; ' - .\ - ti.ve cf the \ co..:on of 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 33 

fifaparilla and viga aurea, with a good quantity of fage, 
which is an herb of that virtue, that Cornelius Agrippa 
honored it with the title of facra herba, a holy herb : and Dod- 
oneus in his hiftory of Plants, reports that after a great plague 
had happened in Egypt, which hadalmoft depopulated the coun- 
try, the furviving women were commanded to drink the juice 
of fage, that they might multiply the fafler. Let her annoint 
ker genitals with the oil of annilfeed and fpikenard. Trochiks. 
to fmoothe the womb are alfo very good. To make which, let 
her take mace, nutmeg, cinnamon, uorax, and amber, of each 
one dram ; cloves, laden of each half a dram ; turpentine, a 
fufficient quantity. Laflly, take the roots of valleron and 
elecampane, of each one pound ; of gallangal three ounces : 
origan, marjoram be tony, mugwort, bay leaves, calamint, or 
eacn three handfuls ; with water make an infufion, in which let 
her fit after (he has had her courfes But to proceed. 

If barrennefs be caufed by the drynefs of the womb confum- 
ing the matter of the feed, let her take every day almond milk* 
and goats milk, extracted with honey ; eat often of the root Sa- 
tyrion candied, and of the eleduary'of diafatyron. Let her al- 
io take three (heep's heads, and h<3'A them till the flefii corner 
from the bones ; then take of meliot violets, camomile, mercu- 
ry, orchies, with the roots of each, one pound : fenugreek, lin- 
feed, vallerian roots, of ^ach a handful : let all thefe bedeco6l- 
ed in the aforefaid broth, and let the woman fit in the deco^lioa 
up to the navel. Alfo, take of deersfuet half an ounce ; cow'3 
marrow, ftyracis lyquide, of each one dram ; or of fweet al- 
monds, two ounces ;wlth filk or cotton make ape(Iary,andmake 
Hije6lions, only of frelh butter, and oil of fweet almonds. 
It fometimes happens that barrennefs is caufed by remiflfnefs^ 
in the manner and the a61 of coition ; and though there be 
no impediment on either fide ; yet if both fexes meet not in that 
a61: with equal vigor, no conception follows; for many times 
the man is too quick for the woman, or rather the woman too 
(low for the man, and is not prepared to receive the feed with 
that delight (he ought, when it is emitted by the man; and thole 
who follow the opinion of the ancients, that the woman contri- 
butes feed in the formation of the child as well as the man, are 
of opinion that there ought to be a joint emiflion both of the 
man and woman at the lame inftant, which adminiftering to 
both a great delight, perfects the work of conception. But if 
in this cafe the woman be flack, it will be proper for the man to 
follow the advice given in chaptered, feet. 2. where both fexes 
are fhev/n how to manage themfelves in the a6t of coition, that 
fo by ftirring up in the woman a deiire to venery, (he may meet 
his embraces with the greateft ardor. If this (hould prove inef- 
fe61ual, let her before the a-lit of coition foment the privities 
with the deco^f ion of betony fage hyfop and calamint, annoint 
the mouth and head of the womb with musk and civit -, and 
the caufe of barrennefs bein^ removed, let the womb be corrob- 
orated by the following applications. 

Make of bayberries, maftick, nutmeg, frankincenfe,, cyprefs 
nuts, zadani, galbina^of each one dram : (lyracrsliquidae^ two 



54 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

fcioiples ; cloves Haifa fcruple ; ambergreafe, two grains ? 
iTiusk, fix grains, then with oil of Ijpikenard make a pelfary. 
Alfo take red rofes, with frankincenle, lipids hamatitis, of each 
half an ounce, fangus draconi?, fine bole maftic, of each two 
di*ams ; nutmeg, cloves of each one dram ; ipikenard half a 
icruple, and with oil of wormwood make a plailler for the lo\^ - 
er partof the belly. Andlet hereat of crringo roots candied, 
and make an injection of thejiiice of tiie roots of fratyrion ; and 
then let her ufe copulation foon after the menles are ceafed, con 
ception being molt apt to follow ; for tlien the womb is thirliv 
and dry and apteft both to draw the feed ^nd to retain it by the 
roughnefs of the inward fuperhces A w(*nan Ihould be careful 
to avoid excefs in all things, as being the^Meatelf enemy to con- 
ception. For ihould a woman conceive under care, fludy, &c. 
the child would probably be foolifh, becaufe the animal f^KuL 
^ies of the parents were confufed. 

CHAP. V. 

Sec. I. HouoJFc men ought togo'ucin zhemjehjes during their 
Pregnancy. 
FIRST, let a woman that is with child choofc a tem- 
perate air, not infefted with f^^^s, and for that realon not near 
;iny marlhy grounds, rivers, <lc But this cannot be avoided 
by fome, their habitation falling out to be in fuch places: But 
thofe Vvho can live where they pleafe ou^ht to avoid fuch pla- 
ces as likewife the going abroad in too hot or too cold weather : 
alfo when the fouth w^ind blows hard, for that often proves 
hurtful to women with child and fomctimes caufes abortion. 

Secondly, ;! e ought to be very cautious in the matierof 
her diet, c'hoofmg only tliofe meats that sreate wholesome nour-- 
in ment, and fuch as are immoderately dry ; and let her take 
care to prevent and avoid immoderate faflmg for tliat will wea- 
ken the infant, and render it of a fickly conltitatlon; and fome- 
times caufe abortion. And as all excefles ought to be avoided 
fo (he muft take caie not only of avoiding immoderate fa'iing, 
but likewife immoderate eating too, which will not only be apt 
to fluff up ihe child but to fwell it up to that degree, that it 
will endanger the life of itfelf and the mother in its birth. Let 
it futhce that in general (he avoids all meats which are too hot or 
too cold, and moift ; fuch as fallads, fpices and hot meats which 
often caufe the child to be born betore its time ; and fomic- 
times without nails, which foreOews a (hort life. And there- 
fore in this cafe the moft wholefome meats are pigeons, part- 
ridges, pheafants, larks, veal, mutton, or any meat that yields a 
good juice, and contributes kindly nourifhment ; as alio, fuch 
truit as are fweet and of eafy digeflion, as cherries, pears, dam- 
fons and the like. But let her avoid, as pernicious, all fuch 
things as caufe and create wind. 

Care ought alfo to be taken with refpeft to her exercife ; 
which ou::ht to be moderate for violent motion either in walking 
or working, is hurtful and difturbing to the womb, efpecially rid- 
rnjx upon the (tones in a coach, or any other uneven place ; and in 
like m.anner, all extraordinary founds and DX>iles ihould be avoid- 
ed, efpecially the ringing of bells, and the difcl^rgiMg of great 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECJi. 511 

^ms ; neither ought fhe to give way to either immoderate laugh- 
ing or weeping, or to anger, or any other palTions, for that may 
be prejudicial to her. 

Section II. \ , . 

Further Rules for Women to objer^je during their Pregnancy, 

Though the att of coition is that without which conception 
cannot be, yet the injmoderate ufe of it hinders the brief end for 
which it was de/igned In the firit four months after concep- 
tion, fhe ought not to lie with her husband, at leaft fparingly , 
led by (baking tiie womb in that action, the courfes fhould again 
be forced down. In the fifth and fixth months ihe ought to ab- 
itain ; but in the Tth 8th, and 9th, it may freely be permitted by 
reafon it opens tlie paifage, and facilitates the birth. To contri*- 
bute the better towards which^the woman fhould be careful to 
keep her body foluble ; fyrups and other opening nhings,: be- 
ing very helpful to nature in thole operations. Let her not lace 
too dole, left the child be thereby hnidered from coming to its 
full growth. 

To prevent any diforder that may happen to her breafts by 
too much blood, which will caufe curdljed milk, let her wTar a 
necklace of gold about her neck, or rather a fmall ingot of fleel 
between her breafts, fomenting them a quarter of an hour eve- 
ry morning with water diftilled from ground ivy, periwinkle 
and fage, being blood warm. 

When her belly is fweliing, and the motion is great, which 
will be about the fourth month, fhe may fwathe it with a fwath- 
band annointed with pomatum, or any other thing of the kind, 
to keep it fmoothe and free from wrinkles. For which end it 
will be beft to take the caul of a kid, and of a fow, of each three 
ounces; capon greafe and goofegreafe, of each one ounce and 
a half ; liaving melted them all together put thereto a quarter 
jof a pint of water ; after which ftrain them through alirwen cloth 
into fair water : ca'ting it to and fro therein till it be white ; at 
which time add to it ot marrow of a red deer, one ounce, and 
lay it in red rofe water, twelve hours. After the expiration of 
which you may ufe it, annointing the fwathe and belly- 

But if thefe ingredients are noteafy to be had you may m.ake 
ufe of the following linament, v/hich will doalmoftas well as the 
other ; take of mutton fuet( that which grows about the kid- 
neys is beft)and of dog's greafe, of each two ounces, whale oil one 
ounce, and oil of fweet almonds, the fame quantity ; wafh 
them well, after they are melted together in the water of ger- 
mander, or new white v/ine, annoint the belly and fwathe there- 
with- Thofe that care not to annoint their bellies, may make 
life of the following bathe or decoCfion : take of all forts of 
mallows and motherwort, each two handfuls ; white lilly roots 
three ounces ; mellilot and camomile, of each two handfuls : 
lime feeds, quinqe feeds and fenugreek feeds, three ounces, boil 
them well in fpring water and bathe therewith. If the woman 
after her quickening, finds but little motion of the infant in the 
womb, let her make a quilt in the manner following, and bind it 
to the navel, and it will much ftrengthen and comfort the infant ; 
take the powder of rofes, red coral and jel^ flowers, of each two 



36 ARISTOTLE'S ISf ASTER PIEC^. 

Cutices ; maftica dram, angelica feeds two drams, ambergreafe' 
rwo grains, and musk two grains : all of which being well beaten, 
put them into a linen bag, fpread them abroad and quih it, that 
they may be in every part of it placing it upon the navel, and 
it will have the defired effect. Thefe things are fufficient toiob- 
ferve during the time of their pregnancy, that neither the child 
nor mother may mifcarry, but be Drought to the birth at the 
the appointed time. 

CHAP. VL 
DiredionsforMidnxii'ves bcnv to qfftft Women in the lime of their 

Labors andho^^ Child bearing Wi,menJhould be ordered in lime 

of ibeir Lying in* 

Section I. 
//oxu a Midivife 9ught to be qualified. 
A MIDWIFE ought to be of a middle age neither 
too old nor too young, and of a good habit of body, neither 
fubje(5l to difeales, fears or fuddeu frights ; nor are the qualifi- 
cations affigned to a goodfurgeon improper for a midwife, viz, 
a lady's hand, a hawk's eye, and a lion'sheart : to which may be 
added, a6liv:ty of body, and a convenient ftrength, with caution 
and diligence, not fubje^t to drowinefs, nor apt to be 'mpatient. 
She ought to be fober and affable, not fubjeJt to paiiion, but 
bountiful and companionate, and her temper cheerful and 
pleafant, that fhe may the better comfort her patients in their 
forrow. Nor mu(i fhe be very hafty, though her bufmefs per- 
haps require her in another place, left ihe fbould make more 
hafte than good fj)eed. But above all ft.e ought to be qualified 
with the fear of God, whichisthe principal thing in every ftate 
and condition, and will furniffe her on all occafions, both with 
knowledge and difcretion. But I now proceed to more partic- 
lar directions. 

Section II. 
What mufi he done ivhen a Woman's time of labor is come. 

When the time of birth draws near, and the good woman finds 
her travelling pains begin to come upon her, let her fend for a 
midwife in time • better too foon than too late, and get thofe 
things ready v/hich are proper on fuch occafions. When the 
midwife is come, let the firfl thingfiie does be to find whether 
the true time of birth be come. The want of obferving this 
hath fpoiledmany achiki, and endangered the life of the moth- 
er or at lead put her to twice as much pain as flie needed ; for 
Unskilful midwives, not minding this, have given things to 
force down the child, and thereby difturbed the natural courfe . 
of her labors ; whereas nature wcrks bed in h^r own time and 
way. I do confefs it is fomewhat difficult to know the true time 
of lome women's labor, they being troubled v/ith pains lo long 
before their true labor comes : in fome, weeks before : the rea- 
fon of which is the heat of the reins, which is manifeft by the 
fwelling of legs. Andtherefore when women with child find 
their legs to Iwell much, they may be afTured their reins are too 
hot. Wherefore my advice to, fuch women is, to ccol their 
reins before the time of their labor, which may be effedlually 
done by annointing the reins of the back with the oil of popies 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE, ST 

and" violets, or water lilies, and thus they may avoitd tli^it hard 
labor which they ulually undergo whofe reins are hot, that they 
may the better prevent, let me recommend to you the decoction 
of plantain leaves and roots, which is thus made ; Make a ftrong 
decocl:ion of them in water, and then having ftrained and clan- 
tied it with the white of an egg, boil it ir.to a fyrupwith itse- 
qual weight of fugar, and keep it for u{^e» But fmce it is fo 
neceflary for'midwives toknow the time of a woman's labor, 
the following fection will rightly inform them. 

Section III. 
Signs by ivhicb the true ^ime of a IFoman's ' Labor may be knoivn^ 

vVhen women draw near the time of their reckoning, efpe- 
cially with their firil child, and perceive any extraordinary pains 
in their belly, they immeaiately fend for their midwife, as tak- 
ing it for their labor, tho' perhaps thofe pains which are fo of- 
ten miltaken, for labor are only the choiic, aiid proceed n'oia 
tiie wind, which pains though they come and go, griping the 
whole belly, are yet without any forcing downwards into the 
womb, as is done by thSfe that go before labor. But thefe 
cholic pains may be removed by warm clothes laid upon the 
belly : and the application of a'clyfter or two by which tliofe 
pains that precede a true labor are rather furthered than hin- 
dered. T here are alfo other pains incident to women in that 
condition from the flux of the bdlly, which are eafily known by 
the frequent ftools that follow thern. 

But to fpeak more directly of the inatter ; the figns of labor 
fome few days before are that the woman's belly, which before 
lay high finks down, and hinders her'from walking fo eafily as 
(he ufed to do ; alfo there Hows from the womb (limy humors, 
which nature hasiippointed to moiften and make fmooth the 
pafTage, that its inward orifice may be the more eaiily dilated 
when there is occafion, which beginning to open at that time, 
futfers that llime to flow away, which proceedsfrom the glands, 
xalled preftatae. Thefe are ligns preceding labor. 

But when (he is prefently falling into labor, the Hgns are 
great pains about the reins and loins, which coming and rstrcat- 
ing by intervals, anfwer in the bottom of the belly by congrti- 
our throes : and fometimes the face is red and intiamed, the 
blood being much heated by the endeavor a woman makes to 
bring forth the child : and likewiie during the itrong threes 
her perfpiration is intercepted, which catifes the blood to have 
recourfe to her face : her privy parts are fo fwelled by the in- 
fant's head lying in the birth, which, by often thru fling, caufes 
thofe parts to diitend outwards She isiik€v*ife much fubjefc 
to vomiting, ^iiich is 'alfo a fign of good labor and ipeedy de- 
livery, though by a great many ignorant women thought other- 
wife ; for good pains ar@ thereby excited £ind redoubled : 
which vomiting is occafioned by the fympathy there is between 
the womb and the (lomach : Alfo, when the birth is near, molt 
■women are troubled with trembling of the rhighs and legs : not 
with cold, like beginning of an ague fit, but with the heat of the 
whole body : though this indeed does not happen always. Alfo 
if the humors, which then flow from the womb, are difcolored 



5S ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

with blood (whicli iswhat the midwife calls y2>^T(.'j) It is an \l\^ 
fallible mark of the birth's being near : and then if the midwife 
put her finger up the neck of the womb, (he will find the in- 
ward orifice dilated ; at the opening of which the membranes 
of the infant, containing the waters, prefent themfelves, anjd 
are Ihongly forct'd downwards with each pain ihe hath ; at 
which time one may perceive them fometimes to renft the fin- 
;jer : And than again to profs forward, being more orlefs hard 
and extended, according as the pains are ftronger or weaker. 
Thefe membranes with the water in them, when they are be- 
fore the Iiead of ihc child, which the midwife calls the gather- 
ing of the womb, to the touch of the fingers refembles thofe 
eggs which yet have no fhell, but are covered only by a fimple 
membrane. After this, pains dill redoubling, the membranes 
are broken by the ftrong imprellion of the v>aters, which pre- 
i'ently flow away, and then the head of the infant is prefently 
felt naked, and prefents itfelf at the inward orifice of the womb. 
When thofii waters come thus away, then the midwife may be 
aiTurcd the birth is very near ; this being the mo ft certain fign 
that can be 5 for the amnion and alantois being_ broken which 
contained thofe v, aters by the prefling forward of the birth, the 
child is no more able to fubfi It long in the womb afterwards, 
than a naked man iv. a heap of fnow. Now, thefe waters if the 
child come preiently after them, facilitate the labor, by making 
Jlie paffage llippery : and therefore let no midwife ufe means to 
force away the wa-^cr : for nature knows beft wh^n the true 
time of the birth is and therefore retains the water till the time ; 
but if by accident the v;ater breaks away too long before the 
birth, then fuch tilings as will hailen it may be fately admin if- 
tered. 

Section IV. JFbnf is to he done at ike T'nne of Lahov. 

Vv^lien the midvvife is fatisfied that it is the true tim.e of labor, 
fhe muit take care to get all things ready tliat are necefiary to 
comfort the travelling wortian m that time ; and the better to 
do it. let her fee that^ ihe be not llraight laced. She may alfo 
give her a pretty (Irong clyfter, if ihe finds there is occafio'n for 
it ; but with this proviio, that it be done at the be-ginning, and 
before the child be too forward ; for otherwife it will be diifi- 
cult for her to receive it. The advantage of which clyfter is, 
that the gut thereby will be excited to difcharge itfelf (jf its ex- 
crements and the reclum being emptied, there will be more 
ipace tor the dilating of the pafiage ; likewife to caufe the pains 
to bear more dovz-nwards, through the endeavors fhe makes 
when other neceffary things for lie r labor are put in order, both 
for the mother and the child- 

As to the manner of the delivery, various midwives ufe dif- 
ferent ways : fome are delivered fitting on a midwife's ftool \ 
but, for my own part, I think that a pallet bed girded and plac- 
ed near the fire, that the good woman may come on each fide, 
and be the more readily aflifled is much the beft way. 

And if the laboring woman abowndswith blood itmay not 
be improper to let her bleed a little, for by that means Hie will 
both breathe the better, and have her breatit more at liberty. 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 39 

arvd iikewlfe more fire ngth to bear down her pain; and thi>; 
may be dene without danger, becaufe the child being now ready 
to ie born, needs not the mother's blood for its nourilhincnt a- 
ny longer ; and not only fOj but this evacuation does many 
times prevent her having a fever after delivery. Likewiie 
if herflrcngth will permit, let her walk up and down }ic? 
chamber; and the better to enable her thereto, let her take 
feme good and ftrengthening thin^:?, fuch as new laid eggs, jelly 
brotli, fome fpoonfuls of burnt wine | and encourage her to 
ho)d otlher pains, bearing them down when they take h^-, all 
that fne can. And let the midwife often touch the invv'ara en- 
tice v/ith her finger, that Ike may better know whether the wa^ 
ters are going to break, and whether the birth will follow foou 
after ; for generally the birth follows in tvv'o hours after the ef-^ 
fiux of the water. And to help it afterwards, let her annoinr 
the woman's privities v>ithemolient oil, hog's greafe, and frein 
butter ; efpecially if fhe finds them too hard, to be dilated. 

Let tlie midwife alfo be near the laboring -.voman all tlie while 
and diligently obferve her geflures, pains and complaints for bv 
this fhe may guefs pretty well how her labor goes forward ; for 
v,hen Ihe changes her groans, into loud cries it is a great fign the 
birth is near ; at which time her pains are greater and more fre- 
quent. Let her alfo fometimes reft lierfelf on her bed, to re- 
new her fl:rength but not too long at a time, for to lie too long at 
a time will retard her labor, and therefore 'tis better for her to 
walk about her chamber as much as Ihe can *, which, that flie 
may the better do let the good woman fupport her ufidefher 
armes, if it be neceifary ; for by walking, the weight of tiie 
child caufes the inward orifice of a woman to dilate much fooner 
than it v/ould do if fbe lay upon her bed ; befides her pains, by 
walking will be ftronger and more frequent and in confequence 
}ier labor will not be near fo long. If fhc finds any fick qualms 
let her not be difcouraged ; and if (he finds any motions to vomit, 
let her not fupprefs them, but rather give way to them ; for it 
will (however uneafy and irkfome they be for the prefenf)be 
much for her benefit, becaufe they further the pains, and pro- 
voke downward. 

Section V. 
HoTu to pro'vide the blrthy and caufe ffeedy dellnjery. 

When the birthis long deferred after the coming down, on 
the waters, let her haflen the birth by drinking- a good draught 
of wine wherein ditany, red coral, juniper berries, betony, pen- 
nyroyal, and feverfew, have been boiled or the juice of fever- 
few takei in its prime(wTiich is in May ) and clarified and fo boil- 
ed in a fyrup, and twice its weight of fugar is very good upor^ 
thisoccafiorj. Alfo mugwort ufed in the fame manner, works 
the fame effect. And fo alfo does a dram of cinnamon in pow- 
der, given inwardly, or tanfey bruifed and applied to the priv- 
ities. Likewife the (lone Otitis held to the privities does in a 
very little time draw forth the child and the after burden ; but 
^n-eat care mufl: be taken to remove it gently, or elfe it will draw 
.'orththe womb and all, fo great is it^magnetic virtue. Alfo a 
'ieco6lion of favory made witli v/hite v.'ine, end drank, gives a 



^a ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

-vVoni:i»^. rpecdy delivery. Alfo wild tanfey or filver weed bruiu 
cd and applied to the woman's noflrils" is very good. So alfo are.. 
dute ftancs beaten to powder, and half a^drarn of them taken in 
white wi7>e; parfley is of excellent iife-on this occafion ; for if 
you bruile it and prefs out the juice, and then dip a linea cloth> 
m it, and put it up, being fo dipped, in the mouth of the womb, 




woman with child it cleareth not onlj' the womb, but alio the .^ 
child in the womb, of all grofs humors A fcruple of cadorum 
in powder, in any convenient liquor, is very good to be taken in., 
fuch a cafe, and io alfo ai^ two or three drops of fpirit of caftor- 
um in a convenient liquor. Eight orlniiie drops of thcfpirit of 
myrrh, given in a convenient liquor, have the lame eitetf . Or, 
giv^ a woman in travail another woman's milk to drink, it wiJlr 
caufe fpeedy delivery. Alfo the juice of leeks being drank with" 
warm water hath a mighty operation, caufing fpeeay delivery. 
Take piony feeds beat them to powder and mix the powder with 
oil ; with which oil annoint the loins andprivities of the womaR 
with child ; it gives her deliverance very fpecdily, and with lels 
pain than can be imagined. And this may be noted for a general 
r-ule, that all thofe tilings that move the terms are good for mak, 
ing the delivery eafy. There are feveral other things efficacious 
in this cafe ; but I need not heap medicines unneceliarily, thofe 
I have already named being funicient. 

When any of the forenamed medicines have haftened the birth- 
let the midwife lay the woman in a pofture for delivery. And 
firft let the woman be conduced to the pallet bed placed at a 
convenient did ance from the fire, according to the feafon of the . 
year ; and let therebe a quilt laid upon the pallet bedftead, which 
;s better than a feather bed, and let it have thereon a linen cloth 
in many folds, with fuch other things as are necelTary, which. 
may be changed according as the occafion requires it,, that fo the 
v/oman may not be incommoded with blood, waters, and other 
filth, which are voided in labor. Then let her lay the worn- 
an upon her back, having her head a little raifed by the help of a 
pillow, having the like help to fuj)port the reins and buttocks, 
that her rump may lie high ; for if fhe lie low, fhe cannot very 
well be delivered. Then let her keep her knees and thighs as 
farafunder as fhe can, her legs being bowed towards her but- 
tocks, and let her feet be flayed againflalog or fome other firm 
thing. And let two women hold her two fhoulders, that fhe 
may llrain out the birth w^ith more advantage, holding in her 
breath, and forcing herfelf as much as polfible in like manner as 
v\ hen flie goes to fiool : for by fuch flraining, the diaphragm, or 
midriff, being frrongly thrufl downwards, necedarily forces 
down the womb and the child in it. In the mean time, let the 
raidwife encourage her all fhe can, and take care that^fhe have no 
rings on her hands when fhe annoints the part: then let her 
gently dilate the inward orifice of the womb, and putting her fin- 
};ers in the entry thereof, flretch them from one another when 
her pai.n.s take her, by this means endeavor t* Uelp forward the 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 41 

aiiid,and thruftingby little and little the fides of the orince to- 
wards the hinder part of the child's head, annointing thofe parts 
with frefh butter, in cafe it be necelTary. And when the headof 
the infant is fomevvhat advanced into the inward orifice, it is uui- 
al among midwives to fay it is crowned, becaufe it both girds 
and furrounds it like a crown ; but when it is gone fo far, and 
the extreniity begins, to appear without the privy parts they fay 
the child is in the pailage ; and at this time the v/oman feels her- 
felf as if /lie was fcratched or pricked with pins, and is ready to 
think that the midwife hurts her ; whereas in truth it is only oc- 
cafioned by the violent diftention of thofe parts, which lome- 
times even fuffera laceration through the bignefs of the child's 
head. When things are come to this poflure, let the midwife 
feat herfelf conveniently to receive the child, which will now 
come very quickly ; and with her fingers' end which Ihe ought 
alfo to be fure to keep pared, let her endeavor to thrufl the 
crowning of the womb bach over the head of the child. And as 
foonas it is advanced as far as the ears or thereabout, let her take 
hold of the two fides with her two hands, and wait till the good 
pain comes, and then quickly draw forth the child,takingcai^ that 
the navel firing be not entangled about the child's neck, or any 
other part, as fometimes it is, left thereby the after burden be 
pulled with violence, and perhaps the womb alfo, to which it is 
taftened, fo either caufe her to flood or elfe break the firing, both 
of which are of bad confequence to the woman, and render her 
delivery the more difficult. Great care muft be taken that the 
head be not drawn forth ftraight, but fhake it a little from one 
fide to the other, that^he ihoulders may the fooner and eafier 
take its place immediately after it is paft ; which . muft be 
done without lofing any time left the head being patfed, 
the child ftop there oy the largenefs of the^ ihoulders, 
andfobe in danger of being fuftbcated in the palTage, as it 
has fometimes happened for want of care therein. When the 
head is born ihe may fiide in her fingers under the armpits, 
and the reft of the body will follow without difficulty, as foon 
as the midwife hath in this manner drawn forth the child, let her 
lay it on one fide, left the blood and water which follow too im- 
mediately fhould do it an injury, by running into its mouth and . 
nof^, as it would do if it lay on its back, and fo endanger tlie 
choakingofit. The child being thus drawn forth, the next 
thing requifite is to bring away tlie after burden ; but before 
tkat, let the midwife be very careful to examine whether ther^e 
be any more children in the- womb, for fometimes a wom.an 
may have twins ; of which the midwife may fatisfy herfelf both 
by thecontinuariceof the woman's throes and the bignefs of her 
belly. But this is not fo certain as to put her hand up the entry 
of the womb, and there feel Avhether another child is not pre- 
fenting to the pailage : and if fo, (he muft have a care how ftie 
goes about the after birth till the woman be delivered. The 
ftrftftring muft be cut and tied with a thread three or tour 
double, and the ends faftened with a ftring tothe woman's thigh 
to prevent the inccnvenience it may caufe by hangin-g between 

Ihe thi^v • , ^ ' 

d ^' 



. <j X i.i^ 5 .V J .--_■> i iL tv r j\r- V. n 



to 



Section. VII. 
Of the qfter burden . 

Liuil the afier burden is brought awa)', which iometunea i" 
•-.ore difficult to do than the child, and altogether as di;ngerous, 
fit be not fpeedily done, the woman cannot properly be faid to 
::e fiil^Iy delivered', though the child be torn. 

Therefore as fooii as the child is bcrn, before the midwife ei* 
•her ties or etits the navel firing left the womb fhould clofe, let 
her, having taken the ftring, wind it once or twice about one or 
two cf the fingers cf the left hand, joined together, the better to 
hold it, with V, hich fhe may only take fmgle nold of it above the 
]efc. nfar the privities, drawino;' likewife with that very gently, 
relHng a while, whth the fore hnger of the fame hand extending 
vtnd {^retching along the ftring towards the entry of the Veginia, 
\lways obferving> tor the more facility, to draw it from the lide 
:o which the burden lealt inclines, for in fo doing the reft will 
ieparate the better. And extraordinary care mud betaken that 
\\ be not draw n forth with too much violence, left by breaking 
the ftring near the burden, the midwife be obliged to put her 
niiole hand into the womb to deliver the w oman ; and Ihe had 
need to take care in this matter, tliat fo the vvomb itfelf, to 
which fometimes this burden Is faftened very ftrongly, be not 
drawn away with it. which has fometimes happened. It is there- 
fore neceffary, to atTift nature with proper remedies, which are 
:a general, whatever has been before mentioned, to caufc a 
fpeedy delivery ; for whatever has magnetic virtue to bring a«. 
way the birth; has the fame to bring away the after birth. Be* 
fides which, the midwife ought to confider that the wom^n can- 
iiot but be much fpent by the fatigue ihe has already under- 
i;one in bringing forth the infiint, and therefore fhould be fure 
it) take care to give her fomething to comfort hei . To which 
wurpofe fome good jelly broths, and a little v/ine, with a toaft 
m it, and other comforting things, will be neceftary. Sneezing 
being conducive to bring away the after birth, let her take a lit- 
tle white hellebore in powder to caufe her to fneeze. Tanfey 
and the ftone iEtitis, applied as before directed, is very efRca- 
cious in this. Theflmokeof mai-ygold fiowers, received up ?. 
woman's privities by a funnel, will bring away the afcer birth, 
though the midwife has loft har hold. Or, if you boil mugwort 
in water till it be verv foft, and then take it out and apply it like 
a poultice to the navel of the woman in travail, conftintly brings 
away both the birth and the after birth ; but as foon as they arc 
come forth, it muft be inftantly taken away ; left it Ihould briaig 
away the womb alio. 

Section VTII. Hqi.v to cut the child's Na^vdjh'ing, 

After the birth and. after birth are fafely brought away, th^ 
midwife ought to take care to cut the Navel ftnng ; which, 
ilioughit be by fome efteemed a thing of fmall matter, yet it 
lequues none of the leaft skJl of a midwife to do it with that 
V are and prudance which it ought, and therefore to inftrucl: the 
induftrious midwife a little herein : As foon as the child is come 
mto the world, let her confider whether it be weak or ftrons : 
if it be \^*eak, l^t her gently put ba^kpart of the vjt?.4 ^^rA n?'^ 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIEfTE. 43 

urai blood in the body of the- child by the navel, for that re- 
cruits a weak child, the vital and natural fpirits being commu- 
nicated by the mother to the child by its naviil ftring. But if 
the child be ftrong there is no need of it. Only it will not be a=- 
Tiiifs to let the miawife know, that many children that are born 
ieemingly dead j may be brought to life again, if flie fqueeze 
iix or feven drops ot blood out of that part of the navel firing 
which is cut oft, and give it to the child inwardly. 

As to the cutting it (hort or long, authors can Icarce agree a- 
bout it, nor midwives neither ; fome prefcribe it to be cut at 
fourfingers breadth, which is at the bed but an uncertain rule, 
imlefs all fingers were of an equal fize. *Tisa received opin- 
on, that the parts adapted to gejierati^^n are either contraded 
-r dilated, according to tlie cutting of the navel ftr/hg, which 
iS the reafon that midwives are generally fo king to their own 
ex, that they leave a longer part of the navel (iring of a male 
^han a female, becaufe they vvould have the male well provided 
:br the encounters of Venus. And the reafon they give why 
hey cut thofe more fliort is becaufe they believe it makes them 
aodeft, and their parts narrower, whicn makes them moreac- 
eptable to their husbands. But whether this be fo or not 
vvhiah yet fome of the greatefl fearchers into the fecrets of na^ 
rure affirm for a truth) yet certain it is that great care ought to 
be ufed about cutting off the^ navel firing : and efpecially^ 
that after it is cut, it be not fuffered to touch the ground, for if 
it be, the child will never be able to hold its water, but be fub- 
ie6l all its life time to diabetes,, as experience often confirms : 
but as to the manner of cutting the navel firing, let the midwife 
take a brown thread, thee or four times double, of an ell long,^ 
or thereabouts, tied with a fmgle knot at each of tke ends, to 
prevent their entangling ; and with this thread fo accomuiio- 
dated (which the midwife ought to have in readinefs before the 
vroman's labor, as alfo a good pair of fciifors, that fo no time 
may be loll) let her tie the firing within an inch of the belly 
with a double knot, and turning about the ends of the thread, 
let her tie two or more on the fide af the firing, reiterating it a- 
gain, if it be neceliary ; then let her cut off the navel firing, a~ 
nother inch below the ligator towards the after birth; fo that 
there only remains but two inches af the firing, in the midft o^- 
wiiich will be ths knot fpoken of^j whicii mufl be fo flraight 
knit, as not to fuffer a drop of blood to fqueeze out of the vef* 
iels : but yet care mufl be taken not to knit it fo ftraight as to 
cut it in two ; and therefore the thread mufl be pretty thick, 
and pretty flraight knit, it being better too ilraight than too 
ii)ofe. Some children have miferably loil their lives before it 
hath been difcovercd that the navel firing was not well tie4. 
Therefore great care mufl be taken that no blood fqueeze 
through, for if there do, new knots mufl be made with the reft 
of the firing. Veu need not fear to bind the navel firing very- 
hard, becaufe it is void of fenfe j and that part of it which you 
"•eave on falls off of its own accord in a few dayr, ordinarily fix 
*r feven, andfom^times in lefs time ; but it very r-^.-^'y *:c;rnes 
■ oig.er than the eighth or ninth day^ 



44 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE: 

Asfoon as the navel firing is cut off, apply a little cotton o: 
lint in the place to keep it warm, left the cold enter into the bo- 
dy of the child, which it will unavoidably do, in cafe it be not 
bound hard enough : and if the lint or cotten you apply to it be 
dipped in the oil of rofes, it will be better : than having put a- 
nother fmall rag, three or four times double, upon the body of 
the child, above the navel, lay the ftring fo wrapped upon it 
that it may not touch the naked belly. Upon the top of all put 
another fmall bolder; and then fwathe it in a linen fwathe, four 
fingers broad, to keep it fteacU', left by rolling too much, or be- 
ing continually ftirred from fide to ficie^it come to fall off before 
the navel ftring which you left remaining is fallen off. 'Tis the 
ufual cufton of the midwives to put a piece of burnt rag to it ; 
but I would advife them to put a fmall quantity of bole am- 
monica, becaufe of its drying quality. Thus much may fuiiice 
as to cutting the navel ftring and delivery of a woman in labor* 
where the labor is natural, and no ill accident happens. But it 
fometimes fo falls out, that the labor is not only hard and diffi- 
cult, but unnatural alfo, in which the midwife muft take other 
meafures. 

CHAP. VII. 
IVbar unnatural Lahnr ts^ and 'whence it proceeds : and lobat the 
Mid'vsife oupbt to do in fuch Cafes. 
Section I. n hat unnatural Labor is. 

IT will be neceffary to acquaint my readers, that 
there are three forts of bad labor, all pamful and ditiicult, but 
not all properly unnatural, which are as follows : 

The firft, properly ftiled hard labor, is that wherein tlie 
mother and child do fuffer very much by extreme pain 

The fecond is difficult labor, different from the farmer, in 
that befides thofe extreme pains, it is generally attended with 
iome unhappy accident, which, by retarding the birth, makes 
it very difficult : Neither of thofe, though hard and difficult, 
can be called unnatural ; for woman to bring forth children in 
pain and forrow is natural. 

It is therefore the third fort of labor which I call unnatural ; 
and that is, when the child elfays to come into the world in a 
contrary pofition to that which nature ordained. To explain 
this, the reader muft know, that there is but one right and nat- 
ural pofture in which children come to the birth, and that is 
when the head comes firft, and the body follows after in a 
ftraight line. Ifinftcadof this, the child comes with its feet 
ioremoft, or with the fide aero fs, it is contrary to nature or^ to 
ipeak more plainly, unnatural. 

Section II, Whence hard, difficult and unnaturat labor fro^ 
ceeds. 

The true phyfical reafonwhy wonaen in general bring forth 
their children with fo much pam, is that the ia^it of feeling be- 
ing diftributed to the whole body by the nerves, and the mouth 
of the womb being fo ftraight, that it muft ot nece ffity be dilated 
at the time of her delivery ; the dilating thereof ftretcheth th^ 
nerves, and frora- thence cometh the pain ; fome women having,^ 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTERPIECE. 45 

more pain in their labor than others, proceeds from their having 
the mouth of the matrix more full ofnerves than others. 

Hard and difficult labor may proceed either from the mother 
©r child, or from both : It may jproceed from the mother, by 
reafon of a general indifpofition of her body, or from the indii- 
pofition of lome particular part, and that principally of ^ the. 
>vomb, which may be effe£ted with fuch a weaknefs as renders^ 
the mother unable to expei her burden. It may be alfo becaufe 
fhe is too young or Hie may be too old, and fo may have the paf- 
fage too flraight, and then, if it be her firft child, the parts may 
be too dry and hard, and cannot eafily be dilated. The cholic 
does alfo caufe labor to be hard and difficult, becaufe it hinders 
the true pain which fhould accelerate it : for which reafon, all 
great and acute pains render a v/oman's labor very difficult. As 
when the woman is taken with a violei>: fever, frequent convul- 
iions, a great flooding, or any other violent diftemper, efpecially 
when the membranes are thick, and the orifice is tooftraight, or 
the neck of thfe womb not fufficiently opened . 

Havd labor may alfo proceed from the child, and this is either 
v/hen it happens to (tick to a mole, or is fo weak that it cannot 
break the membrane ; alfo, when it is too big either all over, 
or its head only ; or if the navel veflTek fhbuld be twifted about 
its neck as when it proves monftrous, or comes into the birth 
in an unnatural porture. Sometimes it proceeds from the ig- 
norance of the midwife, who may hinder nature in her work. 

Sect. III. Hoiv the midivjfe ?nuft proceed in order to the 
Deli'vefj ff a Wotnan^ in cafe cf hard Labor and great extremity. 

In cafe the midwife finds a woman in difficult labor, fhe mud 
endeavor to know the particular obflru6lion or caufe thereof, 
that fo fhe may apply a fui table remedy. When hard labor is 
caufed by a woman's being too young and flraight, the pafTages 
muft be anointed with oil, hog's lard, or freffi butter, to relax 
and dilate them the eafier. But if a woman be in years and has 
hard labor from her firfl child, let her lower parts be anointed 
to molifv the inward orifice, which in fuch cafe (being more 
hard and callous) does not eafily yield to the diftcntion of labor ; 
and indeed this is the true caufe why fuch women are longer in 
labor, and why their children in their birth are more fubje6lto 
bririfes than others. Thofe who are very lean, and have hard 
labor from that caufe, let them moiften their parts with oil and 
ointments, to make them fmooth and flippery, that the head of 
the infant in the womb may not be compreded and bruifed by 
the hardnefs of the mother's bones in its paffage But if the 
caufe be weaknefs, fhe ought to be flrengthened, the better to 
enable her to fupport her pain. , Since difficult labor proceeds 
from divers caufes, the midwife mufl make ufe of feveral reme- 
dies to women in hard, difficult labor, which mufi be adapted 
to the caufe from whence it proceeds. 

I need not tell the judiciou^Miiidwife, that in cafe of extremity, 
IV hen the labor is not only hard, but difficult and dangerous, a 
far a^reatercare muft be had than at other times. In fuch cafes 
the Situation of the womb muft be minded, and accordingly her 
foflure of lying willbe regulated; which v,^ill be bed acrofs^ 



4G ARISTOTLE-s MASTER PIECE, 

the bed, beino; lieldby thofe that are of a good flrength to pre 
vent her Hipping down, or moving herfelf during the time of the 
operation. Then let her tliighs be put aiunder as far as may 
be, and held fo, while her legs are bent backwards towards 
her hips, her liead leaning upon a bolfter, and the reins of her 
back fupported in like manner, her rump and buttocks being 
lifted up : obferving to cover her flomach, belly, and thighs, 
with warm linen, as well for decency's fake as to keep them 
from the cold. 

The woman being in this poflure, let the midwife, or other 
operator, put up her hand, and try if the neck of the womb be 
dilated, and then remove the contrafted blood that obftrucls the 
paflageof the birth, and having greatly made way, let the oper- 
ator tenderly move the infant, "having' the hand anointed with 
fweet butter, or an harmlefs pomatum, and if the waters are not 
come down the^' may be let forth without any ditticulty. And 
if the infant fnould attempt to break forth not with the head 
foremoil oracrofs, he ought gently to ti^n it, that he may find 
rhe feet ; which having done, let him draw forth one and hav- 
ing faftened it to a ribbon, put it up again; and finding the oth- 
er, bring them as clofe as may be : lei the woman breathe be- 
tween whiles, aflifting nature 'what Che can by draining in bring- 
ing forward the birth, that fo he may the more eafily draw it 
forth ; and that the operator may do' it the better, and his hold 
may be the furer, he muft fallen or wrap a linen cloth about the 
child's thighs, obferving to bring it into the world with its feet 
downwards. 

But in cafe there be a flux of blood, let the operator be well 
fatisfied whether the child or the fecundine come iirft ; for 
fometimes when the fecundine has come firft, the mouth of the 
womb has been thereby flopped, and the birth hindered,, to tlio., 
hazard both of the woman and child; and therefore, in this 
cafe the fecundine muft be removed by a fwi ft turn, and the 
child fought for, and drawn forth, as has been dire:^ed 

If upon enquiry, it appears that the fecundine comes firfl, let 
the woman be delivered with all convenient fpeed, becaufe a 
great flux of blood will follow ; for then the veins are opened . 
And on this account two things are t© be minded : firfl, wheth- 
er the fecundine advances forward much or little ; if the form- 
er, and the head of the child firfl a'ppears, it mufl be diredled to 
the neck of the womb, as in the cafe of natural births j but if 
there appears any difficulty in the delivery, the beflway is to 
fearch for the feet, and by them it may be put by with a gentle 
hand^ and the child taken out firfl : but if the lecui\dineis ad- 
vanced, fb that it cannot be put back, and the child follow it 
clofe, then the fecundine is to be taken out firft with much care, 
and as fwirt as may be, imd laid afide, without cutting the en- 
trail that is faflened to them ; for by that you may be guided 
to the infant, which whether it be alive or dead, mud be drawn 
forth by the feet as foon as poiTible ; though this is not -to be 
done but in cafe of great ncceifity, for the^rdcr of nature is for 
the fecundine to coin-e hiil. 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 47 

Section IV. Of the delhjery of a dead Child. 
In delivering a woman of a dead child, 'the operator ought to 
be certain the child is dead, which might be known by the fall- 
ing of the mother's breafls, the coolnefs of her belly, the thick- 
ne:s of her urine, which is attended with ftinking fediment at 
bottom • and no motion to be perceived in the child : Alfo, 
when ihe turns herfelf in her bed, the child fways like a lump 
of lead, and her breath ftinks, thoiigh not ufed to do fo. When 
the operator is certain that the child is dead, let him or her ap- 
ply themfeives to 'the faving of the mother, by giving her thofe 
tilings that are moft powerful in ferving nature in her opera- 
tions. But, if through weaknefs, the womb is not able to coop- 
erate with nature, fo that a manual operation is abfoluteiy nec- 
ellary, let the operator carefully obfervs the follov/ing direc- 
tions, viz. If the child be found dead with his head foremoft, 
he muft take notice that the delivery will be the more difficult, 
becaufe in this cafe it is only impoirible that the child (liould any 
f lyays affift in its delivery, but the llrength of the mother does al- 
fo very much fail her, wherefore the moft lure and fafe way for 
him to put up his left hand, Hiding it, as hollow in the palm as 
he can, into the neck of the Vvomb, into the lower part thereof 
towards the feet, and then between the infant and the neck of 
the matrix ; and having a hook in the right hand, couch it clofe 
and (lip it above the left hand between the head of the child and 
the flat of the hand, fixing it to the bone of the temple towards 
the eye ; or, for want of convenient coming at that, obferve to 
keep the left hand in its place, gently moving and llirring the 
head with it, and fo with the right hand hook draw the child 
forv/ard, encouraging the woman to put forth her utmolt 
ftrength, and always drawing when the woman's pangs are up- 
on her. The head being thus drawn forth the operator mufr, 
with all fpeed, (lip his hand under the arm holcsof the child, 
and take it quite forth, giving immediately to the woman a toa(l 
of fine wheaten bread in a quarter of a pint of lent, to revive and 
cheri(h her fpirits. By v/hat I have already (hewn, the mid- 
wife will know what to do in any other cafe that may fall out, 
remembering, that for a child to come head foremolt, and the 
body tn follow in a ilraight line, is the right pofture for a child 
when it comes to the birth ; .and if it cones any other way, it 
will be the vrifdorn of the midwife, if pofiible to bring it to this 
pofture ; but if that cannot be done v/ithout very great danger, 
then put it in a pofture that it may be brought forth by the feet. 
And the midwife perceiving in what pofture the child prefents, 
or that the woman floods, or any other accident happens, by 
which (he finds it not in her pov.er to deliver it, it will be beft 
for her to fend for a man midwife in time, rather than put things 
to the utmoft extremity. 

CHAP. VIII. 
Section I . Directions fo r child bed Women after deli'very . 

AFTER the birth and after birth are brought away 
if the woman's body be very weak, keep her not too hot, the 
extremity of heat weakens nature, and diliblves the ftrength : 
but whether (he be weak or ftrong, let no cold come near her. 



48 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER l^IECK. 

for cold is an enemy to the fpermatic parts : and if cold gets in- 
to the womb it increafesthe after pains, caufes fwellings in tiie 
womb, and hurts the nerves. Therefore if a woman has had 
very hard labor, 'tis proper, after delivery, to wrap her in the 
skin of a (heep, taken as warm as potfible, and putting the flefhy 
fid^ to her reins and belly : if a fheep's skin cannot well be had, 
the skin of a hare or rabbit, taken olFas foon as it is killed may 
be applied to the fame parts, and by fo doing the dilation made 
in tile birth will be doled up, and the melancholy blood expell 
ed from thofe parts ; and thefe may be continued during the 
fpace of an hour or two. After which let the woman be fwathed 
with a fine linen cloth, about a quarter of a yard in length, chaf- 
ing the belly, before it be fwathed with the oil of bt. John's 
wort : afterwards raife up the matrix with a linen cloth, many 
times folded, then with a little pillow or quilt cover her flank, 
place the fwathe fomewhat above the haunches, winding it in- 
differently ftiff, applying at the fame time, a warm cloth to the 
nipples. Care fhould be taken not to apf)ly any remedy to keep 
back the milk, becaufe thofe remedies whicn drive back the milk 
being of a dilfolving nature, it is improper to apply them to the 
breaft during fuch a diforder, left evil humors fliould be con- 
tracted in the breaft thereby: and therefore twelve hours at 
leaft ought to be allowed for the circulation and fettlement of 
the blood. 

After the woman has been deli veredfome time, 3'^ou may make 
a reftri<^ive of the yolk of two eggs, a quarter of a pint ot white 
wine, oil of St, John's wort, oil ofrofes, plantain, and rofe wa- 
ter of each an ounce, mix them together, fold a linen cloth and 
dip therein, warm it before a gentle fire, apply it to the breafts, 
and the pain of thefe parts will be greatly eafed. 

But be lure not to let her fleep foon after her delivery, but let 
her take feme broth, or caudle, or any other liquid matter that 
isnouriHung, about four hours after her delivery, and the« 
flie may be fafely permitted to fleep, if (he is difpofed, as it 
is probable fhe will be, being tired with the fatigue of her la- 
bor. But before this, as foon as fhe is laid in her bed let 
her drinka draught of burnt white wine in which melt a dram of 
fpermatic. Let her alfo avoid the light for thej firfl three days 
K>r labor weakens the eye fight. The herb vervain is of Angu- 
lar fervice to the fight, and may be ufed any way, either boiled in 
meats, or drink, not having the leafl offenfive tafte, but many 
pleafant virtues. If fhe fhould be feveriih, add the leaves or 
roots of plantain to it ; but if her courfes come not away as they 
ought, let the plantain alone, and inftead thereof put mother of 
thyme. If the womb is foul, which may be kfiown by the 
impurity of the blood, and its flinlcing and coming away in 
clotted lumps ; or if you fufpeCl any of the after birth to be 
left behind, which may fometimes happen, though the midwife 
be ever fo careful and skilful, then make her a drink of fever- 
few, ptrnneroyal, mother of thyme, boiled in white wine, and 
fweetened withfugar : panada and new laid eggs are the beft 
meat for her atfirft ; of^which let her eat often, and but a little 
atatime. Let her vWe cinnamon in all her meats and drinks,^ 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER TTECE. 49 

k)rit mightily ftrengthens the womb ; let Iier fiir very little 
for fix or feven days after her delivery ; and talk little, for 
that weakens her. If (he goes not to Itool, give a clyiler made 
Vv'ith the decodtion of mallows, and a little brown fugar Af- 
ter (he has lain in a week, or more, giye her fuch things as clofe 
tliewomb ; to which you may add a little polypodiuni, both 
leaves and roots bruiled, v/hich will purge gently : This is as 
much in cafe of natural birth as needs at firft be done. 
Section II- 
In extremity of unnatural labor. 
Let the woman be fure to keep a temperate diet ; and take 
-care that (he does by no means overcharge herfelf, after fuch 
an exceflive evacuation, not being ruled by or giving credit 
to unfkilful nurfes, who are apt to admonifh them to feed hear- 
tily, the better to repair the lofs of blood : for the blood is not 
for the moftpart pure, but fuch as has been detained in the vef- 
fels or membranes, and it is better voided for the health of a 
woman than kept, unlefs there happens an extraordinary flux 
of blood ; for if her nouriihment be too much, it may make her 
liable to a fever, and increafe the milk to a fuperHuity which 
may be of dangerous confequence. It is therefore requifite for 
the firft five days efpecially, -that iTie take moderately panada, 
broth, poached eggs, jelly of chickens and calves feet, French 
barley broth, each iomewhatincreafing the quantity. And, if 
(he intend to be nurie to her child (he may take a little more 
than ordinary to increafe the milk by degrees ; which muft be 
of no cotinuance, but drawn oU'either by the child or otherwife. 
In that cafe likewife, let her have coriander or fennel feed boiled 
in barley broth : and by that means, for the time beforevanen- 
tioned let her abftain from meat. If no fever trouble her, (he 
may drink now and then a fmall quantity of white wine or cla- 
ret, as al(b afyrup of maiden hair, or any other fyrup that is of 
an aftringent quality, taking it in a little water well boiled. 
And after the fear of a fever, or contraction of humors to the 
bread is over, (he may then be nourilhed more plentifully with 
the broth of pullets, capons, pigeons, partridges, nmtton, veal,^ 
&c. v/hich muft not be till after eight days at lea(t from the 
time of the delivery ; for by that time the womb will have 
urged, itfelf, unlefs fome intervening accident ihould hinder, 
t will then be expedient to give her cool meat: fo it be done 
fparingly, the better to gather (Irength ; and let her during the 
time reft quietly, and free from difturbance, not fleeping in the 
day time, if (he can avoid it. If there happens any obftruc- 
tions in the evacuation of excrements, the foUov/ing clyftcrs 
may be adminiftered : Take pellitory of the wall, and of both 
the mallows, of each a handful ; femiel and annifeed of each 
two ounces ; boil them m the decodtion ofaflieep's head» and 
take of this three quarters, dilTolving it in common honey and 
coarfe fugar, and of new fre(h butter two ounces ; ftrain it wtl) , 
and adminifter it clyfter wife. But if this does not operate 'V 
vour mind, ^len you mav takeone ounce ofcatholicon. 
E 



I 



00 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

CHAP. IX. 

0/a mole o? falfe conception : and of Monfters and Monjlrous 
Births^ luith the reafon thereof. 

Section I. 
Of a Mole J or falfe conception. 
A MOLE or falle conception, is nothing elfe but a 
mafs or great lump of flefh burdening the womb. It is an in- 
articulate piece of riefh without any form, and therefore differs 
from monliers, which 2iXtformata and articulata j and then it is 
faid to be a conception, but a falfe one which puts a difference 
between a true conception and a mole ; and the difierence holds 
^ood three different ways : Firff in the genius, becaufe a mole 
connot be faid to be animal Secondly, it differs in fpecies, be- 
caufe it hath no human figure, and bears not the character of a 
Tuan. 1 hirdly, it differs m the individium for it hath no affini- 
ty with the^partsof that in the whole body, or any particles of 
the fame. There are variety of judgments among authors a- 
bout the producing caufe of this effett, fome affirming that it is 
produced by the woman's feed going into the womb without the 
man's: but becaufe we have before proved that women have 
properly no feed at all, but only an ovalium, which is foecunda- 
led by the active principle of the man's feed, this opinion needs 
no confutation Others fay, it is engendered of the menftriious 
blood : but were this granted, it would follow that maldsby hav- 
ing their courfes ffopped might be fubje6l to the fame, which 
never any yet were, 1 he true caufe of this carnous conception 
which we call a mole proceeds both from the man and the wom- 
an, from corrupt and barren feed in the man, and from the 
menflruous blood in the w^oman, both mixed together in the cav- 
ity of the womb ; and nature finding herfelf weak (yet defirous 
ci maintaining the perpetuity of her fpecies)labors to bring 
**^*forth a vicious conception rather than none : and not being a- 
ble to bring forth a living creature generates a pieceof flefh. 

This imperfe*^^ conception may be known to be fuch by the 
following ligns. 'I he monthly courfes are fuppreffed the belly 
is puffed up, and waxeth hard, the breath fmelis, and the appe- 
tite is depraved But you will fay thefe are ilgnsof a breeding 
woman in true conception, and therefore thele cannot diftin- 
guifliamole. To thisl anfwer, though thus they agree, yet 
they are different in feveral refpei5ls ; for a mole may be felt in 
the womb before the third month, which an infant cannot \ the 
motion of the mole being only caufed by the faculty or the 
womb, and of the feminal fpirit diffufed through its fubftance ; 
- for though it has no animal, yet it has a vegetative lite ; and 
then the belly is fuddenly fwelled where there is a mole ; but 
in conception the belly is firft contra6led. and then rifeth grad- 
ually Another differences, the belly being preded with the 
hand the mole gives way, and the hand being taken away, it re- 
turns to the place again ; but a child in the womb though prelT- 
ed with the hand, moves not prefently, and being removed re- 
turns not at all, or at lead very flowly. But, to name no more, 
another material differences, that a child continues not in the 
woitft) above eleven montlis at mod ; but a mole fometimes con^ 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 51 

tinues four or five years, fometlmes more or lefs, accordingto its 
being faftened to the matrix ; for fometimes the mole hath fal- 
len away in four or five months ; and if it remains until the 
11th month, the legs are feeble, and the whole body appears in 
awaiting condition, or the belly fvvells bigger and bigger, which 
is the reafon that fome who are thus afflided, think they are hy- 
dropical, though it be no fuch thing ; which a woman eafily 
knows, if Ihe will but confider that in a dropfy the legs will fwell 
and grow big ; in cafe, of a mole they confume and wither. 
This diftemper is an enemy to true conception, and of danger- 
ous conlequence : for a woman that breeds a mole is every way 
more inconvenienced than a woman that is with child, and afl 
the while (he keeps it, (lie lives in danger of her life. 

The cure of this diilemper confifts chiefly in expelling it as 
foon as may be ; for the longer it is kept the worfe it is : and 
this many times cannot be efferted without manual operation ; 
but that being the laft remedy, all other means ought to be firft 
ufed Amongil which, phlebotomy ou^ht not to be omitted; 
for feeing letting of blood caufeth abortion, by reafon it takes 
away that nourifhment that fhould fuftain the life of the child, 
why may not this vicious conception be by the fame means de- 
prived of that vegetative fapby which it lives > to whichend o- 
pen the iiver vein, and the faphana in both feet ; faften cupping 
glafTes to the loins and fides of the belly ; which done, let the 
urinary part be firfi mollified, and the expulfive faculty be pro- 
voked to expel the burden. And to loofen the ligatures of the 
mole, take mallows, with roots, three handfuls, pellitory, cam- 
omile, violet leaves, melilot, roots of fennel., parlley mercury 
of each two handfuls ; fenugreek and linfeed, of each one pound 
boil them in water, and make a bath thereof, and let her fit 
therein up to her naveL At her going out of the bath, let her 
reins and*privities be anointed with this unguent : Take am- 
moniati, landani, frefh butter, of each an ounce ; and with oil of 
linfeed make anointment ; or, inftead of this may be ufed ua- 
guentum agrippse or dialthas. Alfo take aq. bryon.-e compo(ito 
roots of althae and mercury, of each a handful ; linfeed and 
barley meal, of each fix ounces ; boil all thefe with v/ater and 
honey, and make a plaifler, and the ligaments of the mole being 
tlius loofened, let tlie expulfive facility be fi:irred up to expel 
the mole ; forthe ellectiiig of wiiich, all thufe medicaments are 
very proper which bring down the courfes 1 he re fore take 
favine, madder, valerian, horeliound, fiige, hyUop, botony, pen- 
nyroyal, calamint; hypericon, and witli water make a decoction, 
and give three ounces of it, withan ounce and a half of lyrupoi' 
feverfew. But if thefe remedies prove not available, then muff 
the mole be drawn away by manual operation, in the manner 
following : let the operator (having placed the woman in a 
proper pofture, as lias been directed in cafes of unnatural la- 
bor)nide his hand into the womb; and >vith ir draw forth the 
mole; but if it be grown fo big that it cannot be drawn away 
whole (v/hich is very fare, becaufe it is a foft tender body, 
and much more pliable than a child) let the operator bring it 
away by parts, ufing a crotchet or knife, if it cannot be done 



52 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

otherwile. And if the operator finds it is joined and faftene^ 
to the womb, he niuft gently feparate it with his fingers ends, 
his nails being paired, putting them by little and little between 
the mole and ifie womb, beguiningon the fide where it does 
liick tali, apd fo purfiie it till it be quite iooiened, taking 
^reat care if it grows too tad: not to rend or hurt the proper 
fubftance of the womb, proceeding as in cafe of an after burden 
that (:ays behind in the v\ omb when the firing is broken oft' : 
but a mule has never any llring faftened to it, or any burden- 
y. hence it fliould receive any nourilhment, but does. of it{elf 
iiumediately draw it from the veflels of the womb. And 
thus much fiiall fuiiice to be faid coacerningamole ; of which- 
i have Ihewn the caufe^ the fi^ns, and the cure-. 
Section II. 
OfMo?jJii:i's, and man Jirous Births* 

Monfiers are properly depraved conceptions, and are deemed 
by the ancients to be excurfions of nature, and are always vic- 
ious either by figure, fituation, magnitude, or number. 

Uhey are vicious in figure, when a man bears the character of- 
a beau ; Vicious in magnitude, when the parts are not equal or 
orie part is bigger than another ; and this is a thing very com- 
mon, by reafon of fome excrelience. They are vicious in fitu- 
ation many ways ; as if the ears were on the face, or the eyes 
on the breafts, or on the legs, as were feen in a monfi:erborn at 
Ravenna, in Italy, in the year 1570. And laftly vicious in 
number, when a man hath two heads, four hands and two bod- 
ies joined, which was the cafe of the monfier born at Zazara in 
the year 1550. 

As to the caufe of their generation, it is either divine or nat- 
ural. The divine caufe proceeds from the premiflive will of the 
great Author of our bemg, fuftering parents to bring ^jrth 
*uch deformed monfi:ers, as a puniOiment for their filthy and. 
cormpt affection, let loofe unto wickednefs? lik^ brute beafis 
that have no underfianding : for which reafon the ancient 
Romans ena<^l:ed, that thofe who were deformed fhould not be 
put into religious houfes. And St. Jerome, in his time grieved 
to fee the deformed and lame ofi'ered up to God in religious 
houfes ; and Kecherman, by way of inference, excluded all 
that weremisihapen, becaule outward deformity of body is often 
a lign of the pollution of the heart, as a curie laid upon the 
cliild for the incontinency of the parents. Let us therefore 
fearch out the natural caufe of- their generation, which accord- 
ing to thofe who have dived into the fecrets of nature, i-s either 
in the matter or the agent, in the feed or in the womb. Tlie 
matter may be in fault two ways, by defe<St or accefs. By de- 
fert, when the child hath but one arm or leg, &cz. by accefs, 
v.'hen it has three hands or two heads. Some monfters are alfo 
begotten by women's befiial and lumatural coition, ^-c. The 
agent or womb may be in fault three ways : firfi:, in the form- 
ing faculty, which may be too (Irong or too weak, which fome-^ 
times produces a depraved figure. 2dly. The evil dilpofition of 
,the infiruments or place of conception, will caufe a monftrous^ 
birth. And thirdly, the iuiagiaative power at the ttaq of 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. jS 

conception, is of fuch a force as to ftamp a chara^lcr of the 
thing imagined upon the child ; thus a woman at the time of 
conception, beholding the pi6lure of a Blackamoor, conceived 
and brought forth a child refemblingan Ethiopian; and by 
this the children ofanadultrefs, though begotten by another 
man, may have the neareft refemblance to ner own huiband. 
This power of imagination was well enough known to the ancients 
as is evident by the example of Jacob, the father of the twelve 
tribes of Ifrael, who having agreed with his father inlaw to have 
all the fpotted fheep for the keeping of his flock to increafe his 
wages, took hazel rods peeling them with white ftreaks in them 
and laid them before the iheep when they came to drink, and 
they couplingtogether whihl they beheld the rods, conceived 
and brought forth fpotted young. Nor does the imagination 
work in the child at the time of conception only, but afterwards 
alfo ; aswasfeenin the example of a worthy gentlewoman, 
who being big with child, and palTmgby a butcher killing meat, 
a drop of blood fpirted on her face ; whereupon (he then faid 
that the child would have fome blemifh on his face, which pro- 
ved true, for at the birth it was found marked with a red fpot. 

But belides the way already mentioned, Monfters are fome- 
times produced by other means, to wit,, by the undue coition of 
a man and his xvife when her monthly Rowings are upon her ; 
which being a thing againil natuie, no wonder that it fhould 
produce an unnatural ifTue. If therefore a man's deli re be ever 
fo great for coition (as fometimes it is after long abrence)yet if 
a woman knows that the cuftom of women is upon her, Hie ought 
not to admit of any embraces, which are at that time both un- 
clean and unnatural The iffiie of thefe uclean embraces prov- 
ing often monflrous, as ajuft punifhmentfor fuch a turpidinous 
a6tion. Or, if they fhould not always produce monflrous births 
yet are the children thus begotten, for the moft part dull, heavy, 
lluggifh, and defective in underflanding, wanting the vivacity 
and livelinefs which thofe children are endued with v/ho are 
begotten when women are free from their courfes. 

There has been lome contending amongfl authors,, whether 
thofe v/ho are born monfters have reafonable fouls, the refult 
of both fides, at lafl coming to this, that thofe who, according to 
the order of nature^ are defcended from our firfl parents by the 
coition of man and woman, tho' their outward fhapebc deform- 
ed and monftrous, have notwitilftanding reafonable fouls : but 
thefe monflers that are not begotten by man, but are the prod- 
udl of a woman's unnatural luft, copulating with other crea- 
. tures, fhall perifh as the brute beads by whom they were begot- 
ten, not having a reafonable foul. The fame being alfo true of 
imperfe<5l and abortive births- 

Some are of opinion, that monfters may be engendered by in- 
fernal fpirits ; but rtotwithfiandi ng ^gidius Facius pretended 
to believe it with refpe6f to a deformed monller, born at Cra- 
eovia, and Hieronimus Carcomus writeth of a maid that was got 
with child by the devil ; yet, as a wicked fpirit is not capable of 
having human feed, how is it pofiiblehe fhould beget a human 
creature ? If they fay, that the devil may alTume to himfelf a 
e ^ 



i»i ARISTOTLE'S MASTfi'R PlECt. 

dead body and enliven the faculties of it, and thereby make it a. 
ble to generate, I anfwer, that though we fuppofe this could be 
done, (which I believe not) yet that body ma(t bear the image 
ot the devil : and it borders on blafphemy, to think that the all 
}vileandj^ood being would lo far give way to the worft of fpir- 

^K ^r l^ 1 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^'^''^*^ "^^ ^^'- diabolical offspring : for in 
tne fchool of nature, we are taught the contrary viz. that like 

begets like ; whence it 
■; follows, that a man 
I cannot be born of a dev- 
il. The firft I (hall 
I prefent is a mod fright- 
I fulmonfler indeed, re- 
I prefenting an hairy 
i child. It was covered 
> over with hair like a 
j beaft. That which 
' rendered it yet more 
; frightful was that its 
\ navel w^as in the place 
I where his nofe (hould 
1 fland,and his eye* plac- 
; ed where his mouth 
I fhould have been, and 
' its mouth was in the 
.; chin. It was of the 
kf male kind and born in 
in the year 




m0mm 



^issr:^;;:^?:^yM'iw^^^^^^^^f^^^^^^-^ France, 






A bo}r was born in Germany, with one head and one body, 
but having four ears, four arms, four thighs, four legs and four 

This birth the learned, who- 
beheld it, judged to proceed 
from the redundance of the feed j 
but there not being enCugh for 
twins, nature formed what fhe 
could, and fomade the mcftofit. 
This child lived fome years,^ 
and though he had four feet, he 
knew not how to go ; by which 
we may fee thewifdom of nature 
or rather the God of nature, in 
the formation of the body of man. 
Hea^n in our firft formation did 

prcvidej 
lavo arms and legs ; but tvhat 

lAje hanje hefide 
Renders us monfters^and mifljafen 

tOOj 

Nor ha've. ive any 'work for them to 




ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 



5$ 



7hvo arms, tiuo legs, iif^ <^^l that ive can ufe. 
And to ha-ue more th^^^^^ ^^ '^(/^ ^^^ 'Would choofe. 
In the time of Henry III- a woman was delivered of a child, 
having two heads and four arms, and the reft was a twin under 
the navel ; and then beneath, all 
the reft was fingle, as appears in 
the figure. The heads were fo 
placed that they looked contrary 
ways, and each had two diftinA 
arms and hands. They would 
both laugh, fpeak, cry, and both 
eat and be hungry together. 
Sometimes the one would fpeak, 
and the other would keep filence, 
and fometimes both would fpeak 
together. It was of the female 
fex; and though it had two mouths 
and did eat with both, yet there 
was but one fundament to disbur- 
den nature. It lived feveral years, 
but one outlived the other thiee 
years, carrying the dead one (for 
there was no parting them) till the 
other fainted with the^ burden, and more with the (link of the 
dead carcafe. 
A child was born in Flanders which had two heads and four 

arms feeming like two 
girls joined together, 
having two of their 
arms lifted up be- 
tween and above their 
heads : the thighs 
being placed as it 
v/ere acrofs one an- 
other according to the 
figure. How long 
they lived I had 'no 
account of. 





^^^'^=j^^^^J^^ 






Nature to us fometimes does Monfters Jhe*w 
That ite by them may our o'wn mercies knoVJ ; 
And thereby Jin's deformity may fee 
than "Which there" s nothing can more m'onflrdus h* 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

PART iir. 

Displaying the Secrets of Nature relating to 
PHYSIOGNOMY. 

CHAP. I. Section I. 

OfPhyftognoniy,/henjobign.ohatu is y and from 'whenteu is de- 
rlnjed, 
PHYSIOGNOMY is an ingenious fcience, or 
knowledge of nature, by* which the inclination and difpdlitions of 
everycreature are underftood : and becaufe Tome of the members 
are uncompounded and entire of themfelves, as the tongue, the 
heart, &c. andfome of a mixed nature, as the eyes, the nofe, 
and others, we therefore fay, that there are many figns which 
agree and live together, which inform a wife man how to make 
his judgment, before he be too rafh to deliver it to the world. 
Nor is it to be efteemed a foolifh or idle art, feeing it is derived 
from the fuperior bodies ; for there is no part of the face of a 
man, but what is under the peculiar influence or government, 
not only of the feven planets, but alfo of the twelve figns of the 
zodiac ; and the difpofition, vices, virtues, and fatality, either 
of a man or woman, are plainly foretold, if the perfon pretend- 
ing to the knowledge thereof be an artift, which, that my readers 
may attain to, I Hiall fet thefe things in a clear light. 

The reader ftiould remember that the forehead is governed 
by Mars ; the right eye is under the dominion of Sol ; the left 
is ruled by Luna or tne Moon ; the right ear is the care of Ju- 
piter ; the left of Saturn ; the rule of the nofe is claimed by 
Venus, which by the way, is one reafon that, in all unlawful 
vcivrral encounters, the nofe is too fubjecl to bare the fears 
which are gotten in thofe wars : and the nimble Mercury, the 
fignlfication of eloquence, claims the dominions of the mouth, . 
and that very jiiftly . 

Thus have the feven planets divided the fice among them but 
not fo abfolutely, but that the twelve figns of the zodiac do alfo 
come in for a part : And therefore t-he fign Cancer prefides in 
the uppermofl partof the forehead ; Leo attends upon the right 
eye brow, as Sagitarius does upon the right eye, and Libra up- 
on the right ear ; upon the left eye and eye brow Aquarius and 
Gemini, and Aries the left ear ; Taurus rules in the middle of 
^he forehead, and Capricorn the chin : Scorpio takes upon him 
\he prote<5lion of the nofe ; Virgo claims the precedence of the 
right cheek, and Pifces of the left. And thus the face of man 
is cantoned out among the Signs and Planets ; which being 
carefully attended to, will fufficiently inform the artifls how to 
pafs a judgment ; For, according to the Sign or Planet ruling, 
foalfo is the judgment to be of the part.,ruled, which allthoie 
that have underltanding know eafily how to apply. 



ARJSTOTLE^s MASTER PIECE. bX 

la the judgment that is to be made from phyfiognomy, there 
is a great difterence betwixt a man and a woman, becaufe, in 
refpe(5l of the whole compofition, men more fully comprehend it 
than women do, as will appear in the following fedion : There- 
fore the judgments we pafs properly concern a man, as compre- 
hending the whole ipecies, and but improperly the woman, as a 
|Virt thereof, and derived from the man ; and therefore in the 
judgment about the lines and marks of a face, refpe6f (houidbe 
had to the fex ; for when we behold a man whofe face is like 
unto a woman's ; or the face of a woman, who in refpe6l of her 
flefh and blood is like unto a man, the fame judgment is not paf- 
fed on her, as on a man that is like unto her, in regard that the 
complexion of the woman is much different from that of a man, 
even in thofe refpefts, which are faidto be common ; therefore 
refpecl fhould be had to other parts of the body, as the hands, 
&c. Now in thefe common refpecls, two parts are attributed to 
a man, and a third part to a woman. 

Wherefore, it bemg our intention to give you an exacb ac- 
count according to "the rule of phyfiognomy, of all and every 
part of the members of the body, we will begin with the head, 
as it hath relation only to a man and a woman, and not any o- 
ther creature that the work may be more obvious to every rea- 
der. 

CHAP. II. 
Of the Judgments of 'Phyfiognomy, 
HAIR that hangs down without curling, if it be 
of a fair complexion thin and foft, fignifies a man to be natural- 
- ]y faint hearted, and of a weak body, but of a quiet and harmleft 
difpofition. Hair that is big and thick and fhort denotes a man 
to beof a (lrongconftitution,bold, fee ret, deceitful, and for the 
moft part, un(juiet, and vain, lufling after beauty, and more 
foolifh. than wife, though fortune may favor him. He whofe 
hair is partly curled and partly hanging down, is commonly a 
wife man or a very great fool, or elfe a knave. He whofe hair 
groweth thick on his temples and his brow, one may at firil 
light certainly conclude that fuch a man is by nature fimple, 
vain, luxurious, ludful, credulous, clownilh in his fpeech and 
converfation, and dull in apprehenfion. He whofe hair not only 
curls very much, but buihetli out, and (lands on end, if the hair 
be white, or yellowiflfl, he is by nature proud and bold, dull of 
apprehenfion, foon angry, a lover of vencry, given to lying, 
malicious, and ready to do any mifchief. He whofe hair rifes 
in the corner of his temples, and is alfo grofs and rough, is a 
man highly conceited of himfelf, inclined to malice, but cun- 
ningly conceals it, is very courtly, and a lover of new fafhions. 
He who hath much hair, that is, whofe hair is thick all over his 
head, naturally vain and very luxurious, of a good digedion, eafy 
of belief and How of performance, of av/eak memory, and for 
the mod part unfortunate He whofe hair is of a reddifh com- 
plexion, is, for the mod part, if n.ot always, prcud, deceitful,^ 
detracting, venercus, and full of envy. ' He whofe hair is ex- 
traordinary fair, is for the mod part, a man fit for all praife 
worthy enterprzes^ a lover of honor aodmuch more inclined to 



58 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

do good than evil ; laborious and careful to perform whatever 
is comniited to his care ; fecret in carrying on any bufinefs, and 
fortunate. Hair of a yellowifh color fliews a man to be good 
conditioned, and willing to do any thing, fearful, fhamefaced, 
and weak of body, but flrong in the abilities of the mind, and 
pnore apt to remember than revenge an injury He whofe hair 
is( f a brownifh color, and curleth a little, is a well difpofed man, 
inclined to that which is good, a lover of peace, cleanlinefs and 
good manners. He whofe hair turns gray or hoarv in the time 
of his vouth, is generally given to women, vain, falfe, unflable 
and talkative. 

Note, That whatfbever fignification the hair has in men, it 
hath the fame in women alfo 

Ihus does nvife Nature make our njery hair 
Shenjo all the pajfions that nvithin us iire ; 
If to the bottle -ive are mojl incUn^dy 
Or, if uue fancy mo ft the female kind ; 
If into virtue's paths our minds ive bendy 
Or, if to 'vicious nvays ourfoctjleps tend\ 
A skilful artift can unfold thefame^ 
And from our hair a certain judgment frame : 
But fin ce cur periuoigs are come in fafiion^ 
No room is left for fuch an ohfernjation 
'She forehead that rifeth in a round, fignifies a man liberally 
merry, of good underflanding, and generally inclined to virtue. 
He whofe forehead is flefhy, and the bone of the brow jutting 
cut, and without wrinkles, is a man inclined to fuits of law, con- 
tentious, vain, deceitful, andaddi61ed to follow ill courfes. He 
whofe forehead is very low and little, is of good underftanding, 
magnanimous, but extremely bold and confident, and a great 
pretender to love and honor He whofe forehead feems iharp, 
and pointing up in the corners of his temples, fo that the bone 
feems to jut forth a little, is a man naturally weak and fickle, 
and weak in his intelledlual's. He whofe brow upon the temple 
is full of flefh is a man of a great fpirit, proud, watchful, and of 

f^rofs underflanding. He whofe brow is full of wrinkles, and 
lath as it were a feam coming down in the middle of the fore, 
head, is one tliat is of a great fpirit, a great wit, void of deceit, 
and yet of hard fortune. He who has a full large forehead, and 
a little round, deflitute of hair, or at leaft that lias little on it, is 
bold, malicious, high fpirited, full of choler, and apt to tranf- 
grefs beyond all bounds and yet of a good wit. He w^hofe fore- 
head is long and high, jetting forth, and wJiofe f^ice is figured al- 
mofl fharp and picked towai-ds the chin, is one reafonably honeft, 
but v/eak and fimple, and of hard fortune, 

IVho qj'eix) men ^^vell may on their 'Sices hit, . 
For fume men's crimes are on their foreheads lurii ; 
Bur the rcfolued man outbra=ijes his fate , 
And "will he good a! /hough unfortunate. 
The eye broAvs tluit are much a^Thed whether in man or wo- 
man, and which, by frequent motion, elevate themfelves, fhew 
the person to be proud, high fpirited, vain glorious, bold and 
threatening, a lover of beauty, and indifferently inclined to either 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 59 

good or evil. He whofe eyelids bend downward when he fpeaks 
to another man, or looks upon him, and who has a kind of fkulk- 
ing look, is by nature a penurious wretch, clofe in all his ac- 
tions, of few words, but full of malice. He whofe brows are 
thick, and have but a little hair upon them, is weak and credu- 
lous, very fmcere, fociable, and defirous of good company . He 
whofe eye brows are folded, and the hair thick, and bending 
downwards, is one that is clownifh, heavy, fufpicious, miferable, 
envious, a«d will cheat and cozen you ii he can He whofe eye 
brow hath but fliort hair, and of whitilh color, is fearful, eafy of 
belief, and apt to undertake any ihing. Thofe whofe eye brows 
are black, and the hair of them thin, will do nothing without 
great confideration, is bold and confident of the performance of 
what he undertakes, and is not apt to believe any thing without 
reafon for fo doing. 

Ihus by the eye broTus 'zvomen's minds 'we knoTUy 

JFhether thef re "white or blacky or quick orjloiio: 

And 'whether they'll be curjed or be klnd^ 

By looking in their eye bronvs '-ve may find. 
If the fpace between the eye brows be of more than ordinary 
diftance, it fhews the perfon to be hard hearted, envious, dole 
and cunning, apprehenfive, greedy of novelties, addicted to cru- 
elties rnore than love But thofe men whofe eye brows are at a 
lefTer diflance, are for the moll: part of a dull underitanding, yet 
fubtle enough in their dealings and of an uncommon boldnefs, 
which is often attended with great felicitv ; but above all, they 
are moft fureand conftant in their friendfhip - 

Great and full eyes either in men or women, fhew the perfon 
to be for the moft part (lothful, bold, envious, a bad concealer of 
fecrets, miferable, vain, given to lying, and yet of a bad mem- 
ory, flow in invention, weak in his intelle6fuals.- and yet very 
conceited of his abilities. He whofe eves are hollow in his head 
and therefore difcerns excellently well at a great diftance, is one 
that is fufpicious, malicious, furious, perverfe in his converfa- 
tion, of an extraordinary memory, bold cruel and falfe, both in 
words and deeds, proud, threatening, vicious, envious, treach- 
erous : But he whofe eyes areas it were ftarting out of his head 
is a fniiple foolifh perfon, ihamelefs, very fervile, and eafy to be 
perfuaded either to vi<:e or virtue. He who looks ftudioully 
with his eyes downwards, is of a malicious nature, very treach- 
erous, unfaithful, envious, miferable, impious towards God, 
and difhoneft towards men. He whofe eyes are fmall, and con- 
veniently round, is balhful and weak, very credulous, liberal to 
others, and even in his converfation. He whofe eyes look on 
a fquint, is deceitful, unjuft, envious, furious, a great liar, and 
as the etie6t of all this, miferable. A wandering eye rolling up 
and down, denotes a v;jin, fimplc man, luftful treacherous. He 
or (he vvhofe'eyes are twinkling, and which move forward or 
backward fticw the perfon to be luxurious, unfaithful, prefump- 
tuous, treacherous, and hard to believe any thing that isfpoken. 
If a perlon has any greennefs mingled in the white of his eyes,fucli 
is commonly lilly and often very falfe and deceitful unkind to his 
friends, a great concealer of his own fecrets, and very choleric. 



«0 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

Thofe whofe eyes roil up and down, or thofe whofeldomiiiovf 
their eyes, but when tliey do, draw them inwardly, and falten 
them uponfome objefl:, luch are by their inclinations very malic- 
ious, vain glorious, llothful, unfaithful, envious, falfe and con- 
tentious. They whofe eyes are addicted to blood fhot, are nat- 
urally choleric, proud, difdainful, cruel, fhameful, perfidious, 
and much inclined to fuperftition. They who have eyes like 
oxen are perfons of good nutriment, but of a weak memory, 
dull underftanding, and filly in their converfation : But they 
whofe eyes are neither too little nor too big, and inclined to a 
black, do fi^nify a man mild, peacable, honeft, witty, and of good 
imderftandmg : and one that, when need requires is ferviceable 
to his friends 

1 bus from the eyes 'iisefenfral things may fee y 
By nature's art of fhyfiognomy, 
7hat no man farce can make a look aivry. 
But ive thereby fome fecret (ymptoms may 
D'lfcern of his intention^ amifo'efee 
Unto rjjhich paths his Jleps d'lrettedhe \ 
And this ?nay teach its, goodn^fs more to prize. 
For 'where one' s good, there's t~weniy otherivift, 
A long and thin nofe denotes a man bold, curious, angry weak 
and credulous : eafy to be perfuaded either to good or evil A 
long nofe and extendeci, its tip bending downwards fhews tlie 
person to be wife, difcreet, officious, honeft, and faithful, and 
who will not eafily be overreached, A bottle nofe denotes a 
man to be impetuous in the obtaining hisdefires, vain, falfe lux- 
urious, weak, credulous. A nofe broader in the middle and lefs 
towards the end, denotes a vain talkative perfon, a liar and one 
of hard fortune. He who liath a long and great nofe, is an admir- 
er of the fair fex, well accomplifiied for the wars ot ^ enus, but 
ignorant of any thing that is good ; alliduous in obtaining what 
he defires ; and though very ignorant, would fain be thought 
very knowing. A nofe fharp on the tip of it, and neither too 
long nor too iiiort. too thick nor too thin, denotes the perfon, if 
a man, to be of a fretful difpofition, always pining and peevilh ; 
and if a woman, a fcold, contentious. v\eQded to her own humor ; 
and if married, a plac^ue to her husband. A nofe very round at 
the end of it, and having but little noftrils, Ihews the perfon to 
be munificent and liberal, true tohistruft, but credulous, proud, 
and vain. A nofe very long and thin at the end of it, and fome- 
times round, fignifies one bold in his difcoiirfe, honed in his 
dealings, patient in receiving, and flow in offering injuries, but 
yfet privately malicious. He whofe nofe is naturally more red 
than any other part of his face is denoted to be covetous, luxij-- 
rious, and an enemy to goodnefs. A nofe that turns up again *^ 
and is long and full on the tip of it, fhews the perfon to be bold, 
covetous, envious, a liar, and deceiver, 'vain jjlorious, conten- 
tious, and unfortunate. He whoie nole rifeth high in the mid- 
dle, is prudent, politic, courageous, honorable in his aflions and 
true to his word- A nofe big at the end Hiews a perfon to be of 
a^eaceful difpofition, indufhious, faithful, and of a good under- 
(landing. A veiT wide nofe wHth wide noilriks, denotes a man 



ARlSTOTLE^'s MASTER PIECE. 61 

full of apprehenfion, and inclined more to fimplicity than wif- 
dom, and withal contentious, vain glorious, and a liar. 
Thus from the m>fs our phyjiognomijl 
Canjmell men's inclinations ij njue lifi ; 
Ana from its color and its make, 
Of qjice and virtue a fur^vey can taks. 
When the noftrils are clofe and thin, they denote a nian to 
have but little tefticles, and to be very delirous of the enjoy- 
nient of women, but moded in his converfation. But he whofe 
noftrils are great and wide is ufnally well imng, and luftful ; but 
of an envious, bold, and treacherous difpoiition ; and though 
dull of underftanding, yet confident. 

Ihiis thofe ivho chiefly mind the brutal part. 
May learn to choofe a htfflmnd by this art- 
A great wide rnouth iliev/s a man to be bold, Vvarlike fname- 
lefs, Itout, a great liar, talkative, and a great eater, but duil as to 
his intellects. A little mouth (hews tlie perfon to be of a quick 
and pacific temper, fomewhat fearful, but faithful, fecret modcft, 
bountiful, and a little eater. He whofe mouth fmells of a bad 
breath, is one of a corrupted liver or lun.':rs, is ofren times vain, 
wanton, deceitful, of indii^erent intellects, envious, covetous, 
and a promife breaker. He that has a fvvect breath is the con- 
tvary. 

lhusfro?n the mouth itfclf i.ve likc-vjifefe 
irhatfigns of good and had may gathered be ; 
For let the ivind hloTv eaft, ivejf, north y or fouth. 
Both good and bad proceed out -of the inowh. 
The lips when they are very big and blubbering, fliew a per- 
fon to be credulous, foolilh, dull and llupid, and apt tabe -entic- 
"€d to any thing. Lips of a ditferent fize, denote a pcrfbn to be 
difcreet,' fecret, judicious of a good wit, but ibmewhat hafly. 
To have lips well colored, and more thin than tlvick, il^ews a 
perfon to be good humored, and more eaHly perfuaded to do 
good than evil. To have one lip bigger than the oilier, Ihews 
variety of fortunes, denotes a dull liug'fh temper, and an indif- 
ferent underftanding. 

Ihe lips iheyfo much dote on for a kifs^ 
Oft tell fond lo-jers njihe?i they do amifs. 
When the teeth are fmall, and but weak in perfoj-ming their 
office, and efpecially if they are (liort and few, tho' the party be 
of a \\^'ak conftirution, yet they denote him to be of a meekdif- 
polition, honeft, faithful, and fecret, in Vv-harfoever he isentruft- 
ed with. '1 o have lome teetli longer and fome Ihorter than oth- 
ers, denote a perfon to be of a good apprehenfion, but bold, dif- 
dainfal, envious and proud, 'lo hav-e teeth vei^y long, and 
growing ftiarp towards the end, if they are long in cliewing, and 
. thin, denotes the perfon to be envious, j.^luttenous, bold, ihame- 
P lefs, unfaithful, and fuipicious. When the teeth look very 
brown or yellow ifti, \\ hether tliey be long or ftiort, it IhevvS the 
perfon to be of a lui'picious temper, envious, deceitful, and tur- 
bulent To have teeth ftrong andclofe to^ edier W ews the per- 
fo-n to be of a long life, a delirer of novelties, and thingsthat are 
fit-.r and beautiful, but ot an high fp^rit, and one that will have 



02 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

his liumor in all things : he loves to hear news, and aftenvards 
lo repeat it and is apt ^o entertain any thing in his own behalf, 
i o have teeth thi,n and weak fhews a' weak, feeble man, one of 
fl'.ort life, and of a weak auprehenfion ; butchafte, Shamefaced, 
tractable, and lioneft. 

Tbusfro?}i the teeth the learned can portend 
Whether man' s Jieps to I'ice or rjirtue bend. 
A tongue too fwift in Ipeech, fhews a man to be downright 
foolirti, or at befi but a very vain wit. A itammering tongue, 
or one that (himbles in the mouth, lignifies a man of a weak un- 
dcrflanding, of a wavering mind, quickly in a rage, and foon 
pacified. A tliick and rough tongue denotes a man to be ap- 
prehenfiv.e, liibtle and full ot compliyients, yet vain and deceit- 
ful, treacherous, and prone to impiety. A thin tongue Ihewsa 
man of wifdom and found judgment : very ingenious, and of 
an affable diipofition, yet lometimes timorous^and too credu- 
lous. 

No 'icondet ^tis that from ?nen' s fpeech ^vefie 
JFhether they Tvifey or nvhethcr toolijh be ; 
But from a fdent tongue our authors tell 
Thefecref pajlions ivitb'in men that d-ivelL 
A great and full voice in either fex, (hew them to be of a great 
fpirit, confident, proud and wilful. A f^iint or weak voice, 
ihews a pcrfon of a good underllanding, niiiTble fancy, a little 
eater, but weak of body and timorous. A loud and ihriil voice 
denotes one lagacious and ingenio.us, but capricious, vainglori- 
ous, and weak, too creduUTus. A -ftrong voice w^hcn a man 
iings, denotes a llrong conltitutlon, a good underltanding, in- 
genious, amorous /\ weak and trembling voice, denotes one 
to be envious, fufpicious, How in bufinefs, and fearful. A loud, 
Ihrill and unpleafant voice, fignihes one bold and valiant, but 
quarrelfome, iniurious> and wedded to his own humor. A 
rough and hoarfe voice, decliires one to be a dull and heavy 
perion of nuich guts and little brains. Full and yet mild voi^^e, 
and plcafing to the hearer, (hews a perfon to be quiet and peace- 
able, thrifty and fccret, not prone to anger. A voice begin- 
ning low or in the bafs, ;ind ending high in the treble, denotes 
a perfon to be violent, angry, bold, fecure. 

Thus by our i^oice 'tis to an a^tijl kno^rvn 
Unto-ivhat ^^irfue or to ivhat vicenveWe fron£ : 
And be that of a good 'wife 'will mgke choice , 
May choofe her by obfer'oing of her 'voice. 
A thick and full chin," abounding with fle(h, fhews a m.an in- 
clined to peacQ, h^nelt, but l]o;v '\Vi invention, and eafy to be 
drawn to good or evil. A picked chin, reafpnably full of flefli, 
Ihews a good underflanding, a high fpirit, and laudable conver^ 
Jation. A double chin, (liews ^ peaceable difpofition, but dull 
apprehenfion, vain, credulous, and fecret in his actions A 
crooked chin bending upwards, and picked for w?.nt of flcfn, i^, 
according to nature, a very bad man, proud, iniprudenr, envi- 
ous, threatening, deceitful/prone to anger and treachery, and a 
great thief. 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 65 

^Ihus^from the forehead to the chin 'voe^'ve/bevjn 
llouc mankind's inclinations may be knouun ; 
from '~U)hich th' ohfernjing raaderjlill may find 
IWre more to e--jil^ thon to good irulin^d. 
Young men ufiiaiiy have hair be^in to grow upon their cliins 
ac 15 years of age, aiidromecimes looner. Thefe hairs proceed 
from tiie lliperriiiiry of heat, the fumes wh.ereof a'cend to their 
chins, like fmoke to the funnel of a chimney ; and becaufe it can 
find no open paiia^e,by which it may afcend higher, it vents it~ 
ielf in hairs which are called the beard- There are few women 
that hj/ve hair on their cheeks, and the reafon is, thofe humors 
v/hich caufe hair to gr0w on the cheeks of a man, are evacuat- 
ed by v/omen in their monthly courfes, which they have more 
or lefs. according to the heat or coolnefs of tlie conititution ; yet 
fometimes women of a hot conlHtution have hair on their cheeks 
bur more commonly on their lips or near theirmouths, where the 
heat mod aboundeth ; And fuch women are mmch addicted fo 
the company of men, and of a ftrong and manly conftitution. 
A woman who hath little hair on her cheeks, or about her 
ri.cuth and lips, is of a good complexion, v/eak conititution, 
iliamefaced, mild and obedient; whereas, a woman of a more 
hot conllitution is otherwife. But in a mun, a beard well com- 
pofed and thick of hair fignifies him good natured, honeft, lov- 
ing, fociable and full of humanity ; on the contrary, he that 
hath little beard, is, for the moll part, proud, pining, peevifh, 
and unfociabie. They who have no beards, have always fhriii 
and flrange fqueaking voices, are of a weak conititution, as is ap- 
parent in ihe cafe cf eunuchs, who, after they are deprived of 
their virility, are transformed from, the nature of men into the 
couditiDn of women. 

Of men and 'woyneri s beards 1 mis^htfciy more^ 
But prudence bids me this difcourfe giue o'er<, 
Greatand thick ears are certain ligns of a foolifh perfon, of 
a bad memory, and worfe of underflanding ; but fmall, thin 
cars, fhew a perfon to be of good wit, grave, lecret, thrifty, mod- 
cfl; of good memory, and willing to iervc his friend. Ears 
longer than ordinary, fignify a bold man^ uncivil, vain, foolifh, 
ef fmall induftry, but a great flomxach. 

Who his jujl praife univilllngty does hear, 
Shenvs a good life, as ivcll as a good ear. 
A face apt to fweat on every motion, (hev/s the perfon to be of 
a hot conftitution, vain, luxurious, of a good ftomach, but bad 
underftanding and v/orfeconverfation. A very He (hy face de- 
notes a fearful difpofition, am.erry heart, bountiful anddifcreet 
eafy to be inti eated, and apt to believe any thing. A lean face, 
denotes a good underlfanding, but fomewhat capricious and dif- 
dainful in his cohverfation. A little round face (hews a perfon 
to be fimple, fearful, of a bad m.emory, and a clownish difpofi- 
tion. A plump face and full of carbuncles, (hev/s a man to be 
a .^reat drinker, vain and darelng. A face red and high colored 
.'iicvs a man to be choleric, and not eafily pacified, A loni^and 
lean face (liews one to be bold in fpeech and aflion, but fooli'h, 
aoarrelibme, proud and injuricus, A f^TC f:very :v^y of a due 



64 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

proportion, denotes an ingenuous, perfon fit for any thing, and 
vveil inclined. A broad, full, fat face, fhews a dull heavy conlli- 
tution, and that for one virtue has. three vices. A plain flat face 
without any rifing, flievvs a perfon to be very wife, loving and 
courtly, faithful to his friend, and patient irt adverfity. A face 
finking down a little, with creafes in it, inclining ta4eanners de- 
notes a perfon to be laborious, but envious, deceitful, falfe, 
quarrellofne, vain, filly, clowniih. A face of ahandfome propor- 
tion, and mere inclined to fat than 1-ean, fhews a perfon jult Ih 
his adlions, true to liis word, civil, refpecf ful, and of an extraor- 
dinary memory. A crooked face, long and lean denotes a man 
endued with as bad qualities, as the face is with ill features. A 
face broad about the brows, and Ibarper and lefs towards the 
chin, fhews a man fimple and foolifli, vain,, envious, deceitful 
and quarrelfome. A face well colored, full of good features, of 
an exa6l fymmetry and juft proportion, is commonly the index 
of a fairer mind, and thews the perfon to be well difpofed ; but 
yet virtue is not fo impregnabl)^ feated there, but that by ftrong 
temptation, efpecially of the fairfex, it may be fupplanted and 
i)vercome by vice. A pale complexion, fKews the perfon not 
only to be fickle, but malicious, treacherous, proud, and ex- 
tremely unfaithful. A face well colored fhews the perfon to be 
of a praifeworthy difpofition, found complexion, ealy of belief^ 
refpectful to his friend, ready to do a courtefy, and very eafy to 
fee drawn to any thing. 

Thtisphyfiog'nomy r^adethin each face 
But ^ce or virtue nx)e''re moft prone t' embrace .V 
For in man'' s face there hardly is a Vfne 
But of feme innjoard paffion Uis njtgn : 
And he that reads thisfedion o'er may find 
Ihe fair eft face hath ft til the clear eft mind. 
A great head and round withal, denotes a perfon to be fecret, 
ingenious, laborious, conffant andhoneft 1 he head whofe gul- 
let flands forth, and inclines towards the earth, fignifiesa perfon 
thrifty, wife, peaceable, fecret, of a retired temper, and conffant 
in the management of his affairs A long head and face, and 
great withal, denotes a vain, foolifh and idle perfon, credulous 
.nd envious. To have one's head alway ihaking and moving 
rom fide to fide, denotes a (hallow, w eak, unftable perfon, giv- 
#in to lying, a great talker, and prodigal in all his fortunes. A 
big head and broad face, fhews a man to be courageous, a great 
hunter after women, fuipicious, bold, ihamelefs. A verv big 
head, but not fo proportionate to the body, and a fhort neck and 
gullet, denotes a man of apprehenfion, wife ingenious, of a 
found judgment, faithful, true ajid courteous to afl. He is weak, 
yet apt to learn, but unfortunate in his actions- And fo much 
fn all fufiice with refpe6l to judgment from the head and face. 
CHAP. III. 
Of Judgment drauun from fe'vernl Parts of Man's Body, &c»^ 

IN The body of a man, the head and face are the prin- 
cipal parts, being the index which heaven has laid o^^en to eve- 
r^ one's view, to make a judgment therefrom, therefore I have 
^jeen the larger in my judgment from the feveral parts thereof 



I 



f; 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. Gj 

But as to the other parts not fo obvious to the eyes, I (hall be 
much more brief ; yet I would proceed in order. 

Tlie throat, if it be white, whether it be fat or lean, Oiews a 
man to be vainglorioars, timorous, wanton and much fubje6l to 
ch.olar. If the throat be fo thin and lean that the veins appear, 
it fhews a man to be weak, (low, and of a dull and heavy con- 
flitution. 

A long neck fliews one to have a long and (lender foot, and 
that he is (tiffand inflexible. A ft.ort "neck Ihews one to be 
witty and ingenious, but deceitful and incohftant, and a great 
Ip '/er of peace and quietnefs. 

A lean (lioulder bone ngnifies a man to be weak, timorous, 
peaceful, notlaborious, and yet fit for any employment. Larg*-. 
(houlder bones denote a (Irono; man, faithful, but unfortunate * 
fomewhat dull of underflanding, laborious, contented, a great 
eater and drinker. He whofe (lioulder bone feems to be fmooth, 
is modeil and temperate. He whofe (lioulder bone bends and 1*5 
crooked inwardly, is commonly a dull perfon and deceitful. 

Long arms hanging down, and touching the knees, denote a 
man liberal, but vainglorious, proud and inconftant- He 
whofe arms are very (hort in refpeft to his body is a man of high 
and crallantfpirit, and of a graceful temper. He whofe* arms 
are full of bones, linews and fte(h, is a great defirer of novelties, 
credulous and apt to believe every thing. He whofe arms arc 
very hairy, whetlier they be lean or fat, is for the moft part n 
luxurious perfon, v/eak in body and mind, very fufpicious and 
malicious. He whofe arms have no hair on them at all, is of a 
weak judgment, angry, vain, wanton, creduloLis, a deceiver, 
and very apt to betraV his dearefl friends. 

' CHAP. IV. 
OfPalniijIiy.peujlng the ^o-rious Judgmsnts dratvn from the 
ha.nd 
BEING engaged, in this third part, to (licw what 
judgments may be drawn, according to phyfiognomy, from the 
feveral parts of the body, and commg in order to (peak of the 
liands, it has put mc under the neceiTity of faying fomething a- 
bout pahnifiry, wli'ch is ajudgmeat made of tlie conditions. In- 
clinations, and fortunes of men and women, from the various 
lines and characters nature has imprinted in their hands,, which 
are ahuoft as various as the hands that have them. 

The reader fhould remember that one of thefe lines of the 
hand, and which indeed i? reckoned the principal is called the 
line of life ; this line inclofcs the thumb feparatingit from the 
hoUow of the hand The next to it called the natural line, 
tukes its beginning from tr.e riiin?; of the fore finger, near the 
line of life, and reaches to the table line, and general! v* makes a 
triangle. The table line comnienly called the line ot fortune,, 
regias under the little finger, and ends near the middle finger. 
'] he girdle of Venus, v/hlch is another line fo called begins near 
the firrt joint of the little finger, and end^ betv/een the fore nn- 
<^r and the middle finger. Tne line or death is that which 
ainly appears in acounter line to that of life, and is called the 
.'.er Hne, ending ufually ^. ithe oth-i'" -^ads ; for when the liire 



(i^ ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

of life is ended, death comes, and it can go no farther. There 
arc lines in the flelhy parts, as in the bail of the thumb, called 
the Mount of. Venus : under each bf the fingers are alfo mounts, 
^ach governed by feveral planets ; and the hollow of. the hand 
is called the Plain of Mars. Thus, 

The thumb ^ve to dame Fenus^ rule commity 

"Jfinje the fore finger f'i-v ays as he thinks fit : 

Old Saturn does the ?juddle finger guide ; 

O'er the ring finger Sol does jlillprefide ; 

The Qutfide drauun^ pale Cynthia does dired ; 

And unto the holloiv Mars does muchinjped ; 

The little finger does to Merc'ryfcdly 

Which is the nimblcfi plannet of them all 
I proceed to give judgment from the fever:fl lines In PaV- 
miftry the left hand is chiefly to be regarded, becaufe therein 
the lines are mofl vifible, and have the ftridcfl communication 
\rith the heart and brain. In the next place, obferv^e the line 
of life, and if it be fair, extending to its full length, and not 
broken with an intermixture of crofs lines, it ihevvs long life and 
health ; and it is the fame if a double line of hfe appear, a^^ 
there fometimes does. When liars appear in this line, it ligni- 
fies great lofTes and calamities -. if on it there be the figures of 
two G's or a Y, it threatens the perfon with blindnefs ; if it 
wr^ps itfelf about the table line, it promifes wealth and honor 
to be attained by prudence and induftry. If the line be cut 
jagged at the upper end, it denotes much ricknefs ; if this line 
be cut by any lines coming from the Mount of Venus, it de- 
clares the perfon to be unfortunate in love and bufmefs alio,, 
and threatens him with fudden death. A crofs betweea the 
line of life and the table line, (hews the perfon to be very liber- 
al and charitable, and of a noble fpirit. 

The table line, when broad and of a lively color, fliews a. 
healthful conftitution, a quiet contented mind, and a courage- 
ous fpirit ; but if it have croiles towards the little finger, it 
threatens the party with much a.ffli(^l:ian by ficknefj^. If the 
line be double, or divided into three parts at any of the extrem- 
ities, itlhew^s the perfon to be of a generous temper, and a good 
fortune to fupport it ; but if this line be forked at the end, it 
»:h.reatens the perfon (hall fuffer by jealoufie-s, and lofs of riches 
gotten by deceit. If three points fuch as thefi* .*. are found 
in it, they denote the perfca prudent and Liberal, a lover of 
iearnine, arkiof a good temper. If itfpreads towards the fore 
and middle finger, and ends blunt it denotes preferment. 

The middle line has in it often very fio^nificant characters. 
Many fmall li»es between this and the table line threaten tlie 
party with ficknefs, but alfo give him hopes of recovery. A 
half <:rofs branching into this Tine, ihews honor, riches and good 
iiiccefs in all undertakings. A half moon denotes cold and 
watery dillempers ; but a fun or flars promifes profperity and 
riches : This line double, in a woman, fliev.'s flie will have fev- 
eral husbands, but no children- 

If the line of Venus happeftji to be cut or divided near the fore 
iirfgerv, it bhrea'*^'^'' ^ ': ''"^ ':o the part^^y and t1?at it fl-all bcfaj hhn 



ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. ST 

by means of lafcivious women and bad company. Two crofTes" 
on this line, one near the fore finger and the other bending to- 
wards the little finger, fhew the party to be weak, inclined to 
modefty and virtue : and in women generally denotes modefty. 
The liver line, if it be ftraight, and crolTed by other lines, de- 
notes a found judgment, and a piercing underftanding ; but if it 
be winding, crooked and bending outwards, it (hews deceit anA- 
flattery. If it makes a triangle or quadrangle, it (hews one to 
be of a noble defcent, ambitious of honor and promotion. If 
this line and the middle line begin near each other, it denotes a 
man to be weak in judgment, but if a woman, danger by hard 
labor. 

The plane of Mars being the hollow of the hand^ mofl" of the 
Hnes pailing through it, are very fignificant. Being hollow, and 
the lines crooked and diftorted,'it threatens the party to fall by 
enemies. When the lines beginning at the wrilt are long with- 
in the plane reaching to the brawn of the hand, it fhews the per- 
son to be of a hot and fiery fpirit, given to quarreling% If deep 
larre crolfes be in the middle plane, it fhews the party fliall ob- 
tain honor by martial exploits : but if a woman, that fhe ihall 
hive feveral husbands, and eafy labor with her children. 

The line of death is fatal, and threatens with ficknefs and 
fhort life, whea crolfes appear in it. A c'.ouded moon thereia 
threatens a child bed woman with death. A ftar like a comet, 
th.reatens ruin by war, or death by peftilence: But if a bright 
/ un appear therein, it promifes long life and profperity. 

The lines of the wrift being fair, denote good fortune, but if 
broken and crofled the contrary. 

1 bus he that nature richly underftands^, 
May from ea^h I'me imprinted in his hands y 
His future fate and fortune come to knoiv, 
And in ^'k at path it is his feet fh all go : 
Hisfecret inclinations he may fee^ 
Jin a to ivhat ojice hejt-uli addicted he : 
To the end that y ivben he looks into his hand. 
He may upon his guard the better ftand^ 
And turn his luand'ringjleps another ivay 
JVhene'er he finds he does from <viriue (iray^ 
CHAP. II. 
Judgments dra'^vn fro?n the Je^jeral parts of the Body, 

A LARGE and full breaft, (hews a man valiant, 
but proud, foon angry, and hard to deal v\ith. He whofe breafi 
is narrow, rifing a little in the middle, is by the belt rules oi 
phyfiognomy of a clear fpirit, great underltanding, very faith- 
ful, clean both in mind and body, yet foon angry and inclined 
long to keep it. He whofe breafi is fomewhat hairy, is very 
luxurious, and feiviceable to another. He who hath no hairs 
upon his breafi, isam.an weak by nature^ of a flender capacity, 
tlmoro-js, but of a laudable life, and converfation, much retired 
and inclined to peace 

The back of the chine bone, ifthe flefli is hairy and lean, and 
higher than any other part behind, fignifies a man fhamelefs, 
b?if>;v, :?rid ma-iGious. He who^e back is large and fat, is there:- 



6B ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECK 

by denoted to be ftrong and flout, but of a heavy Qifpo/itiOii^ 
vain, flow, and full of deceit. 

He or (he whofe belly is fofi all over, is weak, liiflfiilj and 
fearful, of good underltanding, an excellent invention, a little 
eater, of various fortune. He whofe flelh is rough a.nd hard, i& 
ofaitrong conftitution, very bold, but proud, vain, and of a 
cruel temper. He whofe skin is fmooth, fat and white, U cu- 
rious, vainglorious, timorous, malicious. 

A thigh full of ftrong briftly hair inclined to curl, ligniiies 
one luftful, and fit for copulation ; thighs with little hair, and 
that foft, (hews the perfon to be chafte, having no great dQliic 
to veneral plealures, and will have but few children 

The legs of both men and women have a fleihy fubfrance be • 
hind called calves ; now a great calf, and large bone, and hairy 
denotes the perfon to be ftrong, bold, dull in underftanding. How 
in buiinefs, mclined to procreation, and for the moft pare, for- 
timate. Little legs and little hair on them, (hew the perfon to 
i)e weak, fearful, of a quick underftanding, and neither luxuri- 
ous at bed or board. He whofe legs do much abound vv'ith hair, 
is luftful, luxurious, flrong but fickle, and abounding with ill 
humors. 

The feet of either men or women, if broad and thick with flefli 
and long in figure, efpecially if the Ikin feels hard, of a (trong 
conftitution, but of weak intellects. But feet that are thin and 
lean, and foft, (hew a weak body, but a ftrong underftanding, 
and excellent wit. 

The (oles of the feet do adminifter as plain and evident figns, 
to know the difpofition and conftitution by, as the palms ot ilie 
hands, being as full of lines, by which all the fortunes or misfor- 
tunes of man or woman may be known, and their inclinations 
appear. But this in general we may take notice of, that many 
long lines and ftrokes do prefage many afflidions, and a very 
Iroublefbme life, attended with much grief, care and poverty. 
But fhort lines, if they are thick and full of crofs lines, are yet 
worfe in every degree. Thofe the fkin of whofe foles are very 
thick, are generally ftrong and venturous ; whereas, thofe the 
the fkin of whbfe foles are thin, arc generally weak and timor- 
ous 

I fhall now, having given an account of what judgments may 
be formed from the feveral parts of the body, before 1 conclude, 
give an account of what may be drawn by the rules of Phyfisgn™ 
, ^jmy, from things extraneous, which are found upon many, and 
v*' hich indeed to them are parts of the boby, but are fo far from 
being necelfary parts, that they are the detorniity and burden of 
it, and fpeak of the habits of the body as they are diltinguillied 
perfons. 

1 . 0/ crooked and deforrnid pc r/ons , 
A CROOKED breaft or fhoulder, or the exuber- 
ance of flefh in the body either of man or woman, iignines the 
perfon to be extremely parfimonious, aad ingenious, and of 
great underftanding, buf very covetous, deceitful, malicious^ 
and of a bad memory ; either extremely virtuous or viciouj, 
kldora in a medium, But if the perfon deformed hath an e-> 



ARISTOTLE* s MASTER PIECE.. 69 

crefTence on his bread, inftead of the back, he is for the mofi 
part of a double heart, and very mifchievous. 
II. Ofthedi'vers Manners of goings and particular pojiures both 
of Men and W'omen . 

HE or fhe that goes (lowly, making great fteps as 
they go, are generally perfons of bad memory, dull of appre- 
henfion, given to loitering, and (low of belief. He who goes 
apace, and makes (hort fteps, is mod fuccefsfiil in all his ! under- 
takings, fwift in his imaginations, and humble in the difpofition 
of his affairs. He who makes wide and uneven (teps, and fide 
lon^Msoneof a greedy fordid nature, fubtle, malicious, and 
wills to do evil. 

III. Of the Gait or Motion in Men or Women. 

EVERY man and woman hath a certain gait or 
motion. For a man to be (baking his head, or ufing any light 
motion with his hands or feet, whether he (lands, (its, or fpeaks, 
iS fuperfluous, unnccelfary, and unhandfome : and fuch, by the 
rules of phyfiognomy are vain, unwife, unchafte, detra(5iors, un- 
liable and unfaithful. He or (he who have little motion when 
difcourfing with any one, is for the mod part, wife, well bred, 
frugal, faithful induftrious and fit for any employment. He 
whofe pofture is forwards, and backwards, mimical, is thereby 
denoted to be a vain, fdly perfon, dull of wit, aad very malic- 
ious. He whofe motion is lame and limping, or otherwife im- 
perfe<5l, or that counterfeits an imperfe<rtion, is denoted to be 
envious, malicious, falfe and defraying. 

IV. Judgments dra^wfi from the Jlature of a man. 

PHYSIOGNOMY draws alio feveral judgments 
from the dature of a man ; fuch as, If a man be draight and up- 
right, inclined rather to leannefs than fat it (hews him to be 
bold, cruel, proud, clamorous, hard topleafe and harder to be 
reconciled when difpleafed, very frugal, deceitful and malic- 
ious. 1 o be of a tall dature and corpulent with it, denotes him 
to be not only handfome, but valiant alfo ; although of no ex» 
traordinary underdanding, and which is word of all, ungrateful. 
He who is extremely tall, and very lean and thin, is a projeiSt- 
ing man, that defigns no good to himfelf, and fufpe6ts every 
one to be as bad as himfelf, importunate to obtain what he de- 
fires, and extremely wedded to his own humors. He who is 
thick and (hort, is vain, envious, fufpicious, (hallow of appre- 
henfion, eafy of belief, and long before he forgets an injury. 
He who is lean and (hort, but upright, is, by the rules of phyii- 
ognomy, wife and ingenuous, bold and confident, of a good un- 
derdanding, but of a deceitful heart. He who doops as he goes 
not by age but cudom, is laborious, a retainer of fecrets, but 
very incredulous. He that goes with his belly dretching forth, 
is forcible, merry, and eafy to beperfuaded. 

V. General Obfer^>ations ^worthy of Note. 

WHEN you rind a red man to be faithful, a tall 
man to be wife, a fat man to be fwift on foot, a lean man to fee 
a fool, a handfome man not proud, a po®r man not envious, a 
whitely man not wife, one that talks through the nofe to fpeak 
v/ithout fnuffing, a knave no liar, an upright man not to walk 



70 ARISTOTLE'S MASTER PIECE. 

ftrai^ht, one that dwells when he fpeaLs not crafty and cu'caii:- 
venting ; a man ofa hot conlti.ution noi luiliai, onu tliU.c.vvinkb 
on another with his eyes, not falfe and deceitful, cue thi^t knows 
how to fniifflehis cards, ignorant how to dc'j.1 chcia ; a. rich man 
prodigal, a failor and hangman pitiful, a poor man to build 
churches, a higlef not to be a iiar and a piallerof his ware, a 
buyer net to find fault with and undervalue that w hlch he would 
willingly buy, a quack docitor to have a good conlcience, a bail- 
ifFor catchpole not to be a mercilefs villain, an hofters not to o- 
ver reckon you, and an ufurer to be charitable ; then lay you 
have found a prodigy, or men a*5ting contrary to the courle of 
their nature . 



aNI> O? Till hlA'^TZK PI EC If. 



FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 



Bdifig choice and appro^z^ed Rerriedies for the fe^aeral dijlempcrs in^ 

cident to the humtm Body. 

A poi,vder for the Epilepfy or falling Jtcknefs. 

TAKE of opponax, cnide antimony, dragon's 
blood, cafler, peony feeds, of each an equal quantity, make 
them into ?a fubtle powder, the dofe of half a dram, in black 
cherry water. Before you take it, the ftomach muft be cleanf- 
cd with fome proper vomit, as that of Mynfin<5t's emetic Tartar, 
from four grains to fix. For children, fait of vitriol, from a 
fcruple to half a dram 

A ^jomitfor afwltning in the head. 
Take cream of tartar half a fcruple, caftor two grains, miJf 
-^11 together for a vomit, to be taken at four o'clock in the af- 
ternoon. At night, going to bed, it will be very proper to 
take a dofe of the apopleiiic powder*. 

For /pitting of Blood. 
Take conferva of comfrey, and of hips, of each an ounce and 
a half, conferve of red roles three ounces, dragon's blood a 
dram, fpecies of hyacinth two fcruples, red coral a dram ; mix 
svith the i'yrup of red poppies, and make a foft ele(!:luary ! take 
the quantity of a walnut night and morning. 
A po'wder againjl Vomiting. 
Take crabs eyes, re ^ coral, ivory, of each two drams ; burnt 
iiai't(horn, 1 dram, cinnamon apd red faunders of each half a 
-dram ; make all for a fubtile powder and take half a dram. 
For the Bloody Flux. 
Take a dram of powder [of rhubarb in a fufficient quantity 
of conferve of red rofes, early in the morning, and at night 
take of torrefied or roafled rhubarb half a dram, diafcordiuma 
dram and a half, liquid laudanum cydoaiated a fcruple. Mix 
them and make a bolus. 

For an inflamation of the Lx'v.gs- 
Take curious water 10 ounces, water or red poppies Soun^ 
ces, fyrup of poppies 1 ounce, pearl prepared a dram ; Make a 
julep and take dxfpoonfulsever^' four hours. 
For ijueaknefs in Women. 
After a gentle purge or two, take the following deco6lion, 
viz. a quarter of a pound lignumvithie, faflafras 2. ounces ; boil 
the whole in l^x quarts of water to a gallon : drain and keep it 
for ufe : Take half a pint firft in the morning, failing for two 
hours after ; another at four.of the clock in the afternoon ; And 
a third at going to bed. 

An ointment for the Itch. 
T^ke iiilphur vive, in powder, half an ounce ; oil oftartfy? 
per doliquium a fufficient quantity ; ointment of rofes 4oz, 
make a liniment, to which add a icruple of oil of rhodium to 
aromatife it| strui rub the parts effected with it. 



Y^ FAMILY PHYSICTAf^. 

For Worms in Children. 
Take worm feed half a dram, flower of fiilphur a dram, fiil 
prunella half a dram : mix and make a powder ; give as much 
as will lie upon a filver threepence night and morning, in trea- 
cle or honey. For grown perfons add a Imall quantity of aloe 
rofatum, and fo make them up into pills 3 or 4 of which may 
be taken every morning. 

A Diet Drink for the Vertigo^ or fzvimming of the Head, 
Take fmall ale, and boil it in the leaves of milHetoe of the 
apple tree, roots of male peony and peony flowers ; then put it 
into a veiTel of four gallons, in which hang a ba^ of half a pound 
of peacock's dung, and S drams of cloves bruiled ; drink it as 
a common drink. 

For a loofenefs. 
Take of Venice treacle and diaurordium, of each half a dram, 
in warm ale, water gruel, &c. at night going to bed. 
For feeders in Children. 
Take of crabs' eyes 1 dram, cream of tartar half a dram, 
white fugar candy finely powdered, the weight of both : mix 
them well together, and give as much as will lie upon a filver 
3d. in a fpoonful of barley water or fack whey. 
For itn Headache of longjlanding. 
Take the juice of powder of diftilled water of hog lice, and 
continue the ufe of it. 

For the Gripes in Children. 
Give a drop or two of the oil of annifeed in a fpoonful of 
penada, milk, or any tiling you ihail think proper. 
For an Ague. 
Take tke common bitter drink, without the purgatives % 
quarts fait of wormwood ^oz. faffromadram. After a vomit 
or convenient purge, take half a pint of this three times a day, 
in the morning falling, mid day and at night. 
For the Cholic. 
Take annifeed. fweet fennel, coriander, carraway leeds, 2 
drams each, cummin feed a dram, rafed ginger a fmall quantity 
bruife all in a mortar, and put tliem into a quart of Nantz 
brandy to infufe 3 days, fhaking thebottle 3 or 4 times a day, 
then ftrain it; take S or 3 fpoonfuls in the fit. 

For the palpitation or beating of the Heart, 
Take powder of crab's eyes, burnt hartfhorn, red coral, of 
each a dram, Engliih faffron a fcruple, mix and make pow- 
der. Take a fcruple of it night and morning in a fpoonful of 
barley w^ater, drinking a draught after it 

For a pain in the Jlemach preceding from ivind. 
Take Venice treacle 4 drams, dittany, feeds of ambos dau- 
cus, each fix grains, galangal, cloves, corol, wood of aloes, 
each a fcruple, conferve of rofes 1 oz. conferve of mint half an 
ounce, with fyrup of mint make an ele6luary. Dofe ; the 
quantity of a nutmeg in the morning, fafting. 
Lozenges rejlorati've in Coftfumption 
Take pine nuts prepared two drams and a half, green fuftic 
two drams, fpecies diambrae tw^o fcruples, cinnamon and cloves 
half a dram each, galangal a fcruple, nutmegs two fcruples,^ 



FAMILY PHYSICIAN. 7^ 

white ginger, half a dram. Xilo aloes half a fcrupif> with four 
ounces and a half of fugar ditTolved in rofe water, and of the 
fpecies make a confediion in lozenges. ^ 

Againjl Aches and Pains in the Joints. 
Take powder of camopety sand gentian, of each five drams, 
dried leaves of rue three ounces ; make all into a fine powder 
after due purging, give a dram of this, night and morning, in a 
fpoonful of white wine. 

For Spots Gnd Pifnples inthe Jkin- 
Take black foap two ounces, fulphur vive in powder one 
ounce, tie them in a rag, and hang them in a pint of vinegar for 
the fpace of nine days : then rub and waih the part gently twice 
a day, that is night and morning. 

Purging Pills for the fcur-vy 9 
TakcTofin of julep twenty grains, aromantic pills with gum 
two grains, vitriolated tartar twenty fix grains, oil of juniper 
ten grains, with a fufficient quantity of gum armoniac diirdved 
in vinegar of fquills. Take foiir at a time early in the morning 
fafting two hours after You may take them once a week. 
A dijlilled V/aterfor a confirmed Phthijtc. 
Take leaves of ground ivy five handfuls, fix nutmegs fiiced, 
two pound of the crumbs of wheat bread, three pound of fnails, 
half boiled and iliced into milk, and take it three or four times a 
day, fweetened with fugar and pearl ot rofes. 

A quieting Night draught njohr-^n the Cough is 'violent* 
Take of water of green wheat fix ounces, lyrup or diafcordi- 
um three ounces Mix them, and take two or three fpoonfuls at 
going to bed. 

For Vomiting or Loofenefs. 
Take of Venice treacle one ounce, powder of tormentile roots 
contraycrva, pearl and prepared coral, of each a fufficient quan- 
tity, with the fyrup of dried rofes make an elecl:uary : Take the 
quantity of a walnut every fourth or fifth hour ; drink after it a 
draught of ale or beer, with a crufl: of bread, mace or cinnamon 
boiled in it. 

A dijlilled Water for the Jaundice, 
Take one pound of the roots of En^lifii rhubarb fliced, the 
rinds of four oranges fliced, filings ot fteel one pound, freth 
flrawberries fix pounds, three quarts of white wine : let them 
ftand in infufion for fome time, diililall according to art. Take 
four ounces twice a day, with twenty drops of the fpirit of faf- 
fron. 

For the Rheumatifm. 
Take volatile fait of hartfhorn, volatile fait of amber, two 
drams each, crabs' eyes one ounce, cochineal a fcruple ; mix and 
make a powder. Take half a dram three times a day, or every 
four hours,keeping your bed and fweating upon it. 
For a violent toothache' 
If the teeth be hollow, nothing cures but drawing, but if occa» 
ioned through a defluxion of humors, firfi: take a gentle purge 
and at night when you go to be4 take a grain or two of London 
G 



U FAMILY PAYSICIAN. 

laudanum, which will thicken the humor, (lop the defluxionS 
and confequently remove the pain. 

For Saint Anthony'' s Fire, 

Bleeding premifcd, take frog fpawn water, plantain water, half 
a pint each, fugar of lead two drams ; mix and Ihake the bottle 
till the fait is dilTolved. Dip a linen cloth in this water, and 
bathe the part affected ; it cools wonderfully. 
For the Black Jaundice. 

Take flowers offal armoniac^ diancum, and extra6l of gen- 
tian, of each a dram ; fait amber a fcruple ; gum armoniac dif- 
iblved in vinegar of fquills fuffices ; make a mafs of fmall pills, 
take it three or four mornings and evenings. 

Fg r Jlln king Gums nvith out R at ten nejs . 

Take powder of beft myrrh one ounce : claret wine a pint ; 
after two or three days infufion, wafh your gums and mouth 
with it. 

For the Rheumatifm proceeding from thejcur'vy. 

Take flone horfe dung a pound, white wine three or four 
t]uarts, diftil according to art ; take five or fix ounces twice or 
thrice a day. Some take the infufiononly, but this exceeds it. 
For a con'vulji^oe Cough in Children. 

After a gentle vomit and purge, apply a blifler to the nape of 
the neck ; but if the diftemper be obftinate, cut an illue in the 
neck or arm ; Keep them clofe to a diet drink of fhavings of iv- 
ory, faunders, and fome diuretic ingredients. But if a fpecific, 
you may have Cupmofs in powder every day in boiled milk, and 
the deco(5tionof hylfop, with a little cador and faffron. 
For an inivard bleeding. 

Take leaves of plantain and nettles, of each three handfuls, 
bruife them well, and pour on them fix ounces of plantain wa- 
ter ; make a flrong emulfion, and drink the whole off. 
For a bleeding at the noje. 

Take a dried toad, few it up in a filk bag, and hang it at the pit 
of the fi:omach a confiderable time. This hath performed the 
cure when other medicines have failed- 

For the fame, takb calcanthum rubefaclum, or caput mortu- 
um of vitriol half an ounce, t3oil it in a quart of quick lifne wa- 
ter to a pint, when cold and fettled, fi:ram it. Dip a tint in it, 
and thruflit up the noftril, or you may fnuff it up. 
Poivder againjl Foifon and Pejlilence. 

Take zeodory, euphorbuim, corallina, tormentil, gentian^ 
common dittany, fealed earth, armenian bole, red and white 
coral, fpikenard, mauich, clove jelly, flowers, lelTer centuary, 
red fuanlers, bone of a flag's heart, camphire, of each equal 
parts. Make all into an impalpable powder ; give one dram 
w ith forrel water, or with wine and forrel boiled together^ 



EXPERIENCED MJ13\\ IFE. 

PART I. 
A GUIDE FOR CHILD BEARING WOMEN. 

INTRODUCTION. 



I HAVE given this book the title cf the Complete 
and Experienced Midwife, both becaiile it is chiefly defigned 
forthofe that profefs midwifery, and contains whatever is necef- 
fary for them to know in the practice thereof, and alfo becaufe it 
is the refultof many years experience, and that in themoftdiffi- 
cult cafes, and is therefore the more to be depended upon. " A" 
midwife is the moll necelTary and honorableoffice, being indeed" 
a helper of nature : which therefore makes it necelFary "for her 
to be well acquainted with all the operations of nature in the 
work of generation, and inftruments with which (he works : 
For the that knows not the operations of nature, nor with what 
tools fhe works, »Qie muil needs be at a lofs how to affifl therein. 
And feeing the inftruments of operation both in men and womea 
are thofe things by which mankind is produced, it is very nee- 
elTary that all midwives Ihould be acquainted with tliem, that 
they may the better underftand their bufinefs; and ailift nature 
as there fhall be occafion. The firft thing then necelfary, asin- 
trodu6lory to this treatife, is an A n a t o m i c a L Description 
of thefeveral parts of generation both in men and women : and 
having defi^ned throughout to comprehend much in a little 
room, I fhall avoid all unneceflTary and impertinent matters with 
which book« of this nature are for the vnoft part too much clog- 
ged, and which are more curious than needtul. And though I 
(hould be neceffitated to fpeak plainly, that fo I may be under- 
ftood, yet I (hall do it with that modefty that none fhall have 
need toblufli, unlefs it be from fomething in themfelves, rather 
than from what they fhall find here, having the motto of the 
royal garter for my defencC: which is, *'^Honi fo;* qui maly fen- 
fe \ " or, Evil to him that evil thinks. 
CHAP. I. 
An Anatomical Defcrlftion of the Injlruments of Generation in Man 
and Woman, 
Section J. 
Of the farts of Generation in Man . 
AS The generation of mankind is produced by the 
coition of both fexes, it necelTarily follows that the inftruments 
of generation are of two forts, to wit, male, and female: the 
operations of which are by action and palFion, and herein the a- 
gent is the feed, and the patient blood : v/hence we may eafily 
collect, that the body of man being generated by a6f ion and 
pailion I'e muft needs be fubjeit thereunto during his life* 



7fr EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

Now, fince the inftruments of generation are male and female, 
it will be neceflkry to treat of them both diil:in6\ly that the difcreet 
midwife may be v/ell acquainted with their feveral parts, and 
their various operations, as they contribute to the work, of gen- 
eration. And, in doing this, I fhall give the honor of prece- 
dence to my own fex, and Ipeak firft of the parts of generation 
in man, which Ihall be comprehended under fix particulars, viz. 
The preparing vefTels, the corpus varicofum, the tefticles or 
ilones, the vala deterentia, the feminal vefTels, and the yard, of 
each of which in their order. 

1. The firft are the vafa preparentia, or preparing veflels, 
which are in number four, two veins, and as many arteries ; 
and they are called preparing veflels from their office, which is 
to prepare that matter or fubilance which the ftones turn into 
feed to fit it for the w^ork. Whence you may note, that the liv- 
er is the original of blood, and diflributes it through the body by • 
the veins, and not the heart, as fome have taught. As to the 
original of thefe veins, the right vein proceedetn from the vena 
cava, or great vein, which receives the blood from the liver 
and diftributes it by its branches to all the body; the left is 
from the emiiigent veiri; whirji is one of tlie two main brancnt^ 
of the hollow^ vein pafnng to the reins. As to the arteries, they - 
bolh arife from the great artery, which the Greeks call that 
which is indeed the great trunk and original of all the arteries. 
But I will not trouble you with Greek derivations of words, af- 
fe^ing more to teach you the knowledge of things than w^ords, 

Zi. 'Ihcr.CXt thiPig to be fpoken of is the corpus variofum, and 
this is an interweaving of the veins and arteries which carry the 
vital and natural blood to the ftones to make feed of Thefe 
though at their firfi; defcenfion they keep at a fmall diftance the 
one from the other, yet before they enter the flones they make 
an admirable intermixture of twiftmg th<; one from the other, fo 
that fometimes the veins go into the arteries, and fometimes the 
arteries into the veins ; the fubftance of which is very hard and 
long, not much unlike a pyramid in form, without any ienfible 
hollownefs : The ufe is to make one body of the blood and vital 
fpirits, which they both mix and change' the color of, from red 
to white, fa that the flones may, both have a fit matter to work 
upon, and do their work more eafily ; for which reafon, the in- 
lerweaving reacheth down to the very Hones, and pierceth in 
their fubiiance. 

S, The ftones are tlie third thing to be fpoken of, called alfo 
tefticles : in Latin, lejfes, that is, witnefTes, becaufe they witnei's 
one to be a man. As to thefe 1 need not tell you their number, 
nor where nature has placed them, for that is obvious to the 
eye* 1 heir fubiiance is foft, white and fpongy, full of fmall 
veins and arteries which is the reafon they fwell to fuch a big- 
nefs upon the flowing down of the humor in them. Their form 
is oval ; but moft authors are of opinion that their bignefs is not 
equal, but that the right is the biggeft, the hotted, and breeds 
the bed and the f^rongeft feed. Each of thele flones hath a muf- 
cle, called, cremajhr, which fi^nifies to hold up, becaufe they 
pull lip the fcnes in the a''t orcoition, that fo the veflels being 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 7T 

ijackened, may the better void the feed. Thefe mufcles are 
weakened botnbj^ age and ficknefs ; andthe ftones then hang 
down lower than in youth and health. Thefe flones are of 
great ufe, for they convert the blood and vital fpirits into feed 
for the procreation of man. But this muft not be underllood as 
if they converted all the blood that comes into them into feed, 
for they keep fome for their own nourifliment. But bcfides 
this, they add ftrength and courage to the bodv ; which is ev- 
ident from this, that eunuchs are neither fo hot, ftrong, nor 
valiant, as other men, nor is an ox fo hot or valiant as a bull, 

4. The next in order are the 'vafa deferentia, which are the 
vefTels that carry the feed from theftones to the feminal veUels, 
which is kept there till its expulfion. Thefe are in number 
two, in color white, and in fubflance nervous or finewy ; and 
form a certain hoUownefs which they have in them, are alfo . 
called fpermatic pores, they rife not far from the preparing vef- 
fels ; and when they come into the cavity of the belly, they 
turn back again and pafs into the backfide of the bladder, be- 
tween it and the right gut ; and when they come near the neck 
of the bladder they are joined to the feminal galls, which fome- 
what refemble the cells of an honey comb ; which cells contain 
an oily fubllance, for they draw the fatty fubftance from the 
if^tdi which they empty into the urinal paflage, which is done 
for the moft part in the a(5t of copulation, that fo the thin inter^ 
nal (kin of the yard,fuifers not through the acrimony or (harp- 
nefs of the feed. And when the 'vjfa deferentici has pafled as 
before declared, they fall into the: glandula pojirata which are 
the veffels ordained to keep the feed, and which are next to be 
fpoken of. 

5. The feminal veflTels, called glanJulum fcminaley are certain 
kennels placed between the neck of the bladder, and the right 
gut, compalTing about the 'vafa deferentia, the uretlira, or com^ 
mon pafTage for feed and urine, palling through the midft of it, 
and may properly enough be called the conduit of the yard. 
At the mouth of the urethra, where it meets with the ^^afa de- 
ferential there is a thick fkin whofe office is to hinder tie femin- 
al veflels, which are of a Ipongy nature, from (lieding their feed 
againft their will ; the fkin is very full of pores, and .through 
the heat of the a(5t of copulation the pores open, and fo give paf- 
fage to the feed, which being of a very fubtile fpirit, and efpec- 
ially being moved will pafs thro' the caruncle or fkin as quick- 
filver through leather ; and yet the pores of this (kin are not 
difcernable unlefs in the anatomy of a man, wlio had fome vio- 
lent running in the reins when he died, and then they are con- 
fpicuous, thofe veffels being the proper feat of that difeafe. 

6. The lait of the parts of generation in man to be fpoken of, 
is the yard, which has a principle (hare in the work of genera- 
tion ; and is called Penis, from its hanging without the belly ; 
and itconfifts of fkin, tendons, veins, arteries, fmews and great 
ligaments and is long and round, being ordained by nature both 
for the pafTage for the urine, and for the conveyance of feed 
into the matrix It hath fome parts common with it to the reft 
of the body^iisthe fkin, or the Membratia Carnofa an^J^mt:- 



'^ LXFERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

parts it iuis peculiar to itfelf, as the two nervous bodies, the 
Septum, the Urethra, the Glans, the four uiufcles, and the vel- 
fels. The (kin, vvliich the Latins called Cutisy is full of pores, 
through which the I'weat and fuliginous or footy black vapors 
of the third conco(^Hon (which conco(!:^s the blood into flefh) 
pais out ; thefe pores are very many and thick but hardly vifi- 
blc to the eye ; and when the yard Hands not, it is flaggy ; but 
nhcn itflands, it is flili': The Ikinis very fenfible, becaufe the 
nerves concur to make up its being ; lor the brain gives fenfe 
to the body by the nerves. As to the Camus Membranay or 
the fiefliy fkin, it is fo called, not becaufe its body is flefhy 
Ikin, but becaufe it lies between the flefh and palfeth into oth- 
er parts of ihe body underneath the fat, and fticks clofe to the 
mufcie : but in the yard there is no fat at all, only a few fuper- 
ficial veins and arteries pafs between the former (kin and this, 
which when the yard ilands are viiible to the eye : Thefe are 
the parts conmion both to the yard and the reft of the body. I 
will now (peak of thofe parts of the yard which are peculiar to 
itfelf and to no other parts of the body : and thofe are likew^ife 
fix, as has been already (aid of which it will alfo be neceflTary 
to fpeak particularly : And, 

•, 1. Of the Nervous Bodies : Thefe are two, tho' joined togeth- 
er, and are hard, long and (inewy, they are fpongy within and 
full of black blood ; the fpongy fubltance of the inward part of 
it feem to be woven together like a net, confifiing of innumera- 
ble tvvigs of veins and arteries. The. black blood contained 
therein is very full of fpirits, and the delights or defire . of Ve- 
nus add heat to thefe, which caiifeth the yard to ftand; and 
that is the reafon that both veneral fights and tales will do it. 
Nor need it be ftrange to any, that Venus, being a planet cold 
and moift, fhould add heat to thofe parts, fince by night, as the 
Pfalmi(t teftifies, Pfal. cxxi. 6. Now this hollow, fpongy inter- 
mixture or weaving was fo ordered by nature, on purpofe to 
contain the fpirit of veneral.heat, that the yard may not fall be- 
fore it has done its w^ork. Thefe two fide ligaments of the 
yard, where they are thick and round, arife from the- lower 
partof the. (hare bone, and at the beginning are feparated the 
one from the other, refembling a pair of horns, or the letter Y 
where the Urethra, or common paffage of urine and feed, pafT- 
eth between them. 

2. Thofe nervous bodies of which 1 have fpoken, fo foon as 
iliey come to the joining of the fhare bone, are joined by the 
Scepium Lnchimy which is the fecond internal part to be delrrib- 
ed, which in fubftance is white and nervous, or finewy, and its 
life is to uphold the two fide ligaments and the Urethra. 

3. The third thing in the internal part of the yard is the Ure- 
thra, which is the paflage or channel by which both the feed 
and urine is conveyed out thro' the yard. The fubftance of it 
ir, fmewy, thick, foft and loofe, as the fide ligaments are ; it be- 
gins at the neck of the bladder, and, being joined to it, pafTeth 
to the glands. It has in the beginning of it three holes, oi 
which the largeflof them is in the midlt, which receives the u- 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. T9 

nne into it, the other two are fmaller, by which it receives the 
feed from each feminal veflel. 

4. The yard has four mufcles ; on each fide two : thefe muf- 
cles are inflruments of vokmtary motion, without which no part 
of the body can move itfeif. It confifls of fibrous flefh to make 
its body, of nerves for its fenfe, of veins for its nourifhment, of 
arteries for its vital heat, of a membrane or (kin to knit it to- 
gether, and to difi:inguifh one mufcle from another, and all of 
them from the flelh. ' Of thefe mufcles, as I faid before, the 
yard has two on each fide, and the ufe of them is to erecl: the 
yard, and make it ftand. and therefore they are alfo called ere6l- 
ors . But here you nmft note, that of the two on each fide the 
one is fhorter and thicker than the other ; and thefe are they 
that do eredt the yard, and fo are called erecl:or3 : But the two 
other being longer and fmaller, their office is to dilate the low- 
er part of the Urethra, both for making water, and emitting 
the feed ; upon w^hich account they are called Accelerators. 

5 That which is called the Glands is the extreme part of the 
yard, which is very foft, and of a mod exquifite feeling by rea- 
lon of the thinnefs of the fkin wherewith it is covered : This is 
covered with the Praputmmy or fore fkin, which in fome men 
covers the top of the yard quite cloie, but in others it doth 
not ; which fkin moving up and down in the act of copulation, 
brings pleafure both to man and woman ; this outer fkin is that 
which the Jews were commanded to cut off on the eighth day : 
this Praputium^ or fore fkin, is tied to the glands by a ligament 
or bridle, which is called Franum. 

6. The laft internal part of the yard are the vefTels thereof,, 
veins nerves and arteries. Of thefe fome pafs by the fkin, and 
are vifible to the eye when the yard (lands j others pafs by the 
inwaid part of the yard ; the arteries are wonderfully difperf- 
ed through the bodv of the yard, much exceeding the difper- 
fion of the veins : for the right artery is difperfed to the left 
fide, and the left to the right fide It hath two nerves, the leff- 
er whereof isbeftowed upon the (kin, the greater upon the muf- 
cles and body of the yard. But this much fhall iuffice to be 
faid in defcribing the parts of generation in men : and fhall, 
therefore in the next place, proceed to defcribe thofe of wom- 
en, fb that the indu(trious midwife may know how to help them 
in their extremities. 

Sec lie Defcrib'iTig the Parts of Generation in Women . 
WHATEVER ignorant perfons mav imagine, or fome 
good women think, they are unwilling tnofe private parts 
which nature has given them,^ (hould be expofed, yet it is in this 
cafe abfolutely necelTary ; for I do pofitively affirm, that it is 
impofifible truly to apprehend what a midwife ought to do, if 
thefe parts are not perfeff ly underftood by them, nor do I know 
any reafon they have to be afhamed to fee or hear a particular 
deicription of what God and nature hath given them, fince it is 
not the having thefe parts, but the unlawful ufe of them that 
caufes (hame. 

To proceed then, in this defcription more regularly, I (hall 
fpeak in order of thefe following principal parts 5 Ixt,, Of the 



80 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

Privy PaOage : adly Of the womb : Sdly. Of the Teflicle^, 
or Stones : ithly Of the Spermatic VeflTels 

1ft. Of the Privy Pafifage. Under this head I fliall confider 
tlie fix following parts. 

1. 1 he lips, which are vifible to the eye, and are defigned by 
nature as a cover to the Fijfura Magna, or great orifice ; thefe 
are framed of the body, and have pretty Itorc of fpongy fat : 
and their ufe is to keep the internal parts from cold and duft. 
Thefe are the only things that are obvious to the fight, the reft 
are concealed, and cannot be feen, unlefs the two lips are 
flretched afunder, and the entry of the privities opened. 

St. When the lips are fevered, the next thing that appears is 
the Nymphae or wings ; thev are formed of (oft and fpongy 
flefh, and are in form and color like the comb of a cock. 

S. In the uppermoft part, juft above the urinary pafTage, may 
be obferved the Clitoris, which is a finewy and hard body, full 
of fpongy and black matter within, like the fide ligament of the 
yard ; reprefenting in form the j^afd of a man, andfuffers erec- 
tion and falling as a man's yard, in prof)ortion to the defire a wo- 
man hath in copulation ; and this alfo is that which gives a wo- 
man delight in copulation ; for without this a woman hath nei- 
ther a defire to copulation, and dehght in it, nor can conceive 
by it. And I have heard that fome women have had their Cli- 
toris fo long, that they have abufed other wx)men therewith ; 
nay, fome have gone fo far as to fay, that tnofe perfons that 
have been reported to be Hermaphrodites, as having the geni- 
tals both of men and women, are only fuch women in whom the 
Clitoris hangs out externally, refembling the form of a yard. 
But though I will not be politive in that, yet it is certain, that 
the larger the Clitoris is in any woman the more luftful ffce is. 

4. Under the Clitoris, and above the neck, appears the Ori- 
fice, or urinary pafTage, which is much larger in women than 
men, and caufes their water to come from them in a great ftream. 
On both fides the urinary pafTage may be feen two imall mem- 
braneous appendices, a littie broader above than below, iifuing 
fortii of the inward parts of the great lips, immediately under 
the Clitoris ; the uf^e whereof is to cover the orifice of the urine, 
and defend the bladder from the cold air : So that when a wo- 
man pifTeth, (he contrails herfelf fo, that (hecondu^s out the u- 
rine without fuflering it to fpread along the privities, and often 
without fo much as wetting the lips ; and therefore thefe fmall 
membraneous wings are called the Nymphae, becaufe they govern 
the woman's water. Some women have them fo great and long, 
that they have been necefiitated to cut off fo much as has ex- 
ceeded and grew without the lips. 

5. Near this are four Caruncles, or fleftiy knobs, commonly 
called Caruncles Myrtiformes : thefe are placed, on each (ide 
two, and a fmall one above, juft under the urinary paftage, and 
in virgins are reddifh, plump and round, but hang flagging when 
virginity is loft : In virgins they are joined together by a thin - 
and finewy (kin or membrane, which is called the Hymen, and 
keeps them in fubje(!:tion, and makes them refemble a kind of 
T^{^ bud half blown. This difpofition of the Caruncles is the 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 81 

only certain mark of virginity, it being in vain to fearch for it 
elfe v/here, or hope to be informed of it in any other way : and 
'tis from the prefling and bruifing the Caruncles, and forcmg and 
breaking the little membranes (which is done by the yard in 
the firft a(5l of copulation) that there happens an eifufion of 
blood ; after which they remain feparated, and never recover 
their firfl: figure, but become more and more flat as the a<fts of 
copulation are increafed ; and in thofe that have children they 
are almofl^ totally defaced, by reafon of the great diftention 
thefe parts fufterin time of their labor. Their ufe is to ftraight- 
en the neck of the womb, to hinder the cold air from incom- 
moding it, and likewife to increafe mutual pleaiure in the 3.6i of 
coition : for the Caruncles being then extremely fwcUed, and 
filled with blood and fpirits, they clofe with more pleafure upon 
the yard of a man, whereby the woman is much more de- 
lighted. What I have faid of the eifufion of blood which hap- 
pens in the firfl a6l of copulation, though when it happens it is 
an undoubted fign of virginity, (hewing the Caruncles Myrti- 
formes have never been preffedtill then ; yet when there hap- 
pens no blood, it is not always a lign that virginity is loft before ; 
tor the Hymen may be broken without copulation by the de- 
nu.'l.'Oa Qi fharp humors, which fometimes happens to young 
virgins, becaufejn them it is thineft j It is alfp deilC uy tlie urv* 
fkilful applying of beflaries to provoke the terms, &c. But 
thefe things happen _fo rarely, that thofe virgins do thereby 
bring thenifeives under a juft fufpicion. 

6. There is next to be fpoken of, the neck of the womb, 
which is nothing elfe but the diftance between the privy pafTage 
and the mouth of the womb, into which the man's yard enters 
in the a6t of copulation ; and in women of reafonable flature is 
about eight inches in length. 'Tis of a membraneous lubflance, 
fleihy without, fkinny, and very much wrinkled within ; and 
that it may both retain the feed cafi into it in the a6t of copu- 
lation, anfl alfo that \i may dilate and extend itfelf to give fuffi- 
cient pallage to the infant at its birth- It' is compofed of Iwo 
membranes, the innermofl of them being white, nervous and 
circularly wrinkled much like the palate of an ox, that fo it 
might either contra<5l or dilate itfelf according to the bignefs or 
length of the man's yard and to the end, that by the collifion, 
fqueezing, or prelfing made by the yard in copulation, the 
pleafure may be mutually augmented. The external, or out- 
moft membrane is red and fieiny like the mufcle of the Funda- 
ment, furrounding the firfl, to the end the yard may be better 
clofed within it ; and it is by means of this membrane that the 
neck adheres the flronger to both the bladder and the right gut. 
The internal membrane in young girVs is very foft and delicate, 
but in women much addicted to copulation it grov/s harder ; 
and in thofe that are grown aged, if they have been given much 
to venery, it is almofl become griHy. 

7. Having fpoken.of the privy paiTage, I come now to Jfoeak 
6f the womb or matryx, its parts are tv/o ; the mouth oi the 
v/omb, and the bottom of it. The mouth is an orifice at the 
entrance into the which may be dilated and fhut together like a 



8S EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

purfe ; for though in the slS: of copulation it is big enough to 
receive the glands of the yard, yet after conception it is foclofe 
fhut, that it will not admit the point of a bodkin to enter ; and 
yet again at the time of the woman*s delivery it is opened fo 
extraordinary, that the infant pafTeth through it into the world ; 
at which time this orifice wholly difappears, and the womb 
fcems to have but one great cavity from its bottom to the very 
e::trance of the neck. When a woman is not with child it is a 
iittle oblong and of a fubftance very thick and clofe ; but when 
f/ie is with child, it is Ihortened, and its thicknefs diminifheth 
proportionably to its distention : And therefore it is a miftake of 
fome anatomifts to affirm, that its fubftance waxeth thicker a 
little before a woman's labor ; for any one's reafon will inform 
them, that the more diftended it is, the thiner it muft be, and 
the nearer a woman is to the time of her delivery, the Ihorter 
her womb muft be extended. As to the adlion by which this 
inward orifice of the womb is opened and fhut, it is purely nat- 
ural ; for were it otherwife, there would not be fo many baft- 
ards gotten as there are ; nor would fome married women have 
fo many children were it at their own choice, but they would 
hinder conception, though they would be willing enough to ufe 
copulation i for nature has attended that action with fomething 
fo pleafing'and delighttul, that they are willing to indulge 
themfelves in the ufe thereof, notwithftanding the pains 
that they afterwards endure, and the hazard oi their lives 
which often follow it : And this comes, to pafs not fo much 
from any inordinate luft in women, as for that the geat Direct- 
or of nature, for the increafe and multiplication of mankind, 
and even for all other fpecies in the elementary world, hath 
placed f uch a magnetic virtue in the womb, that it draws the 
feed to it as the loadftone draws iron. 

The author of nature has placed the womb in the belly, that 
the heat might always be maintained by the warmth of the parts 
furrounding it ; it is therefore feated in the middle of the Hy- 
fogaflrum (or the low^er part of the belly) between the bladder 
and the reaum (or right gut) by which alfo it is defended from 
any hurt through the hardnefs of the bones : and it is placed in 
the lower part of the belly for the conveniency of copulation, 
and of a birth's bein j thrulf out at the full time. 

It is of figure almoll round, inclining fomewhiitto an oblong, 
in part refcmbiing a pear, for, from bein-j; broad at the bot- 
tom, it gradually terminates in the point of the orifice which is 
narrow. 

The length, breadth and thicknefs of the womb diifer ac- 
cording to the age and difpofition of the body ; for, in virgins 
not ripe it is vuy fmall in all its dimenfions, but in women 
whofe terms flow in great quantities, and fuch as frequently ufe 
copulation, it is much larger ; and if they have had children, 
it is larger in them than in fuch as have none ; but in women 
of a good (fature, and well Ihaped (it is as I have faid before) 
from the entry of the privy parts to the bottom of the womb^ 
ufually about eight, but 'the length of the body of the womb 
alone does not exceed three inches, and the breadth thereot is 
nearly about the fame, and of the thicknefs of the little finger^ 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 63 

%vhen the woman is not pregnant ; but when the woman is 
with child, it becomes of a prodigious greatnefs, and the nearer 
(he is to her delivery the more is the womb extended. 

It is not without reafon then that nature(or the God of na- 
ture rather) has made the womb of a membraneous fubflance ; 
for thereby it does eafier open to conceive and is gradually di- 
lated from the growth of the FatuSy or young one, and is after- 
wards contracted and clofed again, to thruft forth both it and 
the after burden, and then to retire to its primitive feat. Hence 
alfo it is enabled to expel any noxious humors which may fome- 
times happen to be contained within it. 

Before I have done with the womb which is the field of gen- 
eration, and ought therefore to be more particularly taken care 
of(for as the feed of plants can produce no fruits, nor fpring un- 
lefs fown in ground proper to waken and excite their vegetative 
virtue, fo likewife the feed of a man, though potentially con- 
tain ing all the parts of a child, would never produce fo admira- 
ble "an effeCl:, if it were not caftinto the fruittul field of nature, 
the womb) 1 ihall proceed to a more particular description of 
the parts thereof, and the ufes to which nature has defigned 
them. 

The womb then is compofed of various fimilary parts, that is 
of membranes, veins arteries and nerves. Its membranes are 
two, and they compOffe the principal part of its body : the out- 
mofl of which arifeth from the Peritonium, or cawl, and is very 
thin, without fmooth, but within equal, that it may the better 
cleave to the womb, as it were flefliy and thicker than any elfe 
we meet with in the body when a woman is not pregnant and is 
interwoven with all forts of fibres or fmall firings, that it may 
the better fuller the extenfion of the child and the waters cauf- 
ed during the pregnancy, and alfo that it may the eafier clofe 
again after delivery 

The veins and arteries proceed both from the Hypogaflrics 
and the Spermatic VeflTels, of which 1 fhall fpeak by and by ; all 
thefe are inferted and terminated in the proper membrane of the 
wonib. The arteries fupply it with blood foi: its nourifnment, 
which, being brought thither in too great a quantity, fweats 
through the fubflance of it, and diflils as it were dew into the 
bottom of its cavity from whence do proceed both the terms in 
ripe virgins, and the blood which nourifheth the embryo in 
breeding women. The branches which iflue from the Spermat- 
ic VefTels are in each fide of the bottom of the womb, and are 
much lefs than thofe which ]3roceed from the Hypogaflrics, 
thofe being greater, and bedewing the whole fubflance of it. 
There are yet fome other fmall veffels, which, arifing the one 
from the other, are conduced to the internal orifice, and by 
thefe, thofe that are pregnant do purge away the fuperfluity of 
their terms when they happen to have more than is ufed in the 
nourilhment of the infant ; by which means nature has taken 
fuch care of in the womb, that during its pregnancy, it fhall 
not be obliged to open itfelf forthe pafling away thofe excrem- 
entitious humors, which, fhouid it be forced to do might often 
endanger abortion. 



84 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

As touching the nerves, thev proceed from the brain, which 
furnifhes all the inner parts ot the lower belly with them, which 
is the true reafon it hath fo great a fympathy with the flomach, 
which is likewife very confiderably furniflied from the fame 
part : fo that the womb cannot be afflifled with anjr pain, but 
the ftomach is immediately fenfible thereof, which is the caufe 
of thofe loathings or frequent vomitings which happen to it. 

But, befides all thefe parts which compofe the womb, it hath 
four ligaments, who fe office is to keep it firm in its place, and 
prevent its conftant agitation, by the continual motion of the in- 
teflines which furround it, two of which are above and two be- 
low : Thofe above are called the broad ligaments, becaufe of 
their broad and membraneous figure, and are nothing elfe but 
the produ6lion of tlie Peritonaumy which growing out of the 
fide of the loins towards the reins come to be inferted in the 
fides of the bottom of the womb, to hinder the body from bear- 
ing two much on the neck, and fo from fufFering a precipitation, 
as will fometimes happen when the ligaments are too much re- 
laxed ; and do alfo contain the tefticles, and as well conduct 
the different veliels as the ejaculatories to the womb. The low- 
ermofl: are called round ligaments taking their original from the 
fide of the womb near the horn from whence they pafs the 
groin, together with the produ6tion of the Peritoneum v/hichsic^ 
companies them through the rings and holes of the oblique and 
tranfverfe mufcles of the belly where they divide themfelves in. 
to many little branches refembling the foot of a goofe, of which 
fome are inferted into the os pubis and, the refl are loft and con- 
founded with the membranes that cover the upper and interior 
parts of the thigh; and it is that which caufes that numbnefs 
which women with child feel in their thighs. Thefe two liga- 
ments are long, round and nervous, and pretty big in their be- 
ginning near the matrix, Tiollow in their rife, and all along to 
the OS pubis "whtYQ they are a little fmaller, and become fiat, the 
better to be inferted In the manner aforefaid ; it is by their 
means the womb is hindered from rifmg too high. Now, al- 
though the womb is held in its natural fituation by means of 
thefe four ligaments, yet it has liberty enough to extend itfelf 
when pregnant, becaufe they are very looie, and fo eafily yield 
to its diftention. But befides the ligaments, which keep the 
womb as it were in a poife, yet it is fa(iened, for greater fecuri- 
ty, by its neck, both to the bladder and rectum, betweem which 
it is fituated. Whence it comes to pafs, that if at any time the 
womb be inflamed it communicates theinflamation to the neigh- 
boring parts. 

Its ule, or proper aflion in the work of generation is to receive 
and retain the feed, and to reduce it from powder to a(5lion, by 
its heat, for the generation of the infant, and is therefore abfo- 
lutely neccflary for the confer vation of the fpecies. It alfo 
feems by accident to receive and expel the impurities of the 
whole body, as when women have abundance of whites and to 
purge away from time to time the fuperfluity of blood, as it 
doth every month by the evacuation of blood, as when a wo- 
man is not with child. And thus much (hall futficefof the def* 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. GJ 

cription of the womb, in which I have been the larger, becaufo 
as I have faid before, it is the field of generation. 

3d. The next thing to bedefcribed rn the genetals of women 
is the tefticles, orftones, for fuch women have, as vvell as men, 
but are not for the fame ufe, and indeed are different from 
thofe in men in feveral particidars ; as 111, in place, being with- 
in the belly, whereas in men they are without, ^dly, In figai.: 
being uneven in women, but fmooth in men. 3dly, In magni- 
tude, being ieiier in women than in men. 4thly, M hey are not 
fixed in women by mufcles, but by ligatures 5thly, i hey have 
no proih-ates or kernels as men have. 6thly, They difier in. 
form being depreiTed or flattifh in women, but oval in men, 
Tthly, They have bac one skin, whereas men have four : for the 
ffones of men being moreexpofed, nature has provided for then^* 
accordingly. 8thly, Their fubPance is more foft than in men. 
And, 9thly, Their temperature is colder than men. And as 
they diti'er inallthefe refpecl:s, fo do they in their ufe, for they 
perform not the fame actions as men's, as I (hall (hew prefently. • 
As for their feat, it is in the hoilownefs of the Abdomen, and 
therefore not extremely pendulous, butrcit upon theova or egg. 
It is true Galen and Hippocrates did erroneoudyimagine that 
the ftones in women did both* contain and elaboraie leed as 
thofe do in men, but it is a great miliake ; For the tedicles of 
a woman areas it were no more than tv/o cluilers of eggs, Avhicii 
lie there to be impregnated by the moiil fpiritous particles, or 
animating effluvia conveyed out of tlie womb through the tw(3 
tubes, or different velTels : Butliowcver, the ftones in women 
are very ufeful, for where they are defective, generation work 
is at an end. For though thefe little bladders, which are on 
their fuperfices, contain nothing of feed, yet they contain fever- 
al eggs (commonly to the number of twenty in each teft cle ) 
one of which being impregnated in the acl of coition, by the molt 
fpirituous partof the feed of the man, defcends through the o- 
vidu^ts into the womb, and there in procefs of tinie^ becomes 
a living child. 

4th. lam now to fpeak of the fpermatic vefTels in women, 
wliich arc two, and are faftened in their whole extent by a. 
membraneous appendix to the broad ligament of the womb : 
Thefe do not proceed from the tefticles as in nlen, but are dlf^ 
tant from them a iinger's breadth at lea(t : and" being difpoied af-^ 
terthe manner of the miferaic veins, are trained along the mem- 
braneous diftance between the different velfels and the telt'cles. 
Their fubftance is as it were nervous and moderately hard ;. 
'they are round, hollow, big, and broad enough at their end^ 
joining to the horn of the womb. Some autliors affirm, that by 
thefe women difcharge their feed into the bottom of the womb ; 
but the whole currentof our modern authors run quite anoth- 
er way, and are pofitive thatthereis no feed at all in their vef- 
fels ; but that after the egg, or eggs in the avoric or teiticles are 
impregnated by the feed of the man-, they defcend through thefe 
two vedels into the womb where being placed, the embryo is 
nourifhed. Thefe vefTels are fhorter in women than they are 
in men ; for the ftones of a woman lying within the belly, their 
H 



Oii EXP£RIE2>ICED MlDWii'E. 

pada^e muft needs be fliorter ; but their various vvreatliing ami 
windings in and out, make amends for the ihurtncls ortheir 
patrage. Thefe veilels are not united before they come to the 
/tones, but 'divide tliemfelves, into two branches, the largeft 
whereof only pafTes through the tefticles, the lelferto the womb 
both for the noiirilhment ot itlelf and the infant in it I further 
obferve^ 'Ihat thefe Ipermatic veins receive the arteries as they 
pais by the womb, and fo there is a mixture between nat- 
ural and vital blood, that fo the work might be better wrought, 
and that it is (Oy appears by this. 1 hat if you blow up the 
fpermatic vein, you may perceive the right and left veifel of the 
womb blown up ; froru whence alfo the communication of all 
tlie velTels of the womb may be eafily perceived. 

The deferentiaor carrying velfels fpring from the lower part 
of the tefticlcs, and are in color white, and in fubltance fmewy, 
^nd pafs not the womb liiai^ht, but wreathed with feveral turn- 
ings and windings, as was faid of the fpermatic vcxTels, iliat fo 
the ihortnels of the vvay may be likewii'e recompenced by their 
winding meantiers ; yet near the womb they become broad a- 
gain. They proceed in two parts from tlie womb, which re- 
lemble horns, andate therefore called tlie horns of the womb. 
And this is all that is needful to be known or treated of concern- 
ing the parts of generation botli in men and women. 

Only linceour modern anatomilts and phyficiansare of differ- 
ent (entiments from the ancients touching the woman's con- 
tributing of feed for the formation of the child as well as the man ; 
tlie ancients (tronglyatRrming it, but our modern authors being 
generally of another judgment ; I will" here declare the feveral 
r-cafons for their ditterent opinions, and fo pafs on. 

Section III. 

Of the differences hetivecn the modern Fhyficians^ touching the 

Woman 5 contributing Seed to the formation of the child. 

I WILL not make ni} felf a party in this controverfy, 
butfet down impartially, yet brieHy, the a gumentspneachfide 
leaving the judicious reader to judge forhimfelf 

Though it is apparent (fay the ancients) that the feed of man 
is the principal eiBcient and beginning of action, motion, and 
generation, yet it is evident that the woman doth afford feed, 
becaufe (he hath feminal velfels, which elfe had been given her 
ia va|in ; but fmce nature forms nothing in vain, it muft be grant- 
ed t^iey were made for the ufe of feed and procreation, and fix- 
ed in their proper places to contribute virtue and etficacy to the 
feed : Attd. this, (la^-rhey)is further proved from hence. That 
if women at years of maturity ule not copulation to objeCl 
their feed, they often fail into ftrange difeafes, and it is apparent 
that women are never better pleated than when they are often 
fatisfied this way, wh'ch argues the pleafure and delight they 
take therein : which pleafure fay they, is double in women, to 
what it is in men : for, as the delight of men in copulation con- 
fifts chiefly in the emifrion of the feed, fo women are delighted 
both in the emifiion of their own, and the reception of the 
man's. 



EXPERIENCED xMIDWIFE, GT 

Bat again (1 all this, our modern authors affirm, Tiiat the an- 
cients were very erroneous : Forafmuch as the telliclesin wom- 
en do notatlbrd I'eed, but are two eggs, like thofe of fowls and 
other creatures, neither have they any fuchothces as men, but 
indeed are an Ovarium, or receuticle for^ eggs, wherein thefe 
eggs are nouriflied by thefanguinary velfels difperfed through 
them ; and from thence, one or more are foecundated by tlie 
man's feed, are conveyed into the womb by the oviducts. And 
the truth of this, fay rhey is plain, that if you boll them, their 
i'-quor will have the fame talte, color, and con'iflency, v/ith th-^ 
taiteof bird's eggs. And if it be obje<i;ted, that they have no 
jhells, the anfvver iseafy ; for the eggs of fowls while they arc 
in the ovary, nay, .'.fter they are fallen into the uterus, have no 
fhell ; and though they have one when they are laid, yet it is no 
more than a fence which nature has provided for tliem againit: 
outv/ard injuries, they being hatched witliout the body ; but 
thofe of women being hatched within the body, have no need 
of any other fence than the womb to fecure them. 

They alfo further fay, there are in the generation of the Tor- 
tus, or young ones, two principles, active and pailive : tiie act- 
ive is the man's feed, elaborated in the tefticles, out of the arte- 
rial blood and animal fpirits ; the pafFive principle is the ovum 
or egg impregnated by the m.an's ieed ; for to lay that women 
have true feed (fay they) is erroneous. But the manner of 
conception is this : The moft fpirituous part of man's feed, in 
the act of copulation, reaching up to the ovarium or teftxlesof 
the w^oman(which contains diverfe eggs, fom.ctimes more and 
fometimes fewer) impregnates of them, v/hich being conveyed 
by the ovadaCls to the bottom of tlie v/o^i^b, prefentiy begins 
to fwell bioger and bigger, and drinks in the moifhire that is fent 
thither, after the fame manner t]\at the feeds in the ground 
fuck the fertile moifture thereof to make them fprout. 

But, n^.-vithftanding what is here urged by our modern a- 
natomift^. there are fome late writers of the opinion of the an- 
cients. V}z. that wom.en have both and emit feed in the act of 
copulc'.ion, and the good women themfelves take it ill to be 
thought m.erely paihve in thofe wars, wherein they make 
fuch vigorous encoun':ers, and poHtively affirm, they are fen- 
/ible of the 'emillion of their feed in thofe engagements, and 
that a great part of the delight they take in that a t confifls in 
it. J will nottiierefore go about to take any of their happinefs 
away from them, but leave them in poffeiiion of their imagined 
felicitv. 

leaving thus laid the foundation of this work, in tlie de- 
fcription I have given of the parts dedicated ro. '. vo'-^- of 
generation both \i\ man and womc'r ■ ■- '' ::"• pr-o'.ceu to reak 
of conception and of tbofe things '■'. ^Tary to beobferv 

ed by women from the time of the n to thxC time oi 

tj-ujir delivery. 



83 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

CHAP. III. 

Of concehuon ; ivhcith is ; thefigks thereof ^ ivhether conceited of 
a Male or Female ; Hoi': "zvomcn are to order thewfehjes after 
Conceptiofu 

Section I . 
JVhat Conce^tiorns^ and the Salifications reqwfite thereto, 

CrOiNCEPl ION is nothing elle but an action of 
tliewomb, by whicii the prolific feed is received and retained^ 
chat an infant may be engendered and formed out of it. There 
are two forts of conception ; the one according to nature, wliith 
is followed by the generation of the infant in the womb ; the 
other is falfc, and wholly againft nature, in which the feed 
changes into water, and produces only falfe conception, moles 
or other ftrarige matter. Now there are three things principal- 
ly neceifai y in order to a true conception, lo that generation 
may follow J to wit- diverfity of fex, congreflion, and emillioa 
of feed Without diverfity of iexes there can be no conception ; 
For, thou^-h fome will havea woman to be an animal that can 
engender ofherlelf, it is a great m.iflake ; tliere can be no con- 
ception without a man to difcharge his feed into her womb. 
What they alledge of pullets laying eggs without a cock's tread- 
:ng them is nothing to the purpofe ; for thofe eggs, ihould they 
' be fet under a hen, Vvill never become chickens, becaufe they 
never received any prolific virtue from the male : which is ab- 
iolutely neceffary to this purpofe, and is fufficient to convince 
us that diverfity of fex is neceilary even to thofe animals as well 
as to the generation of man. But diverfity of fex though it be _ 
neceirary to conception, yet it will not do alone ; there muft alfo 
beacon,^^re(Tion of thofe 'difierent fexes ; for diverfity of fex 
would profit little, if copulation did not follow. I confefs I 
have heard of fome fubtle women, who to cover their fin and 
ihame, have endeav0red to purfuade fame perfons that they 
were never touched by men to get them with child ; and that 
one in particular pretended to conceive, by going into a bath 
where a man had wafhed himfelf a little before, and fpent his. 
feed in it which was drawn and fucked into herwom.b, as Ihe 
pi'etended. But fuch ftories as thofe are only fit toamufe them 
th.at know no better -Now that thefe difrerent fexes fhould be o- 
bliged to come to the touch, vvhlch we call copulation or coition, 
belides, the natural defire of begetting their like, which fi:irs up 
men and women to it. the parts appointed for generation are 
endowed by nature with a delightful and mutual itch, which 
V»egets in them defire to the action ; without which it would not 
b-veryeafy for a man born for the contemplation of divine 
myfteries to join himfelf by way of coition to a woman, in re- 
gard of the unclcannefs of the part and of the action : and on the 
other fide, if women did but think of thofe pains and inconveni- 
ences to which they are fubje»5t by their great bellies, and thofe 
Iiazards even of life itfelf, befides the unavoidable pains that at- 
tend their delivery, it is reafjnable to believe they would be af- 
frighted from it. But neither fex make thefe refie6lions till af- 
ter the aftion is over confidering notliing beforehand but the 
'.^leafure o^ cniovment So that it is froiu this voluptuous itch 
I 



EXPERIENCEt) MIDWIFE: li^' 

chat nature obligeth both fexes to this congredlon . Upon v, hjcli 
the third thing followeth of courfe, to wic tlie emiflion of feed 
into the womb in the a6t of copulation For the woinan hav- 
ing received this proli.fic feed into her womb, and, retained it 
there, the womb thereupon becomes comprelfed, and embraces 
the feed fo clofely, that being clofed, the point of a needle,(as 
faith Hippocrates) cannot enter it without violence; and nov/ 
the woman may be laid to have conceived ; the leveral facul- , 
ties which are in the leedit contains, being reduced by its heat 
from power into action, making ufe of the fpirits with which 
the feed abound?, and wich are the inilrume.its by which it be- 
gins to trace out the firft Hneaments ot all the parts ; to. which 
afrerv/ards, of making ufe ofthemcnllruousblood flowing to it, it 
gives in time growth and final perfection. And thus much fhall 
Suffice to fnew what conception is, I fhall now proceed to. 
Ihew. 

Section II. 
The ftgns of Conception . 
THERE are many prognolties or figns of concep- 
tion ; Ivvill name fome of the chief, which are the moft certain 
and let alone the reft. 

1. If a woman h:^s been more than ordinary dedrous of cop- 
ulation, and hath taken more pleaiurenhan ufuul therein(which 
upon recollection ihe may eaiiiy know) it is a fign of concep- 
tion- 

2. ITi'he retain the feed in her v/omb after copulation, which' 
fhe m:iy know it fbe perceives not to tlow down from the womb 
as it uied to do betbre, for that is a fwre (ign the womb has re- 
ceived it into the inv/ard -orUicf^, and there retains it. 

3. If fhe finds a coldnels and chillnels after copulation it fhewr, 
the heat is retired to make conception. 

•4. If after this i>ie begins to have loathings to tliofe tilings 
which (he loved befo?'e,and thi.> attended with a lofs of appj?- 
tite, andadefire after meats, to whTchilie was not affected before 
and hath often naufeatings and vomitings with Ibur belchings 
and exceeding weaknefs of Itomach. 

5. After conception the belly waxeth very flat, becaufe the 
womb clofeth itielf together, to noiirifh and cherilh the i'^Qdy 
-ontra^ting itfelf io as to leave no empty ipare. 

6. If the veins of the breaft are more clearly (qqu. than they 
were wont to be, it is a ^ign of conception. 

7. So it is, if thetop^s on tl»e nipples look redder than former:. 
IVy and ^he breafrs begin to fwell, and grov/ harder than ufual^ 
epecially if tliis be attended v. ith pain and jorenefs. 

'3 It a vroman ha^h tv/ifr'-ng and- griping pains, much like 
thofe of tne crai. :i the belly . and aJDout the navel, it is a iign 
iTie has conceived. 

9; If under ihe lower eye lid the veins be {welled, and appear 
clearly, and tlie eye be fome*hing dlfcolored, it is a certain Iign . 
fbe is withcliild, uulefs fhe have hermenfes ?.t the fame tim.e up- 
on her, or that ihe h::s il^t un *h" ^^ '•'-.■ b :" : , 'ih^uvn h^-^ 

T>ever fuiled. 



CO EXPERlENCEr) xMlDWiFE. 

10 Some alfo make this trial of conception ; They Piop the 
\vcinaa's urine in a glafs or phial for three days, and then (train 
t through a linnen cloth, andif they find fmall living creatures 
j'Ti it, they conclude that the woman has certainly conceived. 

11. '1 here alfo is another eafy trial: let the woman that 
1 iippofes fke has conceived take a green nettle, and put it into 
jier urine cover it clofe, ajid let it remain therein a whole night : 
if the v.oman be with child it will be full of red fpots on the mor- 
row ; but iffhebe not with child it will be blackilh 

1^ 1 he laii fign T (hall mention is that which is moft obvious 
to every woman, which is the fuppreftion of the terms : For af^ 
ler conception, nature makes ufe of that blood for the nourilh^ 
mentofthe embryo, which before was caft out by nature, be- 
( aufc it was too great in quantity. For it is an error to think 
that the m-Cnftruai blood, fimply in itfelf confidered is bad ; be- 
raufe if a woman's body be in good temper, the blood mufi 
needs be good ; and that it is voided monthly is becaufe it of- 
fends in quantity, but not in quality 

But though the fupprefTion of the terms is generally a fure 
fign of conception to fuch perfons as have had them orderly be- 
fore, yet is not the having them always a fign there is no con- 
ception : Forasmuch as many that have been with child have 
had their term^, and fome even till the fifth or fixth month ; 
which happens according to the woman's being more or lefs 
fanguine ; for if a woman has more blood than will fufi'icc for 
the nourifhrnent of rhe embryo, nature continues to void it in 
theulualway. Whence the Experienced Midwife may learn 
there arc few general rules which do not fometimes admit of an 
exception. But this (liall fuffice to be fpoken of the figns and 
prognoltics of conception. 

Section III. 
Whether Conception be of a Male or female. 
AUTHORS give us feveral prognolHcs of this 
Though they are not all to be trufled, yet there is fome truth 
among them \ The figns of a male child conceived are, 

1 When a woman at her rifmg up is more apt to flay herfelt 
npon her right hartd than her left. 

'1 Merbelly lies rounder and higher than when ihe has con- 
ceived of a female. 

3. She firfl feels the child to beat on her ripht fTde. 

4. She carries her burden more liglit, and with lefs pain than 
w hen it is a female. . ^ 

5 Her right nipple is redder than the left, and her right breall 
liarderand more plump 

6. Hercolor is more clear, nor is fhe io fwarthy as when me 
has conceived a female. ^ , i_t • 

T. Obferve a circle under her eye, which is a pale and bluiHi 
color ; and if that under her right eye be mofi apparent, and 
moft difcolored, ^c.t hath conceived a fon , r 

8. If fhe would know whether {lie hath conceived a fon or a 
daughter, let her milk a drop of her milk into a bafonor nrir 
wa^er ; if it fpreads and fwims at top, it certainly is a boy ; But 
if I is rci-md us it drops in, and finks to tJie bottom, it is a giri , 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 91 

This iaft is an infallible rule. And in all it is to be noted, that 

what is afign of a male Conception, the contrary holds good of a 

female. 

Sec. IV. Houo a ivoman ought to order herfdj after conception. 

MY defign in this treatife being brevity, I fliall 
pretermit all that others fay of the caufes of twins ; and wheth- 
er there be any fuch thing as fuperfottations, or a fecond con- 
ception in woman, which is yet common enough, when I come 
to fhew you how the midwife ought to proceed in the delivery 
of thefe women thatare pregnant with them. But having al- 
ready fpoken of conception, I think it now neceffary to fhew 
how fuch as have conceived ought to order themfelves during 
their pregnancy, that they may avoid thofe inconveniences 
which often endanger the hfe of the child, and many times their 
cwn. 

A woman after her conception, during the time of her being . 
with child, ought to be looked on as indifpofed or fick tho* in 
good health ; for child bearing is a kind of nine month's fick- 
nefs, being all that time in expectation of many inconveniences, 
which luch a condition ufually caufes to thofe thatare not well 
governed during that time ; and therefore ought to refemble a 
good pilot, who, when failing in a rough fea and full of rocks, 
avoids and fhuns the danger, if lie fteers with prudence ; but if 
'\oty it is a thoufand to one but he fuffers fhipwreck. In like 
iianner, a woman with child is often in danger of mifcarrying 
ind lofmg her life, if (he is not very^careful to prevent thofe ac- 
cidents to which ftie is fubjed all the time of her pregnancy ; 
all which time her care m.ull be double, firfl of herfelf, and fec- 
ondly of the child (he goes with: for other wife a fingle error 
may produce a double mifchief ; for if (he receives any preju- 
dice, her child alfo fufl'ers with her. 

Let a woman therefore, after conception, obferve a good diet, 
fuitable to her temperament, cudom, condition and quality ; 
and if (he can, let the air where (he ordinarily dwells be clear 
and well tempered, free from extremes either of heat or cold; 
for being too hot, it di(ripateth-the fpirits too much, and cauf- 
cth many weakne^ies, and by being too cold and foggy, it may 
bring down rheums and didillations on the lungs, and fo caule 
lier to cough, v.hich by its impetuous motions forcing down- 
wards, may make her mifcarry : She ought alfo to avoid all 
naufeous and ill fmells ; for fometimes the (link of a candle not 
well put out may caufe her to come before her time; and I 
have known the fmell of charcoal to have the fame effeff . Let 
her alfo avoid fmelling of rue, mint, pennyroyal, cador, brim- 
ftone, &c. 

But with refpe^l to her diet, women with child have general- 
ly fo great loathings, and lo many different longings, that it is 
very difficult to prefcribe an exact diet for them. Only this 1 
think advifabie, that tiicy may ufe of thofe meats and drinks 
which are to them mod 'de(irable, tlio' perhaps not in them- 
felves fo wholefome as fome others, and it may not be fo pleaf- 
ant; b;it tlr> liber? y mu(t be made ufe of v/ith this caution, tfi;?.; 



H EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

what fhc fo defires be not in itfelf abfolutely unwholefoirie ; 
and alfo that in every thing they take care ot excefs. But if a 
child bearing ^oman finds herielf not troubled with fuch long- 
ings as we have fpoken of, and in fuch quantity as may be liitti- 
cient for herfelf and the child which her appetite mav in a 
great meafure regulate ; for it is alike hurtful for her to %[\i too 
r»ng as to eattoo much, and therefore rather let her eat a little 
and often, efpecially let her a'^oid eating too much at night ; be- 
caufe the ftomach, being too much filled, comprelFeth the diaph- 
ragm, and thereby cauTes difficulty of breathings. Let her 
meatbeeafy ofconco6lion, fuch as the tendered parts of beef, 
mutton, veal, fows, pullets-, capons, pigeons and partridges, eith- 
er boiled or roafled, as (be likes beti: : new laid eggs are alfo ve- 
ry good for her ; and let her put into her broths thofe herbs 
that purify it, as forrel, lettuce, fuccory and burrage ; for they 
will purge and purify the blood ; Let her avoid whatfoever is 
hot feafoned efpecially pies and baked meats, which, being of 
hot digeltion, overcharge the (lomach If (he defires fifh, let it 
be frefh, and fuch as is taken out of rivers and running ftreams. 
Let her eat quinces, or marmalade to ftrengthen her child ; for 
which purpofe fweet almonds, honey, fweet, apples, and full 
ripe grapeSj are alfo good. Let herabftain from all iharp, four, 
bitter, fait things, and all things that tend to provoke the 
terms, fuch as garlic, onions, olives, muilard, fennel, with pep- 
per, and all fpices. except cinnamon, which in the laft 4hree 
months is good for her. If at firft her diet be fparing as fiie in- 
creafes in bignefs let her diet be increafed for flie ought to con- 
fide r (he has a child as well as herfelf to nouriih. I>etherbe 
moderate in her drinking; and if (he drinks wine, let it be 
rather claret than white (which will breed good blood, help 
the digeftion, and comfort the (lomach, which is 'always but 
weakly during her pregnancy) but white wine being diuretic, 
or that which provokes urine ought to be avoided. Let her 
haveacare of too much exercife, and let her avoid dancing, 
riding in a coach, or whatever elfe puts the body into violent- 
motion, efpecially in her firft month. But to be more particu- 
lar I fhall here fet down rules proper for every month for the 
child bearing woman to order herielf, from the time fhe has firft- 
conceived to the thne of her delivery. 

Rules for the firft two Months. 
AS foon as a woman knows or has reafon to believe, 
n^iC has conceived, ftie ought to abftain from all violent motiorr. 
or exercife, whether in walking, riding on horfeback, or in a< 
coach. Let her alfo abftain from venery, to which, after con- 
ception,' (he hasufuall)r no great inclination, left there be a mole 
or fuperfoetation ; which is the adding of one embryo to anoth- 
er. Let her beware ftie lift^not her arms too high, nor carry great 
burdens, nor repofe herfelf on hard and uneafy feats. Let her 
ufe moderately meat of good juice and eafy concoction, and let 
wine be neither too ftrong nor too fharp, but a little mingled 
with water ; or, if ftie be very abftemious, fhe may ufe water 
wherein cinnamon is boiled. Let her avoid faftings, thirft, 
v,'s^c!)ini7, mourning, fadnef^, anger and all other pertarbav.'ohs 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 93 

of the mind. Let none prefent any ftrange or unwholefome 
things taher, not fo much as name it, left (he (hould defire it, 
and not be able to get it, and fo either caufe her to mifcarry, or 
the child have fome deformity on that account. Keep her bel- 
ly loofe with prunes, raifms, or manna, in her broth ; and let 
her ufe the following eledtuary to llrengthen the womb and the 
child. 

** Take confer ve of burrage, buglofs, and red rofes, two oun- 
ces each ; balm, citron peel, and mirobalans candied, each an 
ounce ; extract of wood aloes a fcruple ; pearl prepared half a 
dram ; red coral, ivory each a dram ; precious ftones each a 
icruple ; candied nutmegs two drams ; and with fyrup of apples 
and quinces make an elcvfluary. 

Let her ufe the following Rules. 
** Take pearls prepared a dram ; red coral prepared and ivory 
cachhalf adrami, precious ftones, each a fcruple ; yellow citron 
peels, mace, cinnamon, cloves, each half a dram, faffron a fcru- 
ple, wood aloes, half a fcruple ; ambergreafe fix drams, and with 
lix ounces of fugar, diifolved in rofe water, makerouls." Let 
her alfo apply flrengthenersto the navel, of nutmegs, mace maf- 
tic, made up in bass, or a toad dipped in mamfey, fprinkled in 
powder cf mint. If (he happens to defire clay, chalk, or coal 
(as many women with child do) give her beans boiled with fu- 
gar : and if (belong for any thing which fiie cannot obtain, let 
her drelently drink a large draught of pure cold water. 
Rules for the Third Month 
In this month and the next, be fure to keep from bleeding ; 
for thougli it may be fafe at other times, it will not be fo until 
the end of the fourth month : and yet if too much blood abound, 
or fome incident difeafe liappen, which requires evacuation, you 
may ufe a cupping glafs, with fcarification, and a little blood 
may be draw^n from the fhoulders and arms efpecially if Hie has 
beenaccuftomed to bleed. Let her take care of lacing herfelf 
too Itraightly, but give herfelf more liberty than Ihe ufed to 
do ; for, inclofing her belly in too ftraighi a mould, (he hinders 
the infant from taking its free growth, and often makes it 
come before its time. 

Rules for the Fourth Month 
In this month, you ought alfo to keep the child bearing wo- 
man from bleeding, unlefs in extraordinary cafes \ but when this 
month is paft, blood letting and phyfic may be permitted, if it 
be gentle and mild ; and perhaps it may be neceflary to pre- 
vent abortion. In this month (he may purge in acute difeafes ; 
but purging may be only ufed from the beginning of this month 
to the end of the fixth : but let her take care that in purging 
flie iifes no vehement medicine, nor very bitter, as aloes, which 
is an enemy to thechild, and opens the mouth of the veflTels ; 
neither let her ufe coloquintida, fcammony, nor turbith ; 
(he may ufecafiia, manna, rhubard, agaric, and fenna, diacidp-^ 
Ilium purgans is. bed witha little of the ele^Liary of the juice ()f 
rofes. 



94 EXPERIENCED IvlIDWIFE. 

Rules for^he Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Montlis. 
In thofe months child bearing women are often troubled 
with coughs, heart beaming, fainting, v.atching, pains in the 
loins and the hips and bleeding. 1 he cough is from a ftiar]> 
vapor that comes to the jaws and rough artery from the terms, 
or from the thin part of that blood gotten into the veins of the 
bread, or fallen from the head to the bread: This endangers 
abortion, and rtrength fails from watching ; therefore purge 
the humor o that fall from the bread with rhubarb and agaric, 
and drengthening the head as in a catarrh, and give fweet lini- 
tives as in a cough. Palpitation and fainting arile from a vapor 
that go to it by the arteries or from blood that aboundeth, and 
cannot get out at the v/omb but afcends and opprelleth the 
heart ; and, in this cafe, cordials diould be ufedboth inwardly and 
cutwardly Watching is from diarp, dry vapors that trouble the 
animal fpirits ; in thiscafe ufe frictions, and let the woman vva'-h 
her feet at bed time, and let her take fyrup of poppies, dried rof- 
es, cmullions of fweet almond and vv'hite poppy feeds. If (he be 
troubled with pains in her loins and liips, as in thefe months ihe 
is fubjecl to be from the weight of her child, who is now grown 
big and heavy, and io iiretcheth the ligaments of the womb, 
and parts adjacent, let her hold it up with fwathing bands about 
her neck. About this time alfo the v.omian often happens to 
have a fiux of blood, either at the nofe. womb, or hemorrhoids, 
from plenty of blood, or from the weaknefs of the child that 
takes it not in, or elfe from evil humors in the blood, that dirs 
up nature to fend it forth And fometimesit happens that the 
veffels of the womb m,ay be broken, either by fome violent 
motion, fall, cough or trouble of mJnd ; (for any^of thefe will 
work ♦hat err'e(;:i:) and this is fo dangerous, that in fuch a cafe 
the child cannot be v eli ; but if it be from biood only, the dan- 
ger is no lefs, provided it flows by the vemsof the neck of the 
womb, for rhen it prevents plet^hory, and takes away the nour- 
iflimenr of the cinia j but if 't proceeds from the weaknefs of 
the child that dra-vs it not. abortion of the child often follows, 
or hard travail, or elfe (he goes beyond her time ; But if it flows 
by the inward veins other womb, there is more danger by the 
opennefsof the womb, -:fit comes from evil blood ; the danger 
is alike from cacochimy, which is like to fall upon both, if it 
arifes from plethory,open a vein, but vvitj:»^vt:ry great caution, 
and give her adhngents fuch as the following; " Take pearl 
prepared a fcrupie ; red coral two fcruples, mace, nutmegs each 
a dram ; cinnamon, half a dram ; make a pcvvder, or with fu- 
gar, rouls," Or, give this powder in broth : ** Take red coral 
a dram ; precious dones half a fcrupie; red faunders half a 
dram; lealed earth, and tormentil roots, each two fcruples, 
with fugarof rofes, and manus Chridi, with pearl five drams, 
make a powder." You may alio drengthcn the child at the 
navel ; and if there be a cacochim, af«:er the hum.ors, and evac- 
uate, if you may do it fafely ; you ir.ay iikewife uiQ amulets on 
her hands and about her neck, in a riux of hemorrhoids. 4et 
her drink hot wine with a toaded ntitmeg. In thefe months 
the belly is alfo fubjed to be bound ; but if it be without any 



EXPERIExNCED xMiDWlFE. ^ 9j 

aj)parent dileafe, the broth of a chicken, or of veal foddenwith 
oil, or with the deco6lion of mallows, mercury, and linfeed 
put up in a clyfter, will not be amifs, but in lefs quantity than 
is given in other cafes ; to wit of the decodion five ounces, of 
common oil three ounces, of fugar two ounces, of callia fiftula 
one ounce. But if fhe will not take a cl> fter, one ©r two yolks 
of new laid eggs ; or a few peafe pottage warm, with a little fait 
and fugar, fupped up.a little before meat, will be very conveni- 
ent : Butif herbelly fhall be dillended, and (tretched out with 
wind, a little fennel feed and annifeed redu/:ed mto powder,. 
and mingled with honey and fugar, made after the manner of 
an electuary, will do very v^ell. Alfo, if the thighs and^ feet 
fwell, let them be anointed with oxphrodium (which is a licjuid 
medicine made with vinegar and rcfe water) mingled with a 
little fait. 

R«les for the Eighth Month, 

The eighthis commonly themoft dangerous and therefore the 
greateft care and caution ought to be ufed ; and her diet ought 
to be better in quality, but not more, nor indeed fo much in 
(quantity as before ; but as ihe muft abate her diet, fo (he muft 
increafe herexercife : And becaufe then women with child, by 
reafon of the fharp humors, alter the belly, are accuftomed to 
weaken tlieir fpirits and ftrength, they may well take before 
meat an eledfuary of diarrhodon or aromaticum, rofatum, or dia- 
margarton ; and as they will loath and naufeate their meat they 
may take green ginger condited with fugar, or the rinds of citrons 
and oranges condited ; and often ufe honey for the ftrengthen- 
ingof the infant. When Ihe is not far from her labor, let her 
ufe every day feven roafted figs before meat arid fometimes lick 
a little lioney ; but let her beware of fait and powder meat, for 
it is neither good for her nor her child. 

Rules for the Ninth Month. 

In the ninth month, let her have a care of lifting any great 
weight ; but let her move a little more to dilate the parts, and 
ftir up natural heat. Let her take heed of itooping, neither fit 
too much nor lie on her fides ; neither ought fbe to bend her- 
felfm.uch, left the child be unfolded in the umbillicul ligament, 
by which means it often periihes. Let her walk and ftir often, 
and let her exercife be rather to go upwards than downwards; 
Let her diet now efpecially be light and eafy of digeftion : as 
damask prunes with fugar or figs, and rainns, before her meat, 
as alfo the yolk of eggs, fleih and broth of chickens, birds, part- 
ridges, and pheafants; aftringent and roafted meats, with rice 
and hard eggs, millet, and fuch like other things are proper ; 
baths of fweet water, with emolient herbs, ought to be ufed by 
her this month withoutintermiflion. And after the bath, let 
her belly be annointed with oil of rofes and violets ; but for her 
privy parts, it is fitter to annoint them With the fat of hens, 
gce(^j or ducks^^ or with oil of lilies, and the decoftion of linfeed 
and fenugreek, boiled with oil of linfeed and marlhmallows, or 
witli the following liniment. 

"^^ Take of mallows and mar(hmallov/s, cut and (bred, of ^aCh 
^n ounce ; of linfeed one ounce ; let them be boiled frona t^'en- 



96 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

ty ounces of water to ten i then let her take three ounces of 
boiled broth : of oil of almonds, and oil of flourdeluce, of each 
one ounce ; of deer's luet three ounces ; let her bathe with this, 
and annoint herfelf with it warm." 

If for fourteen days before the birth flie do every morning and 
evening bathe and moiiten her belly with mufcadel and laven- 
der water, the child will be much ftrengthened thereby. And 
if every day fhe eat toafled bread, it will hinder any thing from 
growing to the child. Her privy parts may be alfo gently ilroak- 
ed down with this fomentation. 

** Take three ouncesof linfeed ; of mallows and marfhmal- 
lows diced, of each one handful : let them be put into a bag, 
and boiled immediately : and let the woman with child every 
morning and evening take the vapor of this decoLlion in a hol- 
low (tool, taking great heed that no wind nor air come to her in 
any part, and let her wipe the part fo annointed, with a linen 
cloth, that ihe may annoint the belly and groins as at *^xat. 
When fhe is come fo near her time as tobe within 10 or 14 days 
thereof, if fhe begins to feel any more than ordinary pain, let 
her ufe every day the following 

**Take mallows, and marrtimallows, of each one handful : 
camomile, herd mercury, maidenhair, of each half a handful t 
of linfeed four ounces: let them be boiled in fuch a fufficient 
quantity of water as may make a broth therewith " But let her 
not fit too hot upon the feat, nor higher than a little above her 
navel ; nor let her fit on it longer than about half an hour, left 
her ftrcngthlanc^uifh and decay, for it is better to ufe it often, 
than to llay too long in it. And thus I have Ihewn how a child 
bearing woman ought to govern herfelf in each month during 
her pregnancy. How fhe muft order herfelf at her delivery^ 
fhall be (hewn in another chapter, after I have firfl fhewn the in- 
duftrious Midwife how the child is formed in the womb, and 
the manner of its decumbiture there. 
CHAP. I. 
Of the Parts proper for the Child in the IVomh ; ho^o it is formed 



there y and the manner ofitsftuation therein. 

I fhewed what conception y/as, 
how accomplillaed, its figns" and how^ fhe who hath conceived 



IN the laft chapter \ 



ought to order herfelf during the time of her pregnancy. Now, 
betore I fpeak of her delivery, it is neceflTary that the midwife 
be firfl acquainted with the parts proper to achild in the womb, 
and alfo how it is formed and the manner of its Situation and de- 
cumbiture there ; without the knowledge of which, no one can 
tell how to deliver a woman as (he ought. This therefore fhall 
be the work of this chapter. I ihall begin with the firfl of 
thefe. 

Section I. Of the parts proper to a Child in the Womb, 

IN thisfe^tion I muff firft tell you what I mean by 
tbe parts proper to a child in the womb, and they are only 
thofe that either help or nourish it, whilfl it is lodged in that 
dark repofitory of nature, and that ii^lp to clothe and defend it 
there, and are caft away, as of no more ufe after it is born, and 
the/jpare two, viz. the umbilicum, or navel vefTels, and the U- 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. $7 

'Ouncklm, fcy thefirfl It is nourifhed, and by the fecond clothed 
and defended from wrong. Of each of thefe 1 iball fpeak dlC- 
tindly, and, firft, 

Of /be Um 6 Hi cum or Na=vel Veffels. 
Thefe are four in niLmber, viz. one vein, two arteries, and 
the veffel which is called urachos : 1 The vein is that by which 
the infant is nourifhed, from the time of its conception, to the 
time of its delivery ; till being brought into the light of this 
world, it has the fame way of conco61ing its food that we havjc. 
This vein arrifeth from the liver of the child, and is divided in- 
to two parts when it hath palled the navel; and thefe tvv'o are 
again divided, and fubdivided, the branches being upheld by 
the skin called chorion (of which I fhall fpeak by and by)and 
are joined to the veinsof the mother's womb, from thence they 
have their blood for the nouriHiment of the child 2. The ar- 
teries are two on each fide, which proceed from the back bran- 
ches of the great artery of the mother; and the vital blood \i, 
carried by thefe to the child, being ready concoded by the 
mother. 3 A nervous or finewy production is led from the 
bottom of the bladder of the infant to the navel, and this is caU - 
ed urachos ; and its ufe is to convey the urine of the infant 
from the bladder to the alantois. Anatomifts do very much 
vary in their opinions concerning this ; fome denying any fuch 
thing to be in the delivery of women, and others affirming it : 
but experience teftifies there is luch a thing : For Bartholomew 
Cabrolios, tke ordinary dodor of anatomy to the college of 
phyficians at Montpelier in France, records the hidory of a 
maid, whofe water oeing a long time flopped, at lail: ilRied out 
thro' her navel ; And Johannes Fernelius fpeaks of the fame 
thing that happened to a man of thirty years of age, who havnny. 
a floppage in the neck of the bladder, liis urine iffued out of 
hi^navel many months together, without any prejudice at all to 
his health, which he afcribesto the ill lying of his navel, where- 
by the urachos was not well dried. And Volchier Coitas 
quotes another fuch in a maid of thirty four years, at Nurem- 
berg in Germany. Thefe inilances, thouj^h they happen but 
feldom, are fuffieient to prove that there is fuch a thing as an u- 
rachos in men. Thefe four vefTels before mentioned, viz. one 
vein, two arteries, and the urachos do join near to the navel, 
and are united by a skin which they have from the cliorion, and 
fo become like a gtit rope, and are altogether void of fenfe ; and 
this is that which the good women call the navel firing. The 
veflels arc tlius joined together, that fo they may neither bs 
broken, fevered, nor entangled : and when the infant is born, 
are of no ufe, fave only to make up the ligament, which flops 
the whole of the navel and fome other phydcal ufe, &c. 
Of the Secund'ine or After B'lrfh 

Setting afide the name given to this day, by the Greeks and 
Latins, it is called in Englifli by ih-e n<^.me of Sccundine, After 
birth, and After burden, whicn are held to be four in number. 

1. The firfl is called Placenta, becaufe it refembles the form 
of a cake, and is knit both to the navel and chorion, ^nd makes 
up the greatefl part of the fecundine or after bir^H. The '^<.^ 



f:-3 'EXPEilJENCED MJPWIFE. 

of it 15 like that of the milt, or Tpleen, foft, red, and tenii-n^ 
" Ibmeching to blacknefs, and hath many Ihiall veins and arteries 
in I it; and certainly the chief ule of it is for containing the 
child in the womb. 

3 The leccond is the Chorion. This rtvin, and that called the 
Amnios, involve the child, rcimd, both above and underneath, 
and on both fides, which the Alanirois doth not: This Ikin ts 
that which is mol^' commonly called the fecundine, as it is thick 
and wh'te, garnifl)ed v/ith many Imall veins and arteries, end- 
ing in the Placenta, before named, being very light and.ilippery. 
Its life is not only to cover the child round aboLit, but alio to 
.receive and fafely bind up the roots and the veins and arteries, 
or navel veiiels before defcribed. 

3. The third thing which makes up the fecundine, is the Al- 
an toi-s, of which there is a great difpute among anatomifts; 
iome (aying there is fuch a thing and others that there is not ; 
Thofe that will have it to be a membrane, fay, it is white, foft, 
and exceeding thin, and jufl under the placenta, where it is knit 
to the Urachos, from whence it leceives the urine and its office 
is to keep it feparate from the fweat, that the faltnefs of it may 
not oftend the tender fkin of the child. 

4. The fourth and lail covering of the child is called Amnois, 
and it isvyhite, foft, and tranfparerjs, being nourilhed by fome 
very fmail veins, and arteries. Its ufe is not only tO enwrap 
the child round, but alfo to retain the fweat of the child 

Having thus deicribed the parts proper to the child in the 
wornb, 1 will next proceed to ipeak of the formaflon of the child 
therein^ as foonas I have explained the hard terms in this fec- 
tion, that thofe for whofc help this isdefigned, may underftanjl 
what they read. There is none fo ignorant asnotto know that 
a vein is that which receives blood from the liver, and diftrib- 
iites it in leveral branches to all parts of the body. Arteris^s 
proceed from the heart, are in continual motion, and by that 
motion quicken the body. Nerve is tlie fame with fmew, and 
is that by which-the brain adds fenfe and motion to the body. 
Placenta properly i]gniiies a fugar cake ; but in this feclion it is 
ufed tofjgnify a fpungy piece of flelh, refembling a cake full of 
veins and arteries, and is made to receive the mother's bloodj 
appointed for the infant's nourifliment in the womb. Chorion 
is the outward Ikin which compalfeth the child in the womb. 
The amnois is the inner (kin which compadeth t\\e child in the 
womb. The Alantois is the fkin ^hat holds the ui^ine of the 
child during the time that it abides in the womb. The Ura- 
chos is^l^beveflel that conveys the urine from the child in the 
w'omb to the Alantois. I nowproceed to 
Section II. 
Of the' formation of the Child in theW^mb. 
TO fpeak of the formation of the. child in the womb, 
we mufl begin where nature begins; and that is, at the a6t of 
coition, in which the womb having received the generative i^t^ 
without which there can be no conception, the womb mimedi- 
ately Ihuts up itfelf fo ciofe that not the point of a needle can 
en^r the inward orifice j and this it does partly to .hinder the 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIMi. 99 

iiluing out of rhe feed agairijand partly to cIieriTu it by tlie in- 
bred heat, the better to provoke it to action ; which is one reafon 
why women's bellies are fo lank at their firfl conception. The 
woiruen having thus conceived, the firft thing which is operative 
in the conception, is the fpir^t. whereof the feed is full, which, 
nature, quickening by the heat of the womb, flirs it up to ac 
ti'on. 1 his feed confilts of very diifcrent i arts, of which fome 
are more, and fome are lefs pure. Ihe internal fpirits tliere-- 
fore feparateth thole parts that are lefs pure; which are thick,- 
cold, and clauimy, fiom them, that are more ]>ure and noble . 
The lefs pure are caft to theoutlides* and with them the fetd is- 
circled round, and of them the membranes are made, in which" 
that feed which is the mo(t pure is wrapped round, and kept 
clofe together, that it may be defended from cold and other 
accidents, and operate the better, 

Ihefirflthat is form.ed i^the amnois, the next t/.c chorion , 
and they enwrap the feed round as it were a curtain . J^oon af- 
ter this (for the leed thus {Irat up in the woman lie? not idle) t;i':- 
navel vein is bred, which pierceth thofe Ikiiis, being yet ve,' ; 
tender and carries a drop of biood from the veins of tJje n^otli 
er's womb 'o the leed ; from whicii drop is formed the liver, 
from which liver theve is quickly bred the vena cava or chief, 
vein, from wliich all the reft of the veins that rjourilh the body 
ff ring ; and now the leed hath fomething to nourilh it, whillt 
it performs the reft of nature's work, and alfo blood adminif- 
tered to every part of it to form flefh. 

This vein being formed, the navel arteries are foon after 
formed, then the great artery, of which all others are but 
branches, and then the heart "; for the liver furnifheth the ar- 
teries with blood to form the heart, the arteries being made of 
fetdy but tlie heart and the flefh of blood. After this the brain 
is formed, and then the nerves, to give fenfe and motion to the 
infant. Afterwards the bones and nefh are formed, andof the 
baneSj firft the vertebra? or chine bones, and then the Ikuli, 

As to the time in which this curious part of nature 's work- 
manfhip is formed, phyficians allign four different feafons 
wherein this rnicrocofm is formed, and its formation perfected 
in the womb : 1 he fird is immediately after coition ; the fec- 
ond time of forming, fay they, is when the womb by the force 
of its own innate rower and virtue nuikesa manifen nuitation 
or coagulation in ihe feed, fo that all the fiibftarice thereof feems 
coagulated flefh and blood, which happens about the twelfth- 
or fourteenth day after copulation and though this concretion 
offieihymafs abounds with fpirits, yet it remains undiffin- 
guifhable without any form and rnay be called a rough- 
draught of the foetus or embryo. 1 he ^third time in which 
this fabric is come to fome further maturity is, when the 
principal parts may be in fome meafure diltinguifhed, and 
one may difcern the liver, umbellical veins, arteries, nerves,, 
brain, and heart : and this is about eighteen days after con- 
ception, . The fourth and laft time alligned by phyficians for 
the formation of the child, is about the 30th day after con* 
ception for a male^ but for a. fcm;.\le, they tell us forty two 



- lOO EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

or forty five days are required, though for what reafon I know 
not, nor does it appear by the birth ; for if the male raceives its 
formation fifteen days fooner than the femal-e, why [hould it not 
beborn lb much fooner too. But as to that, every day's expe- 
rience fhews ns the contrary ; for women go the full time of 
nine months both v/ith male and female, iiut at this time of 30 
days(or fome will have it 4^)the outward parts may be alfo 
feen exqiiifitely elaborate, and diflinguifhedby joints , and from 
this time the child begins to be animated though as yet there i& 
no fenfible motion ; and has all the parts of the body , thougli 
imall and very tender, yet entirely formed and figured, altho* 
not Ion.ger in the whole than one's middle finger: and from 
thence forward, the blood flowing €;^;ery day more and mor-- to 
the Womb, not by intervals like their courfes, but continually, it 
grows bigger and ftronger to the end of nine moths, being the 

. iull time of a woman's ordinary labor. 

Very great have been the difputes among both philofopheri 
and phylicians about the nourifhment of the child in the womb, 
both as to what it is, and which w^ay it receives it. Almseon, 
w^as of opinion that the infant drew in its nourifiiment by its 
yvhole body, becaufe it is rare and fpungy, as a fpungC: lucks 
in water on every fide ; and fo he thought the infant fucked 
blood not only from its mother'sveins, but alfo from the womb. 
Democritus held that the child fucked in the nourilhment at i^s 
mouth Hypocrates affirms that the child fucks in both nouriih- 
ment and breath by its mouth from the mother, for which he 
gives two reafons : l,That it v/ill fuck as foon as it is born, and 
iriufthavc learnt to fuck before. ^. Becaufe there are excrem- 
ents found in the gUjts as foon as it is born. But. neiiher of tlief^; 
reafons are fufticient to prove his aflertion ;. for as to the firft, 
** That the child will fuck as foon as it is born" it is from nat^_ 
Ural inftin<?l: ; for take a youqg cat that never faw her dam 
catch a moufe, and yet fhe will catch mice herfelf as foon as (he 
is able. And as to his fcccond reaion, it is a lufRcicnt anfwer to 
f^iy, that the excrements found in the guts of an infant new 
born are not excrements of the firil conco6f ion, which is evident 
becaufe they don t (link, but are the thicked part of the blood,. 
^Ahich is conveyed from the velfels of the fpleen to the guts. 
Having therefore faid enough to confute the opinion of the 
child's receiving nouriilmientby the mouth, 1 do affirm that the 
child receives its nourifhment in the womb by the navel, and, 
That it fhould l>e fo, is much more confonant to truth and reaf- 
on ; which, being granted, it will eafily follow that the nour- 
ishment the child receives is pure blood conveyed into the liver 
by the navel vein, which is a branch of the vena porta, or great 
vein, and palTes to the fmall veins of the liver. Here this 
blood is m^ade m.oftpure, and the thicker and rawer part of it is 
conveyed to the fpleen and kidneys, and the thick excrement 
of it to the guts, which is that excrement found there fo foonas. 

. they are born The pure part is conveyed to the vena, cava, 
and bv it diftributed throughout the body by the fmall veins, 
which like fo many fmall rivulets, pafsto every part of it. This 



E^XPERIENGED MIDWIFE. iOt? 

blood is accompanied (as all blood is) with a certain watery 
iubftance, the better to convey it through the paHage it is to run - 
in, which as in men, is breathed out by fweating, and contain- 
ed in the amnios, as I have already faid. 
Section III. 
Of the Manner of the chlld^s lying in the '"Joomh. 
I COMK now to (l^ew after what manner the child 
i'es in the womb, a thing {q etlential fora^midwife to know that 
fne can be no midwife who is ignorant of it ; and yet, even a- 
bout this authors extremely differ; for there is not two in ten ■ 
that agree what is the form that tlie child lies in the womb', or in 
what fiiJiion it lies there ; andtlfis may ar/ife in a great meaf- 
ure from the dillerent figures that tlic child is found in accord- 
ing to the dillerent times of the xn oniLin's pregnancy ; for near' 
tlie time of its deliverance -out of rhofe winding chambers of na- 
ture, it oftentimes clianges the form in which it lay before, for 
another. Hippocrates atfirms the child is fo placed in the womb.- 
as to have its hands/ its knees, and its head bent down towards 
its feet, lo that it hes round tx)getlier, its hands upon both its 
knees, and its'face between them; fo that each eye toucheth. 
txich tl\|^rib, and its nofe beivvixt his knees : And Bartholinus 
waf alio of the fame opinion. Columbus defcribes tlie pofture' 
of the child thu^:, ** 1 lie right arm bov^ed, the fingers were 
under the ear and above the neck ; the head bowed down, fo 
tiiat the chin toucheth the breaft, the kit arm bowed above 
both brca(t and face, aod the left arm isproped up, by the bend- 
ing of tlie riglit elbow, the legs are lifted up fo that the thigh 
toucheth the belly, the koees the navel, the hee\ the left: but- 
tcKk, and the foot is turned back and covereth rlic fercrets j 
th.e left th'igh touchc'Ji the belly, and the leg is iified up to the 
b'reafl, the back lying outward. And' thus much iball fufiice 
concernmg the opinion ofautliors. 

I will now fl\ew the fcvc^al (kuatlons of the child in the womb 
according to the diifercnt tunes of pregnancy, by which thofe 
that are contrary to nature, and are the chief caufe of • all 
labors, will be rnore eafily conceivedby the underftanding 
midwife: It ouglit therefore, in the firft place, to be oblerved 
that the infants, as well male as female, are generally htuated 
in the midlf of tlie womb ; for though (onietimes to appearance 
a v/oman's. belly feems higher on one fide than on the other yet 
it is fo witli refpe i to her belly only and not of her womb, in 
the midlt of Vvliich it is always placed 

But in the fc^.o t.l place a woman's great belly makes differeat 
figures, accordir.'j; to the diilerent times of pregnancy ; for 
V-, hen (lie is yomg wltli child, the embryo is always found of a 
round figure a kittle oblong, iiaving the fpine moderately turned 
inwards, the ihi^ih^ I'^^i.l-vd, and a little raifcd, to ^^h;ch tl\e lej^s 
are fo joined M;;it rfir ^c/y-i.. touch tfie buttocks : '!!• ^ arms arc 
bend'^-.g, vr 1 r]'^ hands placed upon the knees : towards whicli 
the he:.vd i^: 'r'';r\:ng forwards, fo- that the chin t-ouchC'h the 
breaif ; ^-.w tv:. 1 po ..re it reicmbles one's (iith'ig- to eaie nature 
and (iooping v! a ' :h the head tt) fee what comes from ,him. 
The fpin^^ c i*: ': . /^ '■.::■ at '"hat tijiie placed ^owar-^^; tlie'moMi- 



lOS EXPERIENCED MrbWIF^. 

er*s and the head uppermoft, the face forwards, and the feet- 
downwards ; proporrlonably toitsgrovvth, it extends iis mem- 
bers by little and l.ttle, whch were exa 'ly folded the firft 
mofith. In th-s pofhire it ufiially keeps till the feventh month, 
and rhen by a natural propenfity and difpofition of the upper 
part of the body, tliC head is turned downwards towards the 
in.-.ard. orifice of the womb, tumbling as if it were over its 
head, fo that then the feet are uppermoft, and the face towards 
the morher's great gut ; and this turning of the infant in this 
manner, with his head downwards, towards the latter end of a 
woman's reckoning is fo ordered by nature, that it may there- 
by be the betrer difpofed for its paffage into the world at the 
timeof Its mother's labor which is then not far off; (and in- 
deed feveral children turn not at all until the Very tinic of birth)' 
for in this polture all its joints are moft eafily extended in com- 
ing forth ; for by this means the arms and legs cannot hinder 
its birth, becaufe they cannot be bended againftthe inward ori- 
fice of the womb ; and the red of the body, being verv fupple, 
paffech without any difficulty after the head, whic,h is liard and 
big, being pall the birth. It is true, there are divers children 
that lie in the womb in another pofture, and come to the birth 
with their feet downwards, efpecially if there be twins; for 
then by their different motions they fo difturb one another, that 
they feldom come both in the fame pofture at the time of labor, 
but one will come with the head, and another with the feet, or 
perhaps, lie acrofs, and fometimes one of them will come right. 
But however the child may be fituated in the womb, or to 
v.'hatever pofture it prefents itfelf at the time of birth, if it be^ 
not with its head forwards, as I have before defcribed, it is al- 
ways againft nature ; and the delivery will oceafion the mother 
ancre pain and danger, and require greater care and (kill from 
the midwife than when the labor is more natural. 

CHAP. IV. 
^ Guide for JVo?nen tn tra^vall Jbduoing nvhatls to be done nx>ben 
they fall in Labor^in order J dr their Delhuery. 
TirlK end of all that we have been treating of, is the 
bnnglT:.g forth of a child into the world with fafety both to the 
mother and to the infant. The whole time of the woman's 
pregnancy may very well be termed a kind of labor ; for, from 
the time of her conception, to the timeof her delivery, fhe la- 
bors under many difiiculties, is fubje6t to many diftempers and 
in continual danger, fronvonecaufe or another, till the time of 
birth comes, and w hen= that comes, the greateft labor and trav- 
ail comes along with it, infomuch, that then all her others are 
forgotten, and f}»at only is called the time of her labor ; and to 
dehvtT her fafely is the principal bufinefs of the midwife. To 
afiift her herein is the Chief deftgn of this chapter. The time of 
the child's being ready for its birth, wh'en nature endeavors to 
ca.l it forth, is that wnich is properly the time of a woman's la* 
bor. And fince many women, efpecially of their firft child, are 
often miftaken in their reckoning, andfo, when they draw near 
-rhcir time, take e/ery pain they meet with for the labor, when 
k is r.o:: fo. v/hkh often proves- prejudicial and troublefome to 



EXPERIENCED MimvIFt, 103: 

them, I willinthefirft fe(^Hon of this chapter, fet down fome 
figns, by which a woman may know when the true time of her 
labor is come. 

Sect. I Signs of the true Time of a IFoman^s Labor. 

WHEN women with their iir(t child, percive any 
extraordinary pains in their beily, they immediately fend for 
their midwife, taking it for rheir labor \ and then if the mid- 
wife be not a Ikilful and judicious woman, (he will, without 
further inquiry, take it for granted, and fo go about to put her 
into labor before nature is prepared for it : which may endan- 
ger the life both of the mother and child, by breaking the am- 
nois and chorion^ Thefe pains, which are often miltaken for 
labor, are removed by warm clothes laid on the belly, and the 
application of a clylter or two, by which thole pains which pre- 
cede a true labor are rather furthered than hindered. There 
are alfo other pains incident to women in that condition from a 
flux in the belly, which are eafily known by the frequent {tools- 
which follow them. 

Ihe ligns therefore of labor fome few days before are, that 
the woman's belly, which before lay high, links down, and hin-- 
ders her from walking fo eaiily as Ihe ufed to do ; alfo, there 
flows from the womb llimy humors, which nature has appoint- 
ed to moilten and fmooth the pailage, that its inward orifice 
may be the more eaiily dilated when there isoccafion ; which 
beginning to open at that time, fullers that flime to flow away, 
which Proceeds from the glandules called Proflratae. Thefe 
are figas preceding labor j but? when ihe is prefently falling 
into labor, the iigns are great pains about the region of the reins 
and loins, which, coming and reiterating by intervals, anfwer 
to the bottom of the belly by congruous throes, and fometimes 
the face is red and inflamed, the blood being much heated by 
the endeavors a woman makes to bring torth her child, and 
likewife becaufe during thefe (Irong throes her refpiration is in- 
tercepted, which caufes tlie blood to have recourfe to her tace ; 
alfo her privy parts are fwelled by the infant's head lying in the 
birth, which by often thrufting, caufes thofe pains to defcend- 
outwards. She is much fubject to vomiting, which is a fign of 
good labor and Ipeedy delivery, though by ignorant women 
thought otherwife, tor good pains are thereby excited and re- 
doubled; which vomiting is occafioned by the fympathy there 
•^between the womb and the ftomach. Alfo, when the birth 
is near, women are troubled with a trembling in the thighs and^ 
legs, not with cold, like the beginning of an ague fit, but with 
vhe heat of the whole body, though thjis does not always happen. 
When tlie humors which flow from the womb are difcolored 
with blocd, the midwives call it Shows, and it is an infallible 
mark of the birth'j being near : and if then the midwife .put up 
iier finger into the neck of the v/ornb Ihe will find the inner ori- 
iirz dilated : at the opening of which, the membranes of the 
infant containing the waters prefent themfelves, and are flrongr 
ly forced downwards with each pain Ihe hath ; at which time 
one may perceive them fometimes to relift and then again prefs 
^1 rward the .6nger, being mere €r iefs hard JUid &2Ci«^ed, 



lot EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

according as the pains are flronger or weaker. Thefe mem^ 
branes, with the waters in them, when they are before the^ 
head of the ch^ld, which tlie midwives call the Gathering of the 
Waters, refemble, to the touch of the finger, thofe eggs which 
have no fbell, butare covered only with a Tingle mombrane. 
After this, the pains dill redoubling, the membranes are brok- 
en by a ftrong impulfion of the waters,, which prefently flow 
away, and then the head of the infant is prefcntly felt naked, 
and prefents itfelf at the inward orifice oftJicwomb: V/hen 
thefe waters come thus away, then the midv\ ifemay be aubred 
the birth is very near, this being the moft certain fign tliat can 
be ; forthe Amnois and lantois being broked, which contain 
thofe waters, by j rclfing forward of the birth ; the cluld is nut 
better able to kibfift long in the womb afterwards, than a naked 
man in a heap of fnow. Now, thefe waters, if the child comes 
prefently after them, facilitate tlie labor, by making the paf- 
Jage flippery ; and therefore let no midwife (as fome have 
foolifhly done) endeavor to force away the water, for nature 
knows beft when the true time of the birth is, and therefore re- 
tains the water tiU that time. But if by accident the water 
breaks away too long before the birth, then fuch things as will 
haften it, may be fafely. admitted ; and what thofe are Ifh^ll- 
fhew in another fe(!^ion 

Section II. 
HoivalVoman ought to be ordered iv hen the Tune of Labor iji 
come. 
WHEN il is known that the time of a woman's laboi* 
is come, by the figns laid down in the foregoing feclion, of 
which thole that are mod to be relied on are pains and frrong- 
throe« in the belly, forcing downwards towards the womb, and 
a dilation of the inward orifice, which may be perceived by= 
touching it with the finger, and gathering of the waters before 
the head of the child, and thrufting down of the membranes 
which contatn them ; through which, between tke pains, oi>s 
may with the finger difcover the part which ^reients as faii 
before efpecially if it be the head of the child, by its round- 
nefsand hardnefs. If thefe things concur, and arc evident, the 
midwife may be fure it is the time of her labor ; and care mud 
be taken to ^et at! things ready that are necellary to comfort 
the woman in that time. And the better to help her^ be fare 
to fee (he be not draight laced : You may alfo give her a pretty 
drong cly der, or more, if there be occafion, provided it be done 
at the beginning, and before the child be too forward The 
benefit accrniing hereby will be, to excite the gut ta difcliarge 
itfelf of its excrements, that fo the rectum beinj^ emptied, there 
may be more fpace for the dilation of the paOage ; likewife to^ 
caufe the pains to bear the more downward ; through the ej*-' 
deavors (he makes whenfhe isatftool : and, in the mean time, 
all other neceflary things for her labor fhould be put in order> 
both for the midwife and the child. 1 e this end fome gee a 
midwife's ool, but a pallet bed girted is much the bed way, 
placed near the fire, if the feafon fo require : Which pallet 
ought to be lo placed, that there may be^aly s:ccefs to i< c^n ev- 



EXPERIENCED MIDV7IFE. 106 

ery CidCf that the woman may be the more readily aflifled, as 
there is occafion. 

If the woman abounds- with blood, to bleed her a little may 
not be improper, for thereby fhe will both breathe the better, 
and have her breads more at liberty, and likewife more ftrength 
to bear down the pain; and this Ihe may do v/ithout danger, 
becaufe the child being about that time ready to be born, has 
no more need of the mother's blood for its nourifliment : Be^ 
fides, this evacuation does many times prevent her having a fe- 
ver after her delivery. Alfo, before her delivery, if her 
/trength will permit, let her walk up and down her chamber ^ 
and that fhe may have ftrength fo to do, it will be neceflTary to 
give her fome good ftrengthening things, fuch as jelly broth, 
.new laid eggs, or fome fpoonfuls of burnt wine. And let her, 
by all means, hold out her pains, bearing them down as much^ 
as fhe can at the time when they take her ; and let the midwife 
from time to time touch the inward orifice with the finger, tb 
know whether the waters are ready to break, and whether the 
birth will follow foon after; let her alfo anoint the woman's 
privities with emollient oil, hog's greafe, and frefh butf:er, if 
ihe finds they are hard to be dilated. Let the midwife be all 
the while near the laboring woman, and diligently obferveher 
geftures, complaints, and pains, for by this fhe may auefs pretty 
well how her l^bor advanceth ; becaufe when flie changeth-her 
ordinary groans into long cries, it isa fign the child is very near 
the birth ; for at that time the pains are greater and more fre- 
quent. Let tlie woman rikev\ ile by intervals reft herfelf on the 
bed to regain her flrcngth, but not too long, efpecially if (he be 
litik, niGrt z?A thic;lc^ for fuch women hivs always worfc la.** 
bor, if they He long on; their beds in their travail ; it is better,, 
therefore that they walk, as much as they can, about the cham- 
ber, the women fupporting her under their arms, if it be necef- 
fary, for by this, means the weight of the child caufeth the in- 
ward orifice of the womb to dilate fooaer than m bed ; and if 
her pains be ftronger and more frequent, her labor will not be 
near fo long. 

Let not the laboring woman be concerned at thofe qualms 
and vomitings perhaps which (he. may find come upon her, for 
they will be much to her advantage in the illlie, ho^ ever unea- 
fy Jie may be for the time, as they further the throes and pains, 
provoking downwards. But to proceed : 

When the waters of the children arc ready and gathered, 
which may be perceived through the membranes to prefent 
ihemfclvei. to the inward orifice, of the bignefs of the whole 
dilation, the midwife ought to let them break of themfelves, 
and no^, like fome hafty midwives, who being impatient of the 
woman's long labor, break thep.i, intending thereby to haften 
their bufinefs, when inftead thereof, tlipy retard it ; for, by , 
the too halty breaking of thefe waters (which Nature defigned. 
to caufe the infant to flide forth the moreealily),the palTage re- 
ma ns dry, by which means the pains and throes of. the laboring 
v/oman are lefs efficacious to bring forth the infant than they 
WQuldotherwife have been, It is therefore much the better 



tOa EXPERIENCED MipWlf E. 

way to let the waters break of them 'elves : after which tlib'^ 
midwife may with eafe feel the child bare by that which firft- 
prefents, and thereby difcern whether it conies right, that is, 
with the head foremoft, for that is the moli proper and nacurai-i 
way of its birth ; if the head comes ri;^ht, ihe will jind it 
round, big, hard, and equal ; but if it bem any other part, ihc 
will feel it unequal, rugged, and fofror hard, according to the^ 
nature of the part it is. And this being the tme time when • 
the woman ought to deliver, if nature be not wanting to per- 
form its off ce, therefore when the midwife hnds the birth ihus 
coming forward^ l^t her haften to aflllc and aclivepit, for it or- 
dinarily happens foon after, ifit be natural. 

But it It happens as fometinies it may, that the waters break > 
away too long before the birth, in fuch-a cafe thofe things that • 
haften nature may be fafely admitted; to which purpoie, let- 
her make ufe of pennyroyal, dittany, juniper berries, red coral,., 
betony, and feverfew boiled in white wine, and a draught of it 
cb*ank ; or it would be much-betrer to take the juice ot it when 
it is.in its prime, which is ia May, and having clarilied it, let 
them make it into a fyrup, with double its weight of f ugar, and 
keep it by them all the year to ufe when occalion calls for it. 
Mugwort, ufed in the lame manner, is alio good in this cafe. 
Alfoadramof cinnamon^ powder given inwardly profits much 
inthiscale ; and fo does tanfey bruifed and applied to the priv- 
ities, or an oil of it fo made and ufed as you were taught before. 
The fton^ ;/?itites held to the privities is of extraordinary vir- 
tue, and inftantly draws away both child andafter burden, but- 
^reat care muft be taken to remove it prefently, or it will draw 
iorth the womb-and all j for fuch is the magnetic virtue cf this- 
Itone, that both child and womb follow it as readily as iron 
doth the loadflone, or as the load ftone the North liar. 

1 here are many othtr things that phyficians athnn are good^ 
in- this cafe among which are, an afs's or an liorie's hoof hung. 
near the privities > a piece of red coral hung near the laid 
place ; .aload (tone helps much held in the Vv o man's left hand, 
or the Ikin which a fnake hath cut off, girt about the middle. 
next the Ikin. Thefe things are mentioned by Mizaidus ; but 
fetting thole things ahde as not fo certain, notwithlianding, 
• Mizaidus quotes them, the follo>\ing prefcriplions are very 
good to give fpeedy deliverance to women \n travail 

1 A decoction of white wine made in favory, and drank. 

^. Take wild tanfey, or filver weed, bruife it, and apply it to - 
the woman's noftrils 

3. Take Qate ftones, and beat tliem to powder, and let her 
take half a dram of them in white wine at a time, 

4. lake parlley, and bruife it, and prels out the juice, and 
dip a linen cloth in it, and pvit it up fo dipped into the mouth of 
the womb, it will preientiy caule tJie child to come av.ay 
though it be dead, and will bring away the after burden Al- 
fo the juice of parlley is a thing of fo great virtue (efpecially. 
ftoneparlley) being drank by a woman with child, it cleanieti, 
not only the womb, but alio the child in the womb, of all grol^' 
humors^ 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. lOT 

•5. A fcrupleof caftorum in powder, in any coavenient liquor, 
: is very good to be taken in llich cafe ; and fo alfo is two or 
<rt}iree drops of fpirit of caftorum in, any convenient liquor : alfo 
.eight or nine drops of fpirit of myrrh, given in any convenient 
I liquors gives fpecdy deliverance. 

6. Give a woman in fuch a cafe another w^oman's milk to 
. drink it will caufe fpeedy delivery, and almofl: without any pain. 

7. The juice of leeks, being drank with warm water, hath a 
.mighty operation to caufe ipeedy delivery. 

8 . Take piony fseds, and beat them into powder, and mix the 
.powder with oil, with which oil anoint the loins and privities of 
" the woman with child ; it gives her deliverance very fpeedily, 

, and with lefs pain than can be imagined. 

9. Take a fwallow's neft, and diflTolve it in water, ftrain it, 
and drink it warm : it gives delivery with great fpeed and much 
eafe. 

Note, this alfo is general, that all things that move the terms 
are good for making the delivery eafy ; fuch as myrrh, white 
amber in white wine, or lily water, two fcruples or a dram ; or 

, caffia lignea, dittany, each a dram, cinnamon half a dram, faf- 
fron a fcruple, give a dram ; or take borax mineral a dram, caf- 
fia lignea a fcruple, faffron Qx grains, and give it in fack ; or 
take caflia lignea a dram dittany, amber of each; half a dram, 
cinnamon, borax, of each a dram and-a half, faffron a fcruple^ 
and give her half a dram ; or give her fome drops of hazel in 
a convenient liquor ; or two or three drops of oil ofcinnamoji 
in vervain water. Some prepare the fecundine. thus ; Take the 
naval firing and dry it in an oven ; take two drams of the pow- 

. der, cinnamon a dram, faffron half a fcruple. with juice of favin 
make troches ; give two drams ; or wa(h the fecundine in wine 
and bake it in a pot ; then walh it in endive water and wine ; 
take half a dram of it ; long pepper, galangal, of each half a 
dram ; plan tarn and endive feed, of each a dram and a half ; 
lavender feed four fcruples ; make a powder ; or take laudan- 
um two drams, llorax, calamine, benzoin, of each halfa dram ; 
mufk, ambergreafe, each fix grains ; make a powder, or troches 
for a fame. Or ufe peflaries to provoke the birth ; take gal- 
banum, diifolved in vinegar, an ounce ; myrrh two drams ; 
faffron a dram ; with oil of orts n\ake a peffary. 
An Ointment for the Navel. 
Take oil of kier two ounces, juice of favin an ounce, of leeks 

-and mercury, each half an ounce; boil them to the cqnfumption 
of the ju'ce ; and galbanum diifolved in vinegar half an ounce, 
myrrh two dramas, florax liquid a dram, round birth wort, 
fbwbread, cinnamon, faffron, a dram j with wax make anoint- 
ment and apply it. 

If the birth be retarded through the weaknefs of the mother, 
refredi her with applying wine and foap to the nofe, Confe(^ 
Alkermas Diamarg. 

Thefe things may be applied to help nature in the delivery 
when the child comes to the birth the right way, -and yet the 
birth is retarded; but if Ihe finds the ciiild comes the wrong 

-Way, and ihc is not able to deliver the woman as fhe ought to 



108 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

be, by helping nature and favin^ both mother and child (for it 
is not enough to lay a woman, if it might be done by another 
with more lafety and eaie, and lefs hazard both to woman and 
child) then let her fend fpeedily for better and more able help ; 
and not as I once kfiew a midwife, when a woman (he was to 
-deliver had hard labor, rather than a man midwife fhould be 
fent for, would undertake t > deliver the woman herfelf (though 
told by others that ii was a man's bw(inefs) and in her attempt- 
ing it brought away the child, but left the head of the infant 
behind in the mother's womb ; and had not a m.an midwife been 
prefently fent for, the mother had loft her life as well as the 
child ; luch perfons m^ay rather be termed butchers than mid- 
wives. But iappofing the woman's labor to be natural, I will 
next ihew what the midwife ought to do in order to her deliv- 
ery^ 

CHAP. V. 
Of natural Labor \ 'what it is, and ^vhat the Mid-ivife is to do in 
fuch a Labor, 
Section I. What natural Labor is, 
THERE are four things to denominate a woman's 
iabornatural ; the iirft is, that it be at the full time ; for if a 
woman comes before her time it cannot ^operly be termed 
natural labor, neither will it be fo eafy as if /he had completed 
her nine months. The fecond thing is, that it be fpeedy and 
without any ill accident ; for when the time of the birth is 
come, nature is not dilatofay in the bringing of it forth, with- 
out fome ill accident intervene wliich renders it unnatural. 
The third is, that the child be alive : for all will grant, that 
the being delivered of a dead child is very unnatural. The 
fourth thing requifite to a natural birth is that the child come 
right; for if.thepofition of the child in the womb be contrary 
to what is natural, and the event proves it fo too often, making 
that which fhould be a time of life the death both of the 
motlier and the child. 

Having thus told you what I mean by natural labor, I Ihall 
next (hew how tke midwife is to proceed here, in order to the 
woman's delivery. When all the foregoing requifites concur, 
and after the waters are broke of themlelves, let the laboring 
woman be conducted to a pallet bed, provided near the fire 
for that purpofe, as has already been faid, and let there rather 
be a quilt laid upon the pallet bedftead than a feather bed, hav- 
ing thereon linen clothes in many folds, with fuch other things 
as arc necelTarv, and may be changed according to the exigence 
requiring it. that fo the woman may not be incommoded with 
the blood, waters, and other filth which is voided in labor. 
The bed ought to be fo ordered, that the woman, being ready 
to be delivered, (houldlie on her back upon it having her body 
in a convenient pofture ; that is her head an4 breaft a little raif- 
ed, fo that ihe is between lying and fitting, for being fo placed, 
flie is beft capable of breathing and likewiie will have more 
ftrength to bear her pains, than if fiie lay otherwife, or funk 
down in her bed. Being fo placed (he muft fpread her thighs 
abroad, foldingfher legs a little towards her buttocks, fofne- 



^ EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. K>3 

whatraifcd by a fmall pillow underneath, to the end that her 
rump fhouldhave more liberty to retire b:ick, and let her Feet 
be (laid againft lirm things -Befides this, let her take hold ot 
feme of the good women attending her, with her hands, that 
fhe may the better ftay herlelf during her pains. She being 
thus placed near the fide of her bed, having her mid-vife by, 
the better to alTift upon occafion, let her take courage, and help 
her pains the bed (lie can, bearing them down when they take 
her, which (he muft do by holding in her breath, and forcing 
herfelf as much as pollible, in like manner as v/hen fhe goes to 
flool ; for by fuchftraining, thed'aphragma or midriff, being 
flrongly thruft downwards, necelfarily forces down the woinb 
and the child in it In the mean time, let the midwife endeavor 
to comfort her all fhe can, exhorting her to bear her labor cour- 
ageoufiy, telling her it wiUbe quickly over, and that there is 
no fear but file will have a fpeedy delivery. Let the midwife 
«Ifo, having no rings on her hand, anoint it with oil or frefh 
butter, and therewith dilate gently the inward orificeof the womb 
putting her finger ends into the entry thereof and ftretch >heni 
one from the other, when her pains take her ; by this means 
endeavoring to help forward the child, and thruiting by little 
and little the fides of the orifice towards the hinder part of the 
child's head, anointing the parts alfo with frelh butter if it be 
necelTary. 

Wiien the headof the infant is Ibmewhat advanced into this in- 
ward orifice, the midwife's phrafe is, It is crowned, becauTe it 
girds and furrounds it juft as a crown ; but when it is fo far 
that the extremities begin to appear without the privy parts, 
then lay they '* The child is in the pafHige." Ai^d at this time 
the woman feels herfelf as it were fcratched or pricked with pins, 
and is ready to imagine that the midwife hurts her. when it is 
occafioned by the violent diflention of thofe parts, and the lac- 
eration which, at fome times, the bigncfs of the child's head 
caufeth there. When things are in tliis pofture, let the mid- 
wife feat herfelf conveniently to receive the child, which will 
now come quickly, and with her finger ends (which fhe mtiff be 
fure to keep clofe paired)let her endeavor to thruft the crown- 
ing of the womb (of which I have fpoken before) back over 
the head of the child. And as foon as it is advanced as far as 
tke ears, or thereabouts, let her take hold of the two fides with 
her two hands, that when a good pain comes (he may quickly 
draw forth the child, taking care that the navel firing be not 
then entangled about the neck or any other part, as fometimes 
it is, lell thereby the after burden be pulled with violence, and 
perhaps the womb alfo, to which it is faftened, and fo either 
caufe her to flood, or elfe break the firing, both which are of 
bad confequence to the woman, whofe delivery may thereby be 
rendered more difficult. It muft alfo be carefully heeded that 
the head be not drawn out ftrait, but (baking it a little from one 
fide to the other, that the (houlders may fooner and eafier take 
their place immediately afterit bepaft, without lofmgany time 
left the head being paft, the child be (lopped there by the big- 
nefs of the (houlders and fo come in danger of being lufFocated 
K 



no KXPERIEiN'CED iMIDWIFE. 

and ftrangled in tbe paffage, as it fometimes happens for want of 
I are therein. But as foon as the head is born, if there be need 
/he may Aide in her fingers under the arm pits, and the reft of 
the body, will follow without difficulty. 

As foon as the midwife hath in this manner drawn forth the 
child, let her put it on one fide, left the blood and water which 
follow immediately, fhould doit an injury, by running into its 
mouth and nofe, as it would do if it Jay on its back, and fo en- 
danger the choaking it. The child being thus born, the next 
thing reqaifite is to bring away the after burden ; but before 
that, let the midwife be very careful to examine whether there 
be more children in the womb ; for fometimes a wohian may 
have twins that expected it not ; which the midwife may eafily 
know by the continuance of the pains after the child is born, 
and the bignefs of the mother's belly. But the midwife may be 
more fure of it if ftie puts her hand up the entry of the womb, 
and finds there another water gatliering, and a child in it pre«. 
fenting to the palfage : and if ihe i\nds fo, fne muft have a "care 
of going about to fetch away the after birtli, till the woman be 
delivered of all the children flie is pregnant with. Wherefore 
the firft ftring muft be cut, being firft tied with a thread three or 
four times doubled and the other end faftened with a ftring to 
the woman's thigh, to prevent the inconvenience it may caufe 
by hanging betv/een her thighs : and then removing the child 
already born, f{;enuift take care to deliver her of the reft, wheth- 
er more or lefs, obierving all the fame circumftances as the 
firft ; after which it will be neceffary to fetch away the after 
birth, or births But of that in another feclion ; after firft 
Shewing what is to be done to the new born infant. 

Sect. II Of /he cutting eff the Child's Nanjeljlrhig. 

THOUGH this is by many accounted but a trifle, 
yet great care is to betaken about it ; and it (hows none of the 
ieaftartor fkill of a midwife to do it as it fhould be : In doing 
this the midwife ought to obferve, 1. The time ; 2. The place j 
3 The manner; 4. The event. 

The time is, as foon as ever the infant comes out of the 
w^omb, whether it brings part of the after birth with it or n@t ; 
for fometimes the child brings into the world a piece of the am- 
nois upon its Iiead, and is what the good woman calls the caul, 
and ignorantly attributes fome extraordinary virtue to the 
child that is fo born ; but this opinion is only the eftect of their 
ignorance; for when a child is born with fuch a crown (as 
iome call it) upon its brows it generally betokens weaknefs, 
and denotes a :liort life. But to the matter in hand. As foon 
as the child is come into the world, confider whether it be weak 
or ftrqng ; and if it be weak, let the midwife gently put baCk 
part oifthe vital and natural blood mro the body of the child by 
its navel j for that recruits a v. eak child ; bur, :f the child be 
ftrong, the operation is needlefs Only let jrie advife you that 
many children thr.t aie born fecmingly dead, may be foen 
brought to iifL again if you fqueeze fix or {t'^^n drops of blood 
out of that part of the navel ftring which is cirt oft, and give it to 
thecliild imvardlvc 



E 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE, 111 

Authors can fcarce agree whether the navel firing fhould be 
cut long.or fliort ; fome prefcribing it to be cut off at four fin- 
ger's breadth which is at be(t but an uncertain rule, unlefs all 
fingers were of a fize. It is a received opinion that the parts a- 
dapted to generation are either contracted or dilated according 
to the cutting of the navel ftring ; and therefore niidwives gen- 
erally leave a longer part of it to a male than to a female, becaufe 
they would have the male well provided for the encounters of 
Venus ; and the reafon they give that they cut that of the femalea, 
ihorter, is, becaufe they believe it makes tliem modeft, and their 
rivities narrower, wh^ch makes them more acceptable to their 
ufbands. Mizaldus was not of this opinion, and therefore he 
ordered the navel itring to be cut long both in male and female 
children ; becaufe, faid he, the inftrumerit of generation follows 
the proportion of it, and therefore if it be cut too (hort in a fe- 
male, it will be a hinderance o^ her having children, I will not 
contradict thefe opinions of Mizaldus, tliat experience has made 
good. The one is, that if the navel ftring of a child, after it is 
cut be fuffered to touch the groimd, the child will never hold ir^ 
water, neither fleeping or waking, but will be fubjCLrt to an in- 
voluntary making of water all its life time. The other is, that a 
piece of the child's navel ftring carried about one, fo that it 
touch his Ikin, defends him that wears it from the falling ficknei-i 
and convuhions. 

xA.s to the manner how it mult be cut : Let the midwife takv"- 
a brown thread four or five times double, of an ell long, or ther;:^ 
abouts, tied with a fingle knot at each of the ends, to prevent 
their entagling ; and v/ith this thread fo accommodated (whicli 
the midwife muft have in readmefs before the the woman's labor, 
as alfo a good pair of fciflbrs, that no time may be loft) let her 
tie the ftring within a.n inch of the belly with a double knot, and 
turning about the ends of the thread let her tie two more on the 
other lide of the ftring, reiterating it again if it be necedary ; 
then let her cut off the navel another inch below^ the liga- 
ture, towards the after birth, fo that there only remains but 
two inches of the ftring, in the midft of which v/ill be the knot 
we fpeak'Of, which mull: be fo ft rait knit as not to fuffer a drop 
of blood to fqueeze out of the velfels : but care muft be taken 
not to knit it io ftrait as to cut it in two, and therefore the thread 
nmft be pretty thick, and pretty ftrait knit, it being better too 
ftrait ?than to'o loofe ; for, . fome children have miferably loit 
their lives, w ith all their blood, before it was difcovered, be- 
caufe the navel ftring was not well tied. Therefore great care 
muft be taken that no blood fqetze tlirougli,' for if there does, a 
new knot muft be made with the reft of the ftring. You need 
not fear to bind the navel ftring very hard, becaufe they are 
void of fenfe, and that part of it which you leave on falls oft' of 
its own accord, in a very few days, fornetimes fix or feven, and 
fometimes fooner ; but rarely tarries longer than the eighth or 
ninth. When you have thus cut the navel ftring, then take 
care the piece that falls off touch not the ground for the reafon I 
told you Mizaldus gave, which exreiicnce has ji?ftifi.e4. 



iH EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

*\s to the laft thing I mentioned, which 5s the event or confe- 
quencc, of ^^ hat follows cutting of the navel firing : Asfoon as 
the naval (tring is cut eft, apply a little cotten or lint to the place 
to keep it warm, left the ccld enter into the body of the child, 
which it will moft certainly do if you have not bound it hard e- 
nough. If the lint or cotton you apply to it be dipt in oil of ro- 
les, it will be the better ; and then put another Imall rag three 
or four times doiible upon the belly Upon the top of all, put 
another fmall boilier, and then fwathe it with a linen fwathe 
four fingers broad, to keep it /leady, left by rolling too much, or 
by being continually flirred from' lide to fide, it comes to fall 
otrbefcre the naval firing, which you left remaining, is fallen 
- ctf. It is the ufual cuftom of m.idwives to put a piece of burnt 
rag to it, which we comnionly call tinder : but i would rather 
advife them to pat a little of armoniac to it, becaufe of its dry- 
ing quality. But this (hall fuff.ce to be fpoken as to the cutting 
cl the navel tiring. 

Section III. H^jIv to bring aivay the after burden. 

A WOMAN cannot be faid fairly to be delivered, 
tiioughthe child be "born, till the after burden be alfo taken fra^n 
her ; herein dittering from moft animals, v.ho, \\l:en they have 
brought forth their young, call forth nothing eUe but fome wa- 
ters, and the membranes which, contained them. But v/omen 
have an after labor, which fometimes proves more dangerous 
than the firft : and how to bring it fafely awav, w ithout preju- 
dice ^o her, fiiall be my bufuiei's to fliew in tiiis fcLlion. 

As foon as the child is' bcrn, before the midwife either ties or 
cuts the navel ftringy left the womb fliould clofe^ let her take the 
firing and wind it once or twice about one or two of the fingers 
of her left hand joined together, the better to hold it, with which 
ihe may draw it' moderately, and with the right hand fhe may 
only take a ftngle hold of it above the left near the privities, 
drawing likewife with that very gently, refting the while the 
fore finger of the fame hand, ex'tended and ftretched forth along 
the ftring towards the entry of the vagina ; always obferving, 
for the more facility, to draw it, from the fide where the bur- 
den cleaves leaft, for in fo doing the reft will feparatethe better: 
and efpecially care muft be taken that it be not drawn forth with 
too much violence, left by breaking the ftring near the burden, 
the m.idwife will be oblige'dto put the whole hand into the womxb 
to deliver the v>om.an ; and ftie had need be a very fkilful per- 
itm that undertakes it, left the womb to which this burden is 
fometimes very Itrongly faftened, be drawn v. ith it, as it has 
jjmetimes happened. Jt is therefore beft to \\\e. fuch ^remedies 
as may ailift nature'. And here take notice, that \vhat brings 
away the birth will alfo bring away the after birth. And 
Uierefcre, for the allecting this w ork, I will lay dov.n the fol- 
lowing rules : 

1. Ufethe fame means in bringing away the after birth that 
you make iife of to bring away the birth ; for the fame care and 
cncumfpection is needful now that was then. 

2. Coniider the laboring woman cannot but be much fpent 
cv v-hat {he ha? alreadv undergone in bringing forth the infant ; 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 113 

and therefore be Aire to take care to give her fomething to com- 
fort her. And in this cafe good jeljy broths, alfo a little wine 
and toafl in it, and other comforting things will be neceffary. 

3. A little white hellebore in powder, to make her fneeze, in 
this cafe is very proper. 

4. Tanfey and the ftone v^tites, applied as before dlreded, is 
alfo of good life in this cafe. 

5. If you take the herb vei*vain, and either boil it in wine or 
make a fyriip with the juice of it, which you may do, by add- 
ing to it double its weight offugar (having clarified the juice 
before you boil it) and a fpoonful or two^of that §iven to the 
woman is very efficacious to bring away the fecundine ; and fe- 
verfew and mugwort, iiave the fame operation taken as the far- 
mer . 

6. Alexander boiled in wine, and the wine drank ; alfo fwQtt 
fervile, fvveet cicely, angelica roots, and mailerwort, are excel- 
lent remedies in this cafe. 

7. Orif thefe fail, the fmoke of mary golds received up a wo- 
maa's privities by a funnel have been known to bring away the 
after birth, even when the midwife let go her hold. 

8. Which is all I fhould add in this cafe. Boil mugwort in- 
water till it be very foft ; then take it out, and apply it in man- 
ner of a poultice to the navel of the laboring woman, and it in- 
ftantly brings away the birth and after birth: but fpecial care 
muft be taken to remove it as foon as they come away, left by 
its longer tarrying, it fhould draw away the wom.b alfo. But 
thus much fliall fuffice to be fpoken of in bringing away the af- 
ter burden in all natural labors. 

Section IV. Of laborious and difficult Labors, and hoiu the 
Midiuife is to proceed therein. 
TO proceed in this ferfion the more regularly, it will 
be necefTary to accjuaint the reader that there are three forts of 
bad labors, all painful and difficult, but not all properly unnat- 
ural. It will be necefTary therefore'to diftinguifh thefe. 

The firfl of thefe bad labors is that wherein the mother and 
child fufl'er very muck by extreme pain and difficulty, even 
though the child come right ; and this is diftinguifhably called 
laborious labor. 

The fecond is that which is difficult, and diflers not much 
from the former except that befides thofe extraordinary painS;, 
it is generally attended with fome unhappy accident, which, by- 
retarding the birth, caufes the difficulty ; and thefe difficulties 
being removed, accelerates the birth and haftens the delivery. 

Some have afked what the reafon is that women bring forth 
their children with fo much pain ? I anfwer, the fenfe of feeling 
isdiftributed to the whole body by the nerves, and the mouth 
of the womb being fo flraight that it muft of neceffity be dilated 
at the time of the woman's delivery, the dilating thereof (tretch- 
cs the nerves, and from. thence comes the pain. And therefore 
the reafon why fome women have more pain in their labor than 
others, proceeds from their having the mouth of the matrix 
more full of nerves than others, as fkilful anatomifts do eafily 
difcover. 

k a 



1 1 4 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

But to proceed, the beft way to remove thefe difficulties that 
occa^'on Inch liard pains and labor I am here to treat of, is to 
il.ew from whence tliey proceed for the caufe of any diftemper 
be. r.g known, is as much as half the cure Now the difficulty 
cf latjoi piccecds either from the mother or child, or both. 

From the mother, by reafon of the indifpofition of her body, 
cr may be from lome particular part only, and chiefly the 
\\omb, as when the woman is weak, and the womb is not aclive 
to expel its burden, or from weaknefs or difeafe, or want of 
fpirits : or it may be from fome ftrong pafiion of the mind with 
which (he was before potreifed ; it may be alfo becaufe fhe hath 
been too young, and fo may have the paffiage too firait ; or too 
old, and then, if it be her iirfl: child, becaufe her parts are too 
dry and too hard, and cannot be fo eafily dilated, as happens alfo 
totliem who are too lean. Likewife thofe who are either fmall, 
.or itort, or deformed, as crooked women, who have not a 
breath flicng enough to help their pains, and tobear them down, 
and perlons that are crooked having fometirnes the bones of the 
palFage not well fhapen ; the cholic alfo hinders labor, by pre- 
venting the true pains, and all great and acute pains, as when 
the woman is taken with a violent fever, great flooding, fre- 
quent convulfions, bloody flux or any other great diftemper. 

Alfo excrcm.ents retained caufe much diffi^culty, and fo does a 
iionein the bladder j or when the bladder is full of urine, with- 
out being able to void it ; or when the woman is troubled with 
great and painful biles It may alfo be from the paffiages, 
"when the membranes are thick, the orifice too ftrait, and the 
neck of the w omb is not fufficiently open, the paflages are prefl- 
ed and llrained by tumors in the adjacent parts, or when the 
bones are too firm, and will not open, which very much endan- 
gers m.other and child ; or when the parages are not (lippery, 
by reafon of the waters having broke too foon, or the mem- 
branes bein^ too thin. The womb may alfo be out of order 
with refpefl to its bad fituation, or conformation, having its 
neck too Ihait, hard or callous ; which m.ay eafdy be fo natur- 
ally, or may come by accident, being many times caufed by a 
tiurior. a poUhume, ulcer, orfuperfluous flefho. 

As to hard labor occafioned by tlie child, it is when the child 
• happens to flick to a mole, or when it is fo weak that it cannot 
break the membranes, or if it be too big all over, or in the head 
only, or if the navel veflels are twilled about its neck, when the 
belly ishydropical, orwheait is monflrous, having two heads, 
or being joined to another child ; alfo when the child is dead, or 
fo weak that it can contribute nothing to its birth, likewife when 
it comes wrong, cr when there are one or two more And in 
all thefe various difficulties there is oftentimes one more, and 
that is the ignorance of the midwife ; for want of underflanding 
her bufmels hinders nature in her work, inftead of helping her. 
Having thus looked into the caufe of hard labor, I will now 
fliew the induftrious midwife how Ihem.ay minifler fome reliefto 
the laboring woman under th»efe circumftances. But it will re- 
quire underfranding and judgment in the midwife, when fhe 
hndsa woman in difficult labor, to krjrow the particular obftruc- 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 115 

tion, or caufe thereof, and fo a fuitable remedy may be applied. 
As for inftance, when it happens by the mothers being too 
young and to ftrait, fhe muft: be gently treated, '"and the paffages 
anointed with oil, hog's lard, or frefh butter, to relax and di- 
late them the eafier, left there fhould happen a rupture of any 
part when the child is born; for Sometimes the peritonaeum 
breaks with the (kin from the privities of the fundament. But 
ifawoinan be in years with her lirft child, let her lower parts 
be anointed to mollify the inward orifice, which in fuch a cafe 
being more hard and callous, doth not eafily yield to the diften- 
tion of labor,, which is the true caufe why fuch v/omen are long- 
er in labor, and alfo why their children, being forced againft 
the inward orifice of the womb (which as I have faid, is a little 
callous) are born with great humps and bruifes on their heads. 
Thofe women that are very fmall and mifhapen H'ould not be 
put to bed, at leaft till their waters are broke, but rather kept 
upright, and affifted to walk about the chamber, by being fup- 
ported under their arms ; for by that means they will breathe 
more freely, and bear their pains better than on the bed, be- 
caufe there they lie all on a heap. As for thofe that are very 
lean, and have hard labor, from that caufe, let them moiften 
the parts with oils and ointments, to make them more fmoothe 
and fiippery, that the head of the infant and the womb be not 
fo compaffcd and bruifed by the hardnefs of the mother's bones 
which form the pafiage. If the caufe be weaknefs, flie ought to 
be ftrengthened, the better to fupport herTpains ; to which end 
give her good jelly broths, and a little wine with a toaftinit If 
ihe fears her pains, let her be comfortcdj affuring her that fhe 
will not bear many more, but be delivered in a little time. But 
if her pains be flow and fmall, or none at all, they muft be pro- 
voked by frequent and pretty ftrong clyfters, that lo they may 
fee excited thereby ; after which, let her walk about the cham- 
ber, that fo the weight of the child may help them forward But 
if ftie flood or have convulfions ; ftie muft then be helped by a 
fpeedy delivery ; the operation whereof I ftiall relate in the fec- 
tion of unnatural labors. If file becoftive, letherufe clyfters, 
which may alfo help to difpel the cholic, at thofe times, very 
injurious, becaufe attended with ufelefs pains, and becaufe fuch 
bear not downwards, and fo help not to forward the birth. If 
ftie finds an obftru6lion or ftoppage on the urine, by reafon the 
womb bears too much on the bladder, let her lift up her belly a 
little with her hand, and try if by that ftie receives any benefit ; 
if fhe finds ftie does not, it will be neceftary to introduce a ca-. 
tl^cter in the bladder, and thereby draw forth her urine. If 
the difficulty be from the ill pofture of a woman, let her be pla- 
ced otherwife, in a pofture more fuitable and convenient for her. 
Alfo if it proceed from the indilpofitions of the womb, as from 
its oblique fituation, &c. it muft be remedied, as well as can be 
by t^^e placing of her body accordingly ; or if it be a vicious 
confirmation, having the neck too hard, too callous, and too 
ilrait, it muft be anointed with oils and ointments as before di. 
refted. If the membranes be fo ftrong as that the waters don't 
brCvik in due time, they may hz broken with the fingers if the 



116 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

midwife be firft well afTured that the child come forward into 
the pafTage, and ready to follow after, or elfe by the breaking 
of the waters too foon, the child may be in danger of remain- 
ing dry a long time ; to fupply which defefl you may moifien 
the parts with fomentations, decod;ions, and emolhent oils ; 
which yet is not half fo well as when nature does the work in 
her own time, with the ordinary iVime and waters which do 
befl: when they come in their own proper time and places. But 
thefe membranes do fometimes prefs forth with the waters three 
orfour fingers breadth out of the body before the child refem- 
bling a bladder full of water ; but there is then no great dan- 
ger to break them, if iheybe not already broken, for when the 
cafe is fo, the child is always in readinefs to follow, being 
in the paflage ; but let the midwife be very careful not to pull 
it with her hand, left the after burden be thereby loofened be- 
fore its time, for it adheres thereto very ftrongly. Jf the navel 
Ttring happens to come firft, it muft preiehtly be put up again,^ 
and kept too if poiTible, or otherwife the woman muft immedi- 
ately be delivered. But if the after burden fliould come firft, it 
muft not be put up again by no means ; for the infant having no 
further occafion for it, it would be but an obftacle if it were 
put up : in this cafe it muft be cut off" having tied the navel 
iiring, and afterwards drawn forth the child with all the fpeed 
that may be, left it be fuffocated. 

Section V. Of Women labotrn^ nmth a dead Child. 

WHEN the difficulty of Tabor arrifes from a dead 

child, it is a cafe of great danger to the mother, and great carQ 

ought t© be taken therein : but before any thing be done, the 

midwiie ought to be well allured the child is dead indeed, 

which may be known by thefe figns. 

1. The breaftfuddenly flacks, or falls flat, or bags down. 

2. A great coldnefs poflelfes the belly of the mother, efpe- 
cially about the navel- 

3. Her urine is thick, a ftinking fettling at the bottom. 

-4. No motion of the child can be perceived : for the trial 
whereof let the midwife put herhand in warm water and lay it 
upon her belly ; for that if it be alive, will make it ftin 

5 She is very fubje6t to dream of dead men and be affright- 
ed therewith. 

6. She has extravagant longings to eat fuch things as are a- 
gainft nature. 

7. Her breath ftinks though not ufed fo to do. 

8. When ftie turns herielf in the bed, or rifes up, the child 
f ways that way like a lump of lead. 

But thefe things carefully obferved, the midwife inay make a 
judgment whether the child be alive or dead ; efpeciallyif the 
woman takes the following prefcription : 

" Take half a pint of white wine, and burn it, and add 
thereto half an ounce of cinnamon, but no other fpice whatev- 
er," and when ftie has drank it, if her travailing pains come 
upon her, the child is certainly dead ; but if not, the child may 
poflibly be either weak or iick, but not dead. And in this 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 117 

cafe, it will refrefh the child, and give hereafe ; for cinnamon 
lefreiheth and (Irengtheneth the child in the womb. 

Now if, upon trial, it be found the child is dead, let the moth- 
er do all (he can to forward her delivery, becaufe a dead child 
can be no ways helpful therein. It will be necefTary therefore 
that (he take lome comfortable things to prevent her fainting, 
by reafon of thofe putrid vapors afcending from the dead child. 
And in order to her delivery, let her take the following herbs 
boiled in white wine, (or as many of them as you can get) viz. 
Dittany, betony, pennyroyal, fage, feather tew, century, ivy 
leaves and berries. Let her alfo take fweet bafil in powder, 
half a dram at a time, in white wine; and her privities be an- 
ointed with the juice of garden tanfey ; or, if you take tanfey 
in the fummer when it may be moft plentifully nad, and before 
it runs up to the flower, and having bruifed it well, boil it in oil 
till the juice of it be confumed. If you fet it in the fun, after 
you have mixed it with oil, it will be more efl"e<5i.uaL This a 
careful midwife ought to have always by her. As to the man- 
ner of her delivery, the fame methods muft be ufed as are men- 
tioned in the feclion of natural labor. And here I cannot but a- 
gain commend the ftone i^titeS; held near the privities, whofe 
magnetic virtue draws the child any way with the fame facility 
as the loadftone draws iron. 

Let the midwife alfo make a flrong deco6lion of hylTop with 
vyater, and give the woman to drink it very lipt, and it wul, in a 
little time, bring away the dead child. A decoction of the herb 
maflerwort, ufed as the above, works the fame efl'e6ts The 
roots t)f polipodium (lamped well, warmed a little, and bound 
on the fides of her feet, will foon bring away the child either 
alive or dead. 

If as foon as O^e is delivered of the dead child, you are in 
doubt part of the afterbirth is left behind, for in fucn cafes, be- 
iag rotten, it may come away piece meal, let her continue 
drinking the iame decoiSlion till her body is cleanfed. 

The following medicines flir alfo up the expulfive faculty ; 
but in this cafe they mud be made llronger becaufe the motion 
of the child ceafeth. 

Take favin, round birthvvort, troches of myrrh, afaram 
roots, cinnamon half an ounce, faffron a fcruple, give a dram 
with favin water. Or, take borax, favin, dittany, each an 
ounce ; myrrh afaram roots, cinnamon, faffron_, each half a 
dram make a powder, give a dram. 

But (lie may purge hrft, and put her in an emollient batL/an- 
ointing her round about the womb with oil of lilies, Iweet al- 
monds, camomile, hen and goofe greafe. Alfo, foment to get 
out the child with a decodlion of mercury, orris, wild cucum- 
bers, fsechus, broom flowers Then anoint the privities and 
loins with ointment of fowbread : Or, 

Take coloquintida, agaric, birthwort, each a dram, make a 
powder, add armoniac dilFolved in winC: ox gall, each two 
drams, with oil of kier make an ointment. Or, make a fume 
with alfes' hoofs burnt, or gallianum, or ca^er, and let it be tak* 
en inwitlia funnel. 



118 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

To take away pains and ftrengthen the parts, foment ^vitli 
the decod;ion of mugwort, mallows, rofemary, woodmyrtle, St. 
John's wort, each half an ounce ; (permaceti t\^ o drams, deer's 
fuet an ounce, with wax make an ointment Oi, take wax tour 
punces, fpermaceti an ounce, melt them, dip flax therein, and 
lay it all over her belly. 

If none of thefe things will do, the laft remedy is to u(e fur- 
gery, and then the midwife ought, without delay, to lend for 
an expert and able man midwife, to deliver her by manual ',jpen- 
ation ; of which I ihall treat more at large in the next chapter. 
CHAP. VI. 
IN fhewing the duty of a midwife, when the v,o- 
man's labor is unnatural, it will be reqiiiiite to Ihew in the tirlt 
place what I mean by natural labor; tor, it is natural to a wo- 
man to bring forth children in pain and forrow. 1 hat which I 
call unnatural, is when the child comes to the birth in a contrary 
polhire to that which nature ordained, and in which the gener- 
ality of children come ink) the world. Now, as truth is but 
one, but error dilates itfelf into infinite variety ; fo there is but 
one proper right and natural pofture in which children come to 
birth ; but there are as many wrong and unnatural ways, as 
there are diflerent poftures of children when tliey are come to be 
born. The right and natural birth is when the child comes 
with its head firft and yet even this is too (hort a definition of a 
natural birth, for if any part of the head but the crown comes 
firfl, fo that the body follow not in a flraight line it is a wrong 
and difficult birth. Now there are four general ways a child 
may come wrong ; 1ft, when any of the fore parts ot the body 
ijritprefent thenifelves. 2dly, when by an unhappy tranfpofi- 
tion, any of the hinder parts firft prefent themieives. 3dly, 
when either of the fides. Or, 4thly, when the feet prefent 
themfelves firft To thefe four, all the particular and different 
wrong poftures that a child can prefent itfelf in for the birth, 
may be reduced; and therefore I fhall confine my felf only to 
treat of thefe four more general wrong ways. 

Section I. 
Hoic to deUnjer a Woman of a dead child by natural operation. 
THE laft feftion of the laft chapter treated of the de- 
livering of a woman of a dead child, and feveral things were di- 
re (T:ed to be applied in order to facilitate the delivery; but 
when all thefe fail, a manuar operation is abfolutely necefla- 
ry : In order thereto, let the operator acquaint the woman 
with the abfolutc necellity, there is of fuch an operation ; and 
that as the child has already loft its life, there is no other way 
left for the faving of hers . Let him alfotell her, for her encour- 
agement, that he doubts not, with the divine blelling, to deliver 
her fafely, and that the pain ariling thereby will nut be fo great 
as flic fears. And then let him endeavor to ftir up the woman's 
pams, by giving her fome fliarp clyfter to exci'e her throes to 
btai down and brin^ forth the child, and if this prevail not, let 
hiin proceed with his manual opeiation. 

b irft. Let her be placed crofs the bed, that he rnay operate 
the ealier ^ and let her lie on her back with her h^ps a little 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 119 

higher than her head, or at leafl: the body equally placed, 
when it is neceffar) to put back or -urn tlie infarit to give it a 
better pofture : Being thus lituateo, the mu'l fold her legs To as 
her heels be towards her buttocks afr her thighs fpread. and 
held by a couple of ftrong perfons ; liiere nuift be others alfo to 
fupport hei under her arms that the body may not Hide down 
when the child is drawn forth, for which foiiietymes c. ^reat 
firength is required ; let the iheets and blankets ccer her ^highs 
for decency's fake, and alfo to prevent her catchlit^ cola '.hen 
let him anoint the enterance of the womb with oJ or freih but- 
ter, if neceOary, that fo he may with more eai'e introduce his 
hand, which muft alfo be anointed ; and having by figns before 
mentioned, received fatisfadf ion that it is a dead chik^, he muft 
do his endeavor to fetch it away as foon as polfible . and f the 
child offers the head firft, he muft gently pu*- it back, u iru he 
hath liberty to introduce his hand quite into the womb • then 
Hidingit along under the belly to find tlie feet, let hr;:i oiaw it 
forth by them, being very careful to keep the head frr;ni being 
locked in the paifage, that it be not feparaied from the body ; 
Avhich maybe etiecSted the more eafily, becaufe the child being 
very rotten and putrified, the operator is notfo mindful to keep 
the breaft and face downwards as he is in living births But if, 
notwithftanding all thefe precautions, by reafon of the child's 
putrefaction, the head (hould.be feparated, and left behind in 
the womb, it muft be draw n forth according to the direftions 
which (hall be given in feff. 3 of this chapter for that pu.rpofe. 
But when the head, coming fii ft, is fo far advanced that it can- 
not well be put back, it is better to draw it forth fo, than to 
torment the woman too much by putting it back to turn it and 
bring it by the feet ; but the head being a part round and flip- 
pery, it may fo happen that the operator cannot take hold of it 
with his fingers by reafon of its moifture, nor put them up to 
the fide of it, becaufe the palFage is filled w^th its bignefs, he 
muft take a proper inftrument, and put it up as far as he can 
without violence, between the womb and the child'shead, ob- 
ferving to keep the point of it towards the head, and let him 
faften it there, giving it a ^ood hold upon one of the bones of 
the fkull, that it may not flide ; and after it is well fixed he may 
therewith draw it forth keeping th'" ends of the fingers flat up- 
on the oppofite fide, the better to help difengageft, and by (hak- 
ing it a little to conduct it directly out of the paftaoe, until the 
head be quite born, and then taking hold of it with the hands 
only, the Oioulders may be drawn into the paftage, and fo Aid- 
ing the fingers of both hands under the anxipits, the child may 
be quite delivered : and then the after burden fetched, being 
careful not to pluck the navel (I ring too hard, left it break as of- 
ten happens, when it is corrupted. 

If the dead child come with the arm up to the (houldcrs fo ex- 
tremely fwelled that the woman muft futfer too great a violence 
to have it put back 'tis then the beft, to take it oft' at the fkoul- 
der joints, bv twifting it three or four times about, which is very 
eafily don^ by reafonof thefoftnefs andtendernefs of the body. 
After the arm is fo feparated, and no longer pofte^mg the patt^ 



1^0 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

age, the operator will liave more room to put up his hand into 
the wonnb, to fetch the child by the feet and bring it away. 

But although the operator be fure the child is dead in the 
womb, yet he muft not therefare prefently ufe inftruments, be- 
caufe they are never to be ufed but when hands are not fuffi- 
cient : and there is no other remedy to prevent the woman's 
danger, or to bring forth thechild any other way : and the 
judicious operator will chvife that way which is leafl hazardous 
and mod fjafe. 

Section II. 
Hoio a Woman mufl be delivered ivhen the Child's feet cttne firft. 
THERE is nothing more obvious to thofe whofe bu- 
finefs it is to aflift laboring women than that the feveral unnat- 
ural poftures in which children prefent themfelves at their 
births, are the occafion of the moftbad labors and ill accidents 
that happen unto v/omen in fuch a condition. 

And lince midwives are very often obliged, becaufe ot the 
unnatural fituations, to draw the children forth by the feet, I 
conceive it to be moft proper to (liew firfl, how a child mufl: be 
brought forth that prefents itfelf inthat poflure, becaufe it will 
be a guide to feveral of the reft. 

I know indeed that in this cafe 'tis the advice of feveral au- 
thors to change the figure, and place the head fo that it may 
prefent the birth, and this council I fhould be very inclinable 
to follow, could they but alfc fhew how it mufl be done. But 
it will appear very diflficult, if not impofTible to be performed^; " 
if we will avoid the dangers that by fuch violent agitations both 
the mother and the child muft be put into, and therefore my o- 
pinion is. That it is better to draw it forth by the feet, when it 
prefents itfelf in that pofture, than to venture a worfe accident 
by turning it. 

As foon therefore as the waters are broke, and it is known 
that the child comes thus, and the womb is open enough to admit 
the midwife's or operators hand into it, or elfe by anointing 
the paifage -^'^ ith oil or hog's greafe, to endeavor to dilate by de- 
grees, uijr g her fTUgers to this purpofe, fp reading them one 
from the other, after they are together entered and, continu- 
ing to do fo till it be fufiiciently dilated, then taking care that 
her nails are well pared and no rings on her fingers, and her 
hands well anointed with oil or frefh butter, and the woman 
placed in the manner directed in the former fe6lion, let her gen- 
tly introduce her hand into the entry of the womb, where find- 
ing the child's feet, let her draw it forth in the manner I w^ill 
prefently direct ; only let her firft fee whether it prefents one 
foot, or both, and if itbe but one foot, (he ought to confider 
wliether it is the ri^ht foot or the left, and alfo in what fafhion 
it comes : for by that means Ihe will fconer come to know 
where to find the otlier, which as foon as fhe kncv/s and finds, 
let her gently draw forthwith the other , but of this fne muft 
be efpccially careful, viz. that this fecond be not the foot of 
another child ; fcv if fo, it may be of the moft: fatal confequence, 
for fhe may fooner fplit both mother and child than draw them 
forthj but this may be eafily prevented, if (Ke dod^but Hide 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. bli 

■her hand up the firftleg andthi[r to the twid^, and there find 
both thighs joined together, and aefcending from one and the 
fame body. And this is alfo the bed means to find the other 
toot when it comes with but one. 

As foon as the midwife hath found both the child's feet, fiie 
may draw theili forth, and holding them together, may bring 
them by little and little in this manner, taking afterwards hold 
of the legs and thighs as foon as (he can come at them, drawing 
themlotiU the hips become forth. Wjiilft this is doing let lier 
obferve to w^rap the parts in a fmgle cloth that fo her 
hands being already greafy, Hide not on \he infant's body 
which is flippery, becauie ot the vicious humors whicli are all o- 
ver it, and prevent one's taking hold of it, \vhirh being done, 
fhe may take hold under the hips, fo to draw^ it forth to the be- 
ginning ot the breaft ; and let her on both fides with her hand 
bringdown the arms along the child's body, vvhichflie may then 
eafily find ; and then let her take care that the belly and fate of 
the child be downwards, for if it (hould be upwards there would 
be fome danger of its being flopt by the chin over the (hare 
bone ; and therefore, if it be not fo, mull turn it to that pofhire ; 
which may be eafily done, if (he take hold on the body when 
the breaft and arms are forth in the manner v.^e have fa'd, and 
draws it with turning it in proportion on that fide which it 
moit inclines to, till it be turned with the face down wards, and 
fo having brought it to the (houlders, let her lofe no tim.e, de- 
■^'fire the woman at the fame time, to bear down, that lb at drawing, 
the head at that inftant, may take its place, and not to be Itcpt in 
the paffage. Some children there are w^hcfe heads are fo big, 
that when the wholebody is born, yet that (tops in the paffage, 
though the midwife takes all potlible care to prevent it. And 
when this happens (he muft not endeavor only toxiraw- forth the 
childby the fhoulders, left fhe fometimes feparate tlie body 
from the head, as I have known it done by the mid-wiie but flie 
^uftdlfcharge it by little and little from the bones in thepaflages 
with the fingers of each hand, fliding them on each fide oppoMte 
the one to the other, fometime above, and fometimes imder, un- 
til the work be ended, endeavoring to difpatch it as fcon as polh- 
ble left the child be fuiibcated, as it will unavoidably be, if it 
fhould remain long in that pofture ; and this being well and care - 
fully effected fhe may foon after fetch away the afrer birth as I 
have before directed. 

Section III. 

Ho IV to bring anjj ay i he Head of the Child, 'ivhen feparatcd 
from the Body, and left behind in the Womb. 
THOUGH the utmioft care be taken in brintring a- 
W'ay the child by the feet, yet if the child happens to be dead, 
it is fometimes fo putrified and corrupted, that with the leaft 
pull the body feparates from the head, and reinains alone in 
the womb, and cannot be brought away butv/ith a manual ope- 
ration and difficulty it being extremely flippery, by rcafon of 
the place where it is, and from the roundnefs of its' figure, on 
which no hold can be well taken. Andfo very great is the dif* 
ficulty in this cafe, that fometimes two or thr^e able praetition*- 



1£2 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

ers in the art of midwifery, have one after the other left tlie 
operation imfinilhed, as not able to eftecl it after the utmoll ef- 
forts of their induftry. Ikill and Itrength ; fo that the woman 
not being able to be delivered, perifheth To prevent which 
fatal accidents for the time to come, let the following operation 
be obferved. 

When the infant's head Separates from the body, andi? left 
behind, whether through putrefa6tion, or otherwile, let the op- 
erator immediately, whilft the womb is yet open, direct up liis 
right hand to the mouth, for no other hold can there be had ; 
and having found it let him put one or two of his fingers into it, 
by little and little, holding it by the jaw ; but if that fails as 
fometimes it will, when putritied, then let him pull forth his 
right hand, and Aide up his left v/ith which he nmft iupport the 
head, and with the right let him take a harrow infirument called 
a crotchet ;but let it be flrong and with a (ingle branch, which 
he muft guide along theinfide of his hand, v/irh the point of it 
towards it, for fear of hurting the womb; and having thus 
introduced it, let him turn it towards the head, for to ffrike ei- 
ther into an eye hole or the hole of an ear, or behind the head 
or elfe between the (iature, as he finds it mort: convenient and 
eafy ; and then dra\V forth the head lo faftened with the faid 
inftrument, ilill helping to conduit it with his left hand but 
when he hath brought it near the paflage, being ftrongly faft- 
ened to the infirument, let him remember to draw forth his 
hand, that the pafTage not being filled with it may be the larger 
and eafier, keeping Kill a finger or two on the fide of the head ; 
the better to dilengage it. 

There isalfo ano^ther way to this, with more eafe and lefs 
hardfliip than the former ; which i^^ this, let the operator takea 
foft linen or fillet flip of above four fingers breadth, and the 
length of three qi.arters of an ell or thereabouts, taking the 
two ends with the left hand, and the middle with the right and 
let them fo put it up with his right as that it maybe beyond the 
head, lo embrace it as a fling doth a ftone ; and afterwards 
draw forth the fillet by the two ends together, it will be eafily 
drawn forth, the fillet not hindering the leaft paflage, becaufe it 
takes up little or no place 

When the head is thus fetched out of the womb, care mufl 
betaken that not the leaff part of it be left behind, and like- 
wife to cleanfe the woman well of her after burden, if yet re- 
maining. Some have queftioned whether the child's head re- 
maining yet in the womb, or the after birth ought to be brought 
away firft ? The anfwer to which queftion may be by way of 
diftin^iion ; that is to fay, if the burden be wholly Separated 
from the fides of the womb, that ought to be firft brought away, 
becaufe it may alfo hinder the taking hold of the head ; but if 
it ftill adheres to the womb, it muft not be medled with till the 
head be brought away ; for if one (hould then go about tofeparate 
it from, the womb, it might theja caufe a flooding which would 
be augmented by the violence of the operation ; the vefTels to 
which it is joining remaining for the moft part open as long as 
the womb is diftended, which the head caufeth vJiile itjs 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. i^^' 

retained in it, and cannot clofe till this (Irange body be voided, 
;ind then it doth by contracting andcompreding itfelf to- 
getlier, as has been more fully betore exphiined. liefides the 
afterbirth remaining thus cleaving to the womb during the op- 
eration, prevents it from receiving ealily either bruife or hurt. 

Section IV. 
H'jvj to ddi'ver a ]Vo7n^tn ivhcn the fide of the Ch'iLV s Head Is /-/V- 
fen ted to the Birth. 
TKOUGH fonie v:\ay thini<. itanaiural labor v. hen 
die child's head may come firft, but yet if the child's head prefents 
not the right way, even that is an unnatural labor, and there- 
fore though the head comes firft, yet if it be the lide of the 
headinfteadof the crovvu. it is very dangerous both to th(i 
mother and child, for the child may looner break its neck, than 
be born in that manner ; and by how much the mother's pain.'? 
continue to bear the child, which it is impoilible, unlefs the 
head be rightly placed, the more the padages are ilopt, there- 
fore as foon as the poiition of the child is known, the woman 
liiu ft be laid with ail Ipeed, left the child Ihould advance further 
in this vicious pofture, and therefore render it more difficult to 
thrull it back, which mull: be done in order to place the head in • 
the patfage right as it ought to be. 

lo thispurpofe therefore place the woman fo that her hips 
may beahttle higher than her head and ihoulders, cauling her^ 
to lean a little upon the oppolite lide to the child's ill pofture ; 
then let the operator Hide up his hand, well anointed with oil, 
by the fide of the child's head, to bring it right, gently vvitn 
his fingers between the head and the womb ; but if tl-e head 
be fo engaged that it cannot be done- that way, he mull: then 
put his hand to the {houlders, that fo by thrufting them back a 
little into the w^omb, fometimes on the one iide and fometimes on 
the other ; he may by little and little give it a natural pofition* 
tconfefs it would be better if the operator could put back the 
child by its (houlders with both his hands ; but the head takes 
up fo much room, that he will find much ado to put up one, 
with Vt^hich he muft perform his operation, with the help of the 
finger ends of the oilier hand, put forwards the child's birth, as 
when the labor is natural. 

Some children prefent their face firft, having their heads 
turned back, in v/hichpofture it is extremely dilhcult that the 
child ftiould be born ; and if it continue fo long, the face will be 
f welled, and withal black and blue, that it will at firft feciji 
monftrous, which is occafioned as well by the compreilion of \t 
in that place, as by the midwife's fingers handling it too readily » 
in order to place it in a better pofture But this blacknefs wiiJl^' 
wear away in three or four days time, anointing it often with oil^ 
of fweet almonds. To deliver tlie birth, the fame operation^ 
muft be ufed as in the former, v> hen a child comes with the 
lide of the head ; only let the midwife or operator work very 
gently to avoid as vAuch as pollible the bruiftng of the face. 



iU • EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

Sect ION. V. 
Boiu to dd'iuer a Woman ivbe'i a Child prefents one or both 
Handstogether uouh the Head. 
SOMETIMfcb the infant will prefent fome other 
part together with its head, which if it does it is ufaally one or 
botli its hands, and this hinders the birtli, becaufe tjie hands 
ta!;e up parr of that paffage which is little enough for the head 
alone ; be(ides, that when this happens, they generally caufe 
the head to lean on one iide ; and tnerefore this pofition may be 
very well ftiled unnatural. When the child prefents thus, the 
hr(t thing to be done after it is perceived, miifl be to prevent it 
from coming down more, or engaging further in the palFage. 
and therefore the operator, having placed the woman on the bed 
a little lower than her hips nmit put and guide back the infant's 
fiand with his own as much as may be or both of them, if they 
both coni2 down, to give way to the child's head ; and this be- 
ing done, if the head be on one fide, it mud be brought into its 
natural podure in the middle of tlie palTage, that it may come 
in a ftraight line, and then proceed as directed in the foregoing 
fe6tion 

Section IV. Hquo a Woman is to he dellnjered ivhen the 
Hands or Feet of the Infant come together. 
THERE is none but will readily grant, that when, 
the hands and feet of an infant prefent together, the labor mut 
be unnatural, becaufe it isimpoflible a child fhould be born in 
that manner. In this therefore, when the midwife guides her 
hand towards the orifice of the womb, fhe will perceive only 
many fingers clofe together ; and if it be not fufficiently dilatecT, 
it will be a good while before the hands and feet will be exa^^t- 
]y diftinguifbed ; for they are fometimes fo fhut and prefTed 
together, that tliey feem to be all of one and the fame fhape ; 
but where the womb is open enough to introduce the hand into 
it, fhi will eafily know which are the hands and which are the 
feet; and having well taken notice thereof, let her Aide her 
liand, and prefently direct it towards the infant's breaft, which 
ihe ivlli lind very near, and then let her very gently thruft back 
the body towards the bottom of the womb, leaving the feet in 
the fame place where iLe found them ; and then having placed 
tiie woman in a convenient poHure, that is to fay, her hips a lit-,, 
tie raifed above her breall: and head (which fitiiation ought al- 
ways to be obferved Vv' hen the child is to be put back into the 
womb) let the midwife afterwards take hold of the child by the 
leer, ana draw it forth, as is directed in the fecond fe^lion. 

1 his labor, though fcmewhat troublefome, yet is much bet- 
ter than when the child prefents only its hands ; for the child 
muft be quite turned about before it can be drawn forth : but 
in this, they are ready prefenting themfelves, and in this there is 
not fo much to do, but to lift and thruft back a little the upper 
part of the body, which is alp.ioft done of itfelf by drawing it a- 
long by the feet. 

I confefs there are many authors that have written of labors, 
who would have all wrong births reduced to a natural figure : 
which is to turn it, that it nvx^ come, with ttie head firft \^ but 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 125 

ihoie that have thus written are fiich as never underdood the 
pravltical part ; for if they had the lead experience herein, they 
V, oLild know that it is very often impollible, at leaft if it were to 
be dune, that violence niuft necefJarily be ufed in doing it, that 
would very probably be the death of mother and child in the . 
operation. I would therefore lay down as a general rule, that 
whenlbever an infant prefents itfelf wrong to the birth, in what 
poflure foever from the fhoulders to the feet, it is the belt way, 
•and fuoneft done, to draw it out by the feet : and that it is bet- 
ter fearching for them if they do not prefent themfelves, rather 
than try to put it in the natural porfure, and place the head 
foremofl: ; for the great endeavors necelfary to be iifed in turn- 
ing the infant in the womb do fo much weaken both mother 
and child, that there remains not afterwards, frrength enough to 
commit the operation to the work of nature, for ulually the wo- 
man hath no more throes or pains fit for labor,, after (he has ■ 
been fo wrought upon ; for which reafon it would be very ditfi- 
cult and tedious at beft : and the child by fuch an operation, 
made very weak, would be in extreme danger of perilhing be- 
fore it could be born. It is therefore much better in thefe cafes 
to bring it avvay immediately by the feet, fearching for them, as 
i iiave already directed, when they do not prefent themfelves : 
by which the mother will be prevented of a tedious labor, an<i 
the child be often brought alive into the world, who otherwile 
would hardly efcrffe death. And thus much /hall futficetabe 
fa.d of unnatural labors ; for by the rule already given a (kiU 
ful artift v% ill know how to proceed in any poiture in which 
the child (hall prefent itfelf 

SECTION VII- Hoiv a V/oman jljall be dcli-vered that has 
Tv^'ins "wblch prefent tbemjel-vcs in different pojlures. 

WE have already fpoken fomething of the birth of . 
twins in the chapter of unnatural labor ; for it is not an unnat- 
ural labor barely to hajf,e twins, provided they come in a right po* 
lition to the birth, mitvvhen tliey Ihall prefent thcmfeives in 
divers pofuires they come properly under the denomination of 
unnatural labors : and if when one child preients iifeif in a 
wrong, ngure it makes it much more fowhen there are leveral, 
and renders it not only more painful to the mother and child- 
ren, but to the. operator alio, for they often tro\ible eacli other, 
and hinder, both their births, befides which, the womb is then 
fo filled Vv'iih tliem that the operator can hardly introduce his 
];and without much violence vxh'ch he mult do, if they be to be 
turned to thruftbatk, to give tiiem a better polition. 

When a woman is pregnant, v. ith tv/o children, they rarely 
prefent .o the birth together, the one being generally more foi- 
ward rlian the other,, and tiiat is the reafoti ^ that, but one is fek ; 
tliat ma^iy times tliC midwife knows liot t-Hat there are twins 
till the hilt is b^ji^n, and thatJIie is going tc fe-rch away the after . 
birth. In the 5ifi cliapter, wherein 1 treated cf natural labor, 
1 inewed how avvoman fnould be delivered of twins, prefenting 
tliemfelves both right ; and therefore, before I clofe tliis chap- 
ter of unnatural labor,. it only reniulns that I fhcw what ought 
io be done, v-h - . i\j-y either -T'C-h ceyr^e v>ron2; or G;iccf thrim • 



i^ Experienced miowife. 

6nly, as for the mod part it happens ; the firft generally coming- 
right, and the fecond with the teet forward, or in fome worfe 
poflure. In fuch a cafe, the birth of the firft muft be haftened 
as inuch as pofiible to make way for the fecond, whicli is beft 
brought away by the feet, without endeavoring to place it right, 
even though it was fomewhat inclining towards it, becaule it 
has been already tired and weakened by the birth of the firft as 
well as its mother, that there would be greater danger of its 
death than likelihood of its coming out ot the womb that way. 

But if, v\hen the firfl is born naturally, the fecond fhould like- - 
wife offer its head to the birth, it would be then belt leaving 
nature to fini(h what /he has fo well begun ; and if naturt; 
fliould be too flow in her work, fome of thofe things mentioned 
in the fourth chapter to accelerate the birth maybe properly 
enough applied ; and if after that, the fecond birth ftiould be 
yet delayed, let a manual operation be deferred no longer :. but 
the woman beins; properly olaced, as lias been before direfled, 
let the operator direci: his hand gently into the womb to find the 
foet, and fo draw forth the fecond child, which will be the more 
cafily a^.yev5ied, becaufe there is way made fufticient by the birth 
cf the firfb ; and if the waters of the fecond child be not broke, 
as it ofren happens, yet intending to brin^ it by th>i feet, he 
need not fcriiple to break the membranes with his fingers ; for 
though when the birth of a child is left to the operation of na- 
ture It is neceiTary that the waters thould break of themfelves ; 
yet whCn the child is brought out of the w^omb by art, there is 
no danger in breaking of thtrm ; nay, on the contrary, it be- 
comes neceffary ; for v\itliout the waters are broke it wo.ildbe 
almoft impollible to turn the child. 

But herein principally lies the care of the operator that he is 
FiOt deceived when either the hands or the feet of both children 
ofi'er themfelves togethei to the birth ; in this cafe he ought 
v/ell to confider the operation, as v/hetherthey be not joined to- 
j.-ether orany way monflrous ; and which part belongs to one 
thildand which to the other, that fo they maybe fetched one 
after the otlier, and not both together, as might be, if it were 
not duly confidcred, taking the riglit foot of the one and the left 
of the other, and fo drawing them together, as if they belong- 
ed to one body becaufe there is a left and a right, by whish 
means it would' be impoiiible ever to deliver them : But a ikil- 
t'jl operator will cafjiy prevent this, if having found two or 
three feet oi feveral children, prefenting together in a paffage, 
and taking afide two of the forwarded, aright and a left, aiid 
Hiding his hands along the legs and tliighs up to the twiil:. if 
forwardsor the buttock*::, if backwards, he finds they both be- 
long to the bocjy ; of which bcmg thus allured, he jiiay begin to 
draw forth the neareft, without regarding which is ftrongeft or 
wcakelt, bigger or- lefs, living or dead, having put fird a little a- 
ilde thatpaVt of the other child which oiiers, to have the more 
way and (b difpatch the nrli, wherever it is, as ibon as may be, 
oblerving '.he fame rules, as if there were but one, that is keep- 
iag the bieaft and face downwards, with every circumdance di- 
reit^Jm the feCtion where the th:H coines with its feet firit- 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. l^T 

And not fetch the burden till the fecond child is born. And 
therefore when the operator has drawn forth one child, he muft 
feparate it from the burden, having tied and cut the navel 
firing, and then fetch the other by the feet in the fame manner, 
and afterwards, bring away the after burden with the two- 
firings, as have been before (hewed. If the children prefent 
any other part than the feet, the operator may follow the fame 
method as is directed in the, foregoing fection, where the fever- 
al unnatural portions are carefully treated of. 
CHAP. VIII. 
Dire&ions for child bearing W'jmen in their lying in» 

IN the fourth, fifth, and fixth chapters, we have 
treated at large of women's labor, and how they may be fafely 
delivered both in natural and unnatural labors. Having there- 
fore thus brought the good woman to bed, I will in this chapter 
dire61 how (he ought to be ordered 'in her lying in. 

Sect. I, Hoiv a Wo?nan neixjly delinjered ought to be ordered. 
AS foon as (he is laid in bed let her be placed in 
it conveniently for eale and relt, which (he ftands in great need 
of, to recover herfelf of the great fatigue (he underwent during 
her travail ; and, that fhe may lie the more eafily, let her head 
and body be a little raifed, that Ibe may breathe more freely, 
and cleanfe the better, efpecially of that blood which then comes 
away that fo it may not clot, which being retained caufeth very 
great pain. 

Having thus placed her in bed, let her drink a- draught of 
burnt white wine, when you have firfl melted therein a dram of 
jpermaceti. The herb vervain is aHo a moil fmgular herb for a 
woman in this condition, boiling it in what (he either eats or 
drinks, fortifying the womb fo exceedingly, that it will do it 
more good in two days, having no offenfive tafte, though very 
pleafant virtues. And this is no more than what the ftands in 
need of, for her lower parts being fo greatly didended to the 
birth ot the infant, it is good to endeavor tj^e prevention of an 
inflamaticn there. Let therefore be outwardly applied all over 
the bottom of the belly and privities, the following anodyne or 
cataplafm Take two ounces of oil of fwcet almonds, and two 
or three new laid eggs, yolks and whites, ftirring them together 
in an earthen pipkin over hot embers, till it comes to the confid- 
ence of a poultice ; which being fpread upon a cloth, muff be 
applied to thofe parts indifferently warm, having fir(t taken a- 
way the clofures (which were put to her prefently after her de- 
livery) and I'kewilefuch clots of blood as were then left- Let 
this lie on five or lix hours, and then renew it again as you fee 
caufe 

Great care ought to be taken at firll, that if her body by very 
weak, (he be not kept too hot, for extremity of heat weakens na- 
ture and diifolves the Itrength ; and wh-^ther fhe be weak or 
li rong, be fure that no cold air comes near her at firll ; tor cold 
is an enemy to the fpermatic parts, and if it gets into the womb, 
it increafes the after pains, caufes fwellings in the v.omb, and 
hurts the nerves As to her diet, let it be hot, and let her eat 
but a little at a time. Let her avoid the ligh.t for three or four 



tU EXPERIENCED MIDWIIB. 

days, and longer if (he be weak, for labor weakens her eyes e!!^- 
ceedingly, by a harmony between the womb and them. Let 
her avoid great noifes, fadnefs and troubles of mind. 

If the womb be foul, which may be eafily perceived by the 
impurity of the blood (which will then either come away in 
clots or ftinking, or if you fufpe(^^ any of the after burden to be 
left behind, which may iometimes happen) make her drink of 
featherfew, mugwort, pennyroyal, and mother of thyme, boiled 
in white wine, Iweetened with lugar. 

f^anada and new laid eggs is the bed meat for her at firfl, of 
which (he may eat often, but not too much at a time. And let 
her ufe cinnamon in all her meat and drink, for it is a great 
flrengthener to the womb. 

Let her ftir as little as may be, till after the fifth, fixth, or 
feventh days of her delivery, if Ihe be weak. And let her talk 
as little as may be, for that Veakens her. 

If fhe goes not well to (tool, give a clyfter made only with the 
decoction of mallows and a little brown fugar. 

When (he hath lain in a week or more, let her ufe fuch things 
as clofe the womb, of which, knot grafs and comfrey are very 
good ; and to them you may add a little polipodium, for it will 
do her good, both leaves and roots being bruifed. 
Sect* ll. Houu to remedy thofe accidents 'which a lying in ivom- 
an isjubje^ to. 
I. THE tir(t common and ufual accident that 
^roubles women in their lying in, is after pains ; the caufe where- 
of fome affirm to be one thmg, fome another ; but it is moft 
certain that they proceed from cold and wind contained in the 
bowels with which they are filled after labor, becaufe when they 
have more room to dilate, than when the child was in the wombp 
by which they were comprefTed, and alfo becaufe the nourlAi- 
ment and matter contained in them and the ftomach, has been 
confufedly agitated from fide to fide during the pains of labor, 
and could not be ^^ell digefted, whence this wind is afterwards 
generated and by confequence the gripes which the woman feels 
running into her belly from fide to fide, according as the wind 
moves, and fometimes from the womb becaufe of the compref- 
fion and commotion which the bowels' make. Thefe bein;^ 
generally the eaufe, let us- now apply a fuitable remedy. 

1. Boil an egg foft and pour oiit the yolk of it, with which 
mix a fpoonful of cinnamon water and let her drink it ; and if 
you mix in it two grains of ambergreafe it will be the better \ 
and yet virvain taken in any thing (he drinks, will be e^eCtuaL 
as the othero . 

2. Give the lying in woman, immediately after delivery, oil 
©ffweet almonds and fyrup of maidenhair mixed t0f{ether : 
fome prefer oil of walnuts, provided it be made of nuts that are 
very good, but it ta(les worfe than the other This will ienify 
the infides of the inteftines by its vm6tuoufnefs, and by thiit 
means bring away ijiat which is contained in them more eafily. 

3 Take and boil onions very well in water, then ftamp them 
with oil and cinnamon and feed in powder, fpread theia upon 4 
i,k)th ?ind apply thcaa to the region of the w<»ab*, . 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 1^9^ 

4. Let her be careful to keep her bellj^ very hot, and not drink 
what is too cold ; and if they prove very violent, hot cloths, 
from time to time, muft be laid on her belly, or a pancake fri- 
ed in walnut oil may be applied to it without fwathing her 
belly fo ftrait ; and, for the better evacuating the wind 
out of the inteftines, give her a clyfter repeating it as often as 
neceility requires, 

5. Take bayberries, beat them to powder, put the powder* 
upon a chairing diih of coals, and let her receive the fmoke 
of them up her privities. 

6. Take tar and barrows greafe, of each an ecjual quantity, 
boil them together, andwhilflit is boiling add a little pidgeon's 
dung to it. Spread fome of this upon a linen cloth and apply 
it to the reins of her back, and h: will give her fpeedy eafe. 

Lafily, let her take half a dram of bayberries beaten into a 
powder in a draught of muftard or tent. 

II. Another accident in which women in child bed are fub- 
iecf , is the hemorrhoides, or piles, occafioned through their 
ilraining in bringing tlie child into the world. To cure this, 

1 . Let her be let blood in the vein faphasna. 
^ Let her ufe poUypodium in her meat and drink, bruifed 
and boiled. 

3. Take an onion, and, having made a hole in the middle of it 
fill it full of oil, toafl it and having bruifed it all together, ap- 
ply it to the fundament. 

4. Take as many wood lice as you can get, and bruife them,., 
and having mixed them with a little oil, apply them warm as 
before . 

5. If (he go well to (tool, let her take an ounce of calTia fiflu- 
la drawn at night going to bed ; fheneed no change of diet after. 

III. Retention of the mendrues is another accident happen- 
ing to women in child bed ; and, which is of fb dangerous con- 
fequence, that, if not timely remedied it proves mortal. 
Wbere this happens, 

1. Let the woman take fucli medicines as ftrongly provoke 
the terms, fuch as ditany, betony,, favory, featherfew, c*n- 
taury, juniper berries, peony roots 

S Let her take two or three fpoonfuls or briony water eaclr 
morning, 

3. Gentian roots^beaten into a powder, and a dram of it taken 
every morning in winC, is an extraordinary remedy. 

4. The root of birthwort, either long or round, fo ufed, and 
taken as the former is very good. 

5. Take twelve piony feeds, and beat them into a very fine 
powder, and let her drink them in a draught of hot carduus 
poiTet, and let her fweat after. And if this lafl medicine don't 
brin^ them down the firff time (he takes it, let her take as 
much more three hours after, and it feldom fails 

IV. Overflowing of the menfes is another accident incident- 
al to child bed women. 

1 Take fhepherd's purfe, either boiled in any convenient 
liqiwor,, or dried and beaten into powder, and it will be an 



130 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

admirable remedy to (lop them, this being efpecially apprapi:- 
ated to the privities. 

2. The flowers and leaves of brambles, or either of them be- 
ing dried and beaten into pow^der, and a d:am of them taken 
every morning in a fpDonful of red wine, or in the decottion of 
the leaves of the fame (whicJi perhaps is much better ;) is an ad- 
mirable remedy for the immoderate flowing of the terms in 
women 

V, Excoriations, bruifes and rents, of the lower part of the 
womb, are often occafioned by the vioie»\t difiention andfepara- 
tionof the four caruncles in a woman's labor. For the heal- 
ing v/hereof, 

As foon as the woman is laid, if there be only fimple contu- 
fions and exoriations, let the anodyne cataplafm, formerly di- 
rec'^ed, be applied to the lower parts to eafe the pain, made of 
the yolks and whites of new laid eggs, and oil of rofes boiled a 
little over warm embers, continually itirringit till it be equally 
mixed, and then fpread upon a fine cloth, it muft beapplyed very 
warm to the bearing place for five or fix hours, and v*'hen it is 
taken away, lay fome fine rags, dipped in oil of St. John's wort 
twice or thrice a day, alfo, fome foment the parts with barley 
water and honey of rofes to cleanfe them from the excrements 
which pafs Whenthe woman makes water, let them be de- 
fended with fine rags, and thereby hinder the urine from caul- 
ing fmart and pain. 

VI. The curdling and clotting of the milk is another acci- 
dent that often happens to women in cliildbed ; for, in the be- 
ginning of child bed the woman's milk is not purified, becaufe 
of thole great commotions her body luflered during her labor, 
which atfe (51: ed all the parts, and it is then mixed with many 
other humors. Now this clotting of milk does, for the molt 
part, proceed from the breafts not being fully drawn, and that 
either becaufe (he hath too much milk, and that the infant is too 
fmall and weak to fuck all, or becaufe flie doth not defire to be 
a nurfe, for the milk in thofe cafes remaining, in the bread: after 
concodlion without being drawn, loofeththe Iweetnefs and the 
balfamic quality it had, and by r^afon of the heat it acquires and 
the too long (lay it makes there, it fours, curdles, and clots as 
we fee runnet put into ordinary milk turns it into curds. This 
curdling of the milk may be alfo caufed by having taken a great 
cold, and not keeping the breads covere«l. 

But from what caufe foever this curdling of the milk pro- 
ceeds the moft certain remedy is, fpeedily to draw the breaits 
until they are emitted and dried. But in regard the infant, by 
reafon of its weaknels cannot draw (Iron^ enough, it will be 
proper to get another woman to draw her breads until the milk 
come freely, and then il.e may give her child fuck. And that 
(he may not afterwards be troubled with a furplufage of milk^ 
(he mult eat fuch diet as gives but little nounihment, and kee^x 
her body open. 

But it the cafe be fuch that the woman neither can nor wiir 
be a nurfe, it is then neceiFary to empty the body by bleeding in 
the arm ; befides drawing down the humors, by (trong cly ft ers 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. ISI 

and bleeding in the foot, nor will it be amif« to purge gently ; 
and to digeft, diiTolve and diifipate the curdled milk, apply the 
cataplalmofpure honey, or ule the following liniment. 
A Liniment to fcatter and diiTipate the milk. 
That the milk flowing back to the breaits may without of- 
fence be dillipated ufe this ointment : *' Take pure v/ax two 
ounces, linleed oil half a pound ; when the wax is melted, let 
the liniment be made wherein linen cloths mu(t be dipped, and 
laid upon the breai ; and when it (hall be difcufTed, and pains 
no morC; let other linen cloths be dipped, in the diflilled wa- 
ter of acorns, and put upon them.*' 

Note, That the cloths dipped in the diftilled water of acorns, 
mud be ufed only by thole who cannot nurfe their own chil- 
dren ; but if a fwelling in the breads of thofe who give fuck, 
arifes from abundance of milk, and threatens an inflaniation, 
life the former ointment, but abltain from ufing the dillilled 
water of acorns. 

CHAP. VIM. 
Dire&lonsfor nurfes in ordering neiv born children. 

HAVING in the former chapter fhewn how tlie 
lying in woman fhould be ordered, it is now high time to take 
care of the mfant, to whom the firftfeivice that Ihould be per- 
formed for it, is the cutting of the navel Itring ofVhich I have 
ipoken at large before. 

Sect. I. JVhut is to be done to the neiv born infant after cutting 
the na^ei Jlring. 
WHF.N the child's navel firing has been cut ac- 
cording to the rules before prefchbed, let the midwife pref- 
ently cleanie it from the excrements and filth it brings into the 
world with it, of which fome are within the body, as the urine 
in the bladder, and the excrement found in the guts ; and oth- 
ers without, which are thick, whitifh and clammy, proceeding 
from the fliminefs of the waters ; There are children fome- 
.ti^.es io cuvered over w^th this, that one would lay they are 
rubbed over with foft cheefe, and fome women are of fo eafy a 
belief, that they really think it isfo, becaufe they had eaten fome 
while th^y were with child. From thefe excrements let the 
child be cleanfed with wine and water a little warmed, wafhing 
every part therewith, but chiefiy tKe head becaufe of the hair, 
alfo the folds of the groins, armpits, and the cods or privities ; 
which parts muft be gently cleanfed witk a linen rag or foft 
f^onge dipped in this lukewarm wirte. If this clammy or vif- 
cious excrement ftick fo clofe that it will not be eafily wadied 
oft' from thofe places, it may be fetched oft' with the oilof fweet 
almonds, or a little frefh butter melted with wine, and after- 
•wards well dried off'. She muft alfo make tents of fine rags, 
and wetting them in this liquor, clear the ears and nollrils ; but 
for the e^es, wipe them only with a drv foft rag, not dipping it 
in the wine, left it flioiiid make them finart. 

The child being thus wafhed and cleanfed from its native 
blood and impurities which attended it into the world, it mufl, 
in the next place be fearched to fee whether all things be right 
about it, and that there is no fault or diflocation ; whether its 



1^ EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

nofe be ftraight or its tongue tied, whether there be any bruife 
or tumor on the head, whether the mould be not ovenrotten 5 
alfo whether the fcrotum, if a boy, be not blown up and fwel- 
led ; and in (hort, whether it has fuffered any violence in any 
part of its body, and whether all the parts be well and dulyfhap- 
cd, that fuitable remedies may be applied, if any thing be found 
not right Nor is it enough that all be right without, and the 
outfide of the body cleanied, but (he muft chiefly obferve w heth- 
er it difchargeth the excrements retained within, and whether 
the pallagesbe open, for fome have been born without having 
them perforated ; therefore let her examine whether the con- 
duit of the urine and ftool be clear, for want of which fome 
have died, not being able to void their excrements, becaufe 
timely care was not taken at firft. As to the urine, all children, 
males and females, do make water as foon as they are born, if 
they can, efpecially when they feel the heat of the fire, and 
fometimes alio the excrements, but not fo foon as the urine. If 
the infant does not ordure the firft day, then put up into its fun- 
dament a fmall fuppofitory, to ftir itup to be difcharged, that it 
may not caufe painful gripes by remaining fo long in its belly. 
A lugar almond may be proper for this purpofe anointed over 
with a little boiled hon^y, or elfe a fniill piece of caftile foap 
rubbed over with fre(h butter ; fhe may alio give the child, to 
this purpofe, alittle fyrup of rofes or violets at the mouth, mix- 
ed with fome oil of fweet almonds drawn without a fire, anoint- 
ing the belly alfo w^ith the fame oil or a little frefh butter. 

The midwife having thus wafhed and cleanfed the child, ac- 
cording to the before mentioned directions, let her begin to 
fwaddle in fwathing choths, and when He drelfes the head, let 
her put fmall rags behind the ears to dry up the filth which 
ufually engenders there, and alfo in the folds of the armpits and 

froins, and fo fwathe it, having wrapped it up warm in bed 
lankets; only take care that they fwathe not the child too 
ftraight, efpecially about the breall and ftomach, that it may 
l>reathe the more freely, and not be forced to vomit up the milk it 
fucks, becaufe theftomach cannot be fufRciently extended to con- 
tain it ; therefore, let its arms and legs be wrapped in its bed 
ftretched and ftraight, and Iwathed to keep them fo, viz. the 
arms along its fides, audits legs equally both together, with a 
little of the bed between them, that they may not be galled by 
rubbing each other ; let the head be kept fteady and ftraight, 
with a ftay faftened on each fide of the blanket, and then wrap 
the child up in mantles and blankets to keep it warm. This 
fwathing or the infant is very neceflary, to give its body a 
ftraight tigure which is moft decent and proper for a man, and 
to accuftom him to keep upon his feet, and not walk upon all 
four, as ijnoft other animals do. 

CHAP. IX. 
NEW-BORN children are fubjCiSt to fo many diftem- 
pers that daily experience diews us, there are not above half the 
children that are born who live till th^v are three years old ; 
whichis occafionedby the tendernefs of their bodies and feeble- 
flefs of their age, which hinders them from exprefling the in- 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. t3S 

commodities they labor under, any olherwgys than by tJieir 
cries. The bufmefs of this chapter therefore will be to dif^ov- 
er the indilpofitions to wliich they are fubjecl;, with the rcmc 
dies jpfeper for them. 

Section I. 
Of Gripes and pains in the bellies cf young Children. 

THIS I mention firftj as itis often'the firitand nvo.t 
common difteinper which happens to little infants after their 
birth, many children being fo troubled and pained therewith, 
that they cry night and day. and at laft die of it This c 'mes, 
for the mort: part, from thefudden change of their nourifiiment, 
for having always received it from the umbilical veflels whilJt in 
their mother 's womb they come to change, on a fudden, not 
only the manner of receiving it, but the nature and quality of 
what they receive as foon as they are born, for inllead of purified 
blood only, conveyed to them by means of the umbilical vein, 
they are now obliged tobe nourifhed with their mother's breaft 
milk, which they fuck v/ith their mouths, and from whicli are 
engendered many excrements, caufing-gripesand pains, and that 
not only becaufe it is not fo pure as the blood with which it was 
nourifhed in the womb but becaufe the llomach and inteflines 
cannot yet make a good digedion. Itis alfo caufed fornetimes 
by a tough phlegm, and fometimes by the worms ; lorphyficians 
affirm, that'worms have been bred in children even in their 
mother's belly. 

The remedy therefore mufc be fu'^ ted to the caufe ; if it pro- 
ceed from the too fudden changes of nourifhment, the remedy 
mufl:b)e to forbear giving the child fuck for fomt days left the 
milk be mixed with phlegm and at firftit inuft fuck but little 
until it be accuftomed to digeft it If it be the excrements in the 
inteftines, which by their long ftay incrcafe thefe pains, give 
them at the mouth a little oil of fv/eet almonds, and fyrup of 
fofes- If it be worms lay a cloth dipped in oil of wormwood, 
mixed with ox gall, upon the belly for a fmall cataplafm, tlie 
powder of rue and wormwood, coloquintida, allocs, the ittds 
of citron, incorporated with ox gall, and the powder of lupines. 
Or, give it o'l of f>A eet almonds with fugar candy, and a fcru- 
pleofannis feed ; ^t purgesnew born babes from green choler 
andftinking phlegm, and if it be given with fugar pap it allays 
the griping pains of the belly ; alfo anoint the belly with oil 
of dill, or pellitory ftamped with oil of camomile to the belly. 
Section II. 
Of tjoealinefs itineuo horn infants. 

WEAKNESS is an accident that many children 
bring into the world along with them, and is often occafione(^ 
by the labor of the mother ; by the violence and lengfli where- 
of rfcey fufler To muoh. that they are born with great weaknefs, 
and many times it isaifficult to know whether they are alive or 
dead, their body appearing fo fenfelefs, and their face fo blue 
and livid, that they feem to be quite choaked ; and, even after 
fome hours, their (hewing figns of life is attended with fo much 
weaknefs, that it looks like a retirrn from death, and that they 
are dill upon the borders of that kingdom. 
M 



341 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

In this Cclfe the bed way to help the infant is to lay him fpeed- 
ily in a warm bed and blankets, and carry him to the fire, and 
then let the midwife fup a little wine, and fpout it into hiwnoiith 
repeating it often, if there be occafion. let her apply linen to 
the breali, and belly, dipped in wine, and then let the face be 
uncovered that he may breathe more freely ; alio let the mid- 
wife keep its mouth a little open, cleanfe the noflrils with fmall 
linen tents dipped in white wine, that fo he may receive the 
fmellof it, and let her chafe every part of his body well with 
warm cloths, to bring back the blood and fpirits, which being 
retired inward through weaknefs often puts him in danger of be- 
ing choaked. By the application of thefe means the infant will 
jnfenfibly recover ftrcngth and begin to ftir his limbs by degrees 
and, at length to cry, which though it be but weakly at firft, yet 
afterwards as he breathes more freely, he will cry ftronger and 
ilronger. 
, Section III. 

Of the fundament being cJofed up in a ne-iu born Infant. 

ANOTHER eifeft that new born infants are liable 
to, is to have their fundaments clofed up, by means whereof 
they can neither evacuate the new excrements engendered by 
the milk they fuck, nor that which was amaffed in their intest- 
ines, whilfl: in their mother's belly, which is certainly mortal 
without a fpeedy remedy. There have been fome female chil- 
dren who have had their fundaments quite clofed, and yet have 
voided the excrements of the guts by an orifice, which nature, 
to fupply that defect, had made within the neck of the womb* 

For the cure or remedy of this, we muft notice that the fund- 
ament is clofe two ways ; either by a (ingle fkin, through which 
one may difcover fome black and blue marks, proceeding from 
the excrements retained, which of one touch with the finger, 
there is a foftnefs felt within, and thereabouts it ought to be 
pierced ; or elfe it is quite (lopped by a thick fleiliy fubftance, 
in fuch fort that there appears nothing without by which its 
true iituation may be known. When there is nothing but the 
fingle fkin which makes the clofure, the operation is very eafy, 
and the child may do very well ; for then an apertion or opening 
may be made with a fmall incifion knife, crofs ways, that it may 
the better receive a round form, and that the place afterwards 
may not grow together taking great care not to prejudice the 
fphind:er or mufcle of the Re6lum. The incifion being thus 
made, the excrements will certainly have ilTue. But if, by rea- 
lon of their long flay in the belly, they are become fo dry that 
the infant cannot void them, then let a fmall clyfler be given to 
imoiften and bring them away ; afterwards put a linen tent into 
the new made fundament, which at firfl had beH be anointed 
with honey o!" rofes, and towards the end with a drying cica- 
trizing ointment, fuch as Unguentum, album, or Pomphelix, a 
obferving to cleanfe the infant of his excrements, and dry it a- 1 
gain as foon and as often as he evacaptes ihem that fo the aper- ^1 
tion may be prevented from' turning it to a malignant ulcer. 

But now if the fundament be flopped up in fuch a manner that 
neither mark nor ap^eaY^nce can be either i^f^.n or felt, then th^- i\ 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 135 

operation is fo much more difficult ; aad even when it is done, 
the danger is much more of the infant's efcaping it. And then 
if it be a female, and that it fends forth its excrements by tht^ 
way I have mentioned before, it is better not to meddle, than 
by endeavoring to remedy an inconvenience to run an extreme 
hazard of the infant's deaili. But when there is no vent for the 
excrements without which death is unavoidable, there the oper« 
ation is juilifiable. 

The operation in tins cafe nuift be thus ; let the operator, 
witli a fmall incifion knife that hath but one edge, enter into the 
void place, and turning the back of it upwards within half a 
finger's breadth of the child's rump, which is the place where 
he will certainly find the inteltine, let him thruft it forward, 
that it may be open enough to give free vent to the matter^ 
there contamed, being efpecially careful oi the iphincter ; af- 
ter which, let the wound be dreiled according to the method 
dire6fed. 

Sect. IV. Of the Thmfi or Ulcer, In the mouth of an Infant, 

THE thrufh is a diftemper that children are very often 
Jubjeft to, and it arifes from bad milk, or from foul humors in 
the ftomach ; for fometimes, though there be no ill quality in 
the mi k itleif, yet it may corrupt in the child's ftomach becaufc 
of its weaknefs orfome other indifpofition, in which, acquiring 
an acrimony inflead of being well digefled, there arife from 
thence biting vapors, which forming a thick vifcoihty, do there- 
by produce this diitempcr. 

It is often difficult; as phyficlans tell us, becaufc '.t is feated in 
hot and moid places, where the putrefaction is ealily augn^em- 
ed, and for that, the remedies applyed cannot lodgutiiere,"being 
foon waihed away by fpittle. But if they arife from too hot a 
quality in the nurfe's milk, care muff be taken to temper and 
cool, prefcribing her cool diet, bleeding and purging iier alfo, 
if therebeoccalion. 

Take lentiles huflced, powder them and lay it upon the child's 
gums ; or take melidium in flower, half an ounce, and with oil 
of rofes niake a liniment. Alfo WcSn the child's mouth with bar- 
ley and plantain water, and honey of rofcs^ or fyrup of dry rof- 
es, mixinu them ^vitha little verjuice, or juice of lemons as well 
to loofen andi'cleanfe the vifcious humors which cleave to the in- 
lide of the child's mouth, as to cool thofe parts which are al- 
ready over heated, 'i his may be done by means of a fmall fine 
rag tafl-ened to the end of a little Itick, and dipped therein, 
wherewith the ulcers may be gently rubbed, beino; carefi;! not 
to put the child to too much pain, led an inflamation make the 
diltemper worfe. The child's body muft be alfo kept open, that 
the humors being carried to the lower parts, the vapors may not 
afcend, as it is uiual foi them to do, when the body is coirive, 
and the excrements too long retained. If the ulcere appear ma- 
' lignant, let fuch remedies be ufed as do their work fpeedily, 
that the evil qualities that caufe them being thereby inftantly 
corrected, their malignity may be prevented ; and in this cafe 
touch the ulcers with plantain waters fharpened with the fpirits 
of vitriol, for the remedy mu^:_be made fliarp, according to the 



iSG F.XPERIE^XED MIDWIFE. 

irialignity ftf the diftemper. It will not be iiniiccel^ary to purge 
tliele ill iiumors out of the whole habit of the child, by giving 
half an ounce of fuccory witli rheubarb. 

Section V. Of pain in the ears ^ Inflamation, moijlure^ ^c. 
THE brain in infants is ver> moid and hath many ex- 
crements which nature cannot fend out at its proper patlages ; 
thev get often to the cars, and there caufe pains, flux of blood, 
with inflamaticn, and matter with pain : and inchildrenis hard 
to be known, having no other way to make it known but by 
conOant crying ; you will alfo perceive them ready to feel their 
ears themfelves, but will not let others touch them if they can 
help it : and fometimes you may difcern the parts about the ears 
tp be very red. Thefe pains, if let alone, are of dangerous con- 
iequences, becaufe they bring forth watching and epilepfy, for 
the moilhire breeds worms there and fouls the fpongy bones, 
and by degrees incurable deafnefs. 

To prevent all tliofe ill confequences, allay the pain with all 
convenient ipeed, but have a care of uling llrong r'^medies. 
Therefore only ufe warm milk about the ears, with the decotiion 
of poppy top#, or oil of violets : to take away the moiffure, ufe 
honey of rofes, and let aquamellis be dropped into the eurs ; or 
take virgin honey half an ounce, red wine two ounces, allum, 
falircn, Yaltpeter, each a dram ; Hriix them at the fire \ or drop 
ill hemi^feed oil witli a little wine. 

Section. VI. Of rednefs and Infiamation of the buttocks^ groin 
and thighs of an infant, 
IF there be not great care taken to change and wafli the 
child's beds as foon as they are fouled with the excrements, and 
tokeep the child very clean, their acrimony will befure to caufe 
rednefs, and beget a fmarfing in the buttocks, groin and thighs 
of the child, which by reafon of the pain, will afterwards be 
fubje6t to inflamations, which follow the fooner, through the 
delicacy and tendernefs of their fk in from which the outward 
ikin of the body is in a fhort time feparated and worn away. 

The remedy of this is two fold ; that is to fay, firlj, to keep 
the child cleanly, and in the fecond place, to take off the fharp- 
nefs of its urine As to keeping it cleanly, fl^e muft be a forry 
nurfe that needs to be taught hov/ to do it, for if fne lets it but 
jiave dry, clean and warm beds and clouts, as often and foon as 
it lias fouled and wet them, either by its urine or excreijients, it 
will be futbcient ; and, as to the iecond, the taking off the 
fharpnefsof the child's urine, that mufl be done by the nurfe's 
keeping a cooling diet, that her milk may have the fame quali- 
ty ; and therefore (he ought to abfbin from all things that may 
heat it. But bei-des thele, cooling and drying remedies are req, 
uiiite to be applied to the inflamed parts; therefore, let the 
\)artsbe batlied with plantain water, with a fourth of lime wa- 
ter added to it^ each time the child's excrements are wiped off' ; 
and if the pain be very great, let it only be fomented with hike 
warm. milk. 'I he powder of a poft to dry it or a little mill duft 
ilrewed upoa the parts affected, may be proper enough : and it 
is ufed by feveral women. Alfo Unguentum, Album, or Dia- 
pampholigos, fpread upon a fmall p'ece of leatlier in form of a 
^^Jai^cr, V iH not be ainiff. 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 13-7 

But the chief thing mufl be the niirfe's t-^kinj^ great care to 
wrap the inflamed parts with fine rags when (he opens the child, 
that thofe parts may not be gathered and pain ncd by nibbing 
them together. 

Section" VII. Of Vomiting in young Children . 

VOMITING in children proceeds fometimes from 
too much milk, and fometimes from bad milk, and is often 
from a moift loofe ftomach ; for as drynefs retains, io loofenefs 
lets go. This is for the mofi part, without dang;er in children ; 
for the ftomach, not being ufed to meat and milk being taken 
too much, crudities are eafily bred,, or the milk is corrupted ; 
and it is better to vomit thefe up than to keep them in ; but ir 
vomiting lafl: long, it will caufe an atrophy or confumption for 
want of nourifl^ment. 

To remedy this, if from too much milk that which is emitted 
is yellow and green, or otherwife ill colored and ftinking ; in this 
cafe, mend the milk, as has been (hewed before ; cleanfe the 
child with honey of rofes, and (trengthen its ftomach with fyrup 
of milk and quinces made into an eleciuary. If the humor be 
hot and (harp, give the fyrup of pomegranates, currants and co- 
ral ; and apply to the belly the plaifter of bread, the ftomach 
create, or bred dipped in hot wine ; or take oil of maftic, quin- 
ces, mint, wormwood, each half an ounce j of nutmegs bv ex- 
preflTions, half a dram, chymical oil of mint, three drops. Coral 
liath an occult property to prevent vomiting, and is therefore 
hung about their necks. 

Section Vlll,*Ofb reeding Teeth in ysung Children . 

THIS is a very great, and yet necelfary evil in all 
children, having variety of fymptoms joined with it'; they begin 
to come forth, not all at a time, but one after another, about the 
fixth or feventh month : the fore teeth coming firft, then the eye 
teeth, and at laft of all the grinders ; the eye teeth caufe more 
pain to the child than any of the reft, becaufe they have a very 
deep root, and a fmall nerve, which hath communication to that 
which makes the eye move. In the breeding of their teeth, firfl: 
they feel an itching in their gums, when they are pierced as with 
a needle, and pricked by the (harp bones, whence proceed great 
pains, watching, and intlamation of the gums, fever, loofenefs? 
and convulfions, efpecially when they breed their eye teeth. 

The figns when children breed their teeth, are thefe ; 1. It i^ 
known by their time, which is ufually about the feventh monthj^ 
2. Their gums are fwelled, and they feel a great heat there, 
with an itching. whi( h makes them put their fingers in then' 
mouth to rub tiiem, from whence amoifturediftils down into the 
mouth, becaufe of the pain they feel there. 3. They hold the 
nipple fafter than before. 4. The gum is white where the tooth 
begins to come ; and the nurfe in giving them fuck finds the 
mouth hotter, and that they are much changed, crying every 
moment, and cannot fleep, or but very little at a time. The 
fever that follows breedmg of teeth comes from choleric hu« 
mors, inflamed by watching, pain, and heat. And the longer 
teeth are breeding, the more dangerous it is, fo that many mXht 
breeding of them die of fevers and convulfions. 
m % ■ 



1S3 EXrKRIENCLD MIDWIFE. 

For reincdy, two thLngs are to be regarded ; one is, to pre- 
ferve the child from the ( vil accidents that mas' happen to it by 
reafon of the great pain ; the other, to afiiftas much as may be 
the cutting of the teeth, when they can hardly cut the gunvs 
themfelves. 

For the firil of thefe, i. e. the preventing of thcfe accidents to 
t];e child, the nurfe ought to take great care to keep a good diet, 
and to ufe all things that may cool and temper her milk ; that 
io a fever may not follow tlie pain of the teeth. And to prevent 
tlie humor from falling too much upon the inflamed gums, let 
the cliild's belly be kept al':\'ays loofe by gentle clyflers, if it 
be bound ; though often times there is no need of them, becaufe 
they are at thofe times ufually troubled with a loofenefs, and yet 
for all that, clyllers may not be improper. 

As to the other, which is to aftift in cutting of the teeth, that 
the nurfe muff do from time to time, mollifying and loofening 
them, by rubbing them with her finger dipped in butter or hon- 
ey, to let the child have a virgin wax candle to chew upon ; or 
anoint the gums with the mucilage of quince made with mal- 
lows water, or with the brains of a hare ; alfo foment the cheeks 
with the deco(51ion of Althea, and camomile flower and dill, or 
with the juice of mallows and frefh butter. If the gums are in- 
flamed, add juice of nightihade and lettuce. I have already faid 
the nurfe ought to keep a temperate diet I will now add, that 
barley broth, waier gruel, raw eggs, prunes, lettuce and en- 
dive, are good for her : but let her avoid fait, fharp, biting and 
peppered meats, and wine. 

Section IX. Of the Flux of the belly y or loofenefs in Infants, 

IT is very common for infants to have the flux of 
the belly, or loofenefs, efpecially upon the leaftindifpofition; 
Tior is it to be wondered at, feeing their natural moiftnefs con- 
tributes fo much thereto ; and if it be not extraordinary violent, 
fuch are in a better flate of health than thofe that are bound. 
This flux, if violent proceeds from divers caufes : as, 1 From 
breeding teeth, and is then commionly attended with a fever, in 
"which rhe concoction is hindered, and thcnourifhment corrupt- 
ed. 2. From watching. 3. From pain- 4, From ftirring of 
tliC humors by a fever. 5 When tliey fuck or drink too m.uch 
in a fever. Sometimes they have a flux without breeding of 
teeth, from outward cold in the guts or ftomach, that obitrucls 
conco6fion. If it be from teeth it is eafily known, for the hgns 
in breedingof teeth will difcover it. If it be from external cold, 
there are (jgns of other caufes. If from a humor flowing from 
the head, there are figns of a catarrh, and the excrements are 
frothy If crude and raw humors are voided, there is wind, 
belching, and phlegmatic excrements. If they be yellow, green 
and ftink, the flux is from a hot and fharp humor. It is beil in 
breeding of teeth when the belly is loofe, a^^ I have faid before ; 
but if it be too violent, and you are afraid it may end in a con- 
fumption, it mull be flopped; and if the excrements that are 
voided be black, attended with a fever, it is very bad. 

The remedy in this cafe has a principal refpecl to the nurfe, 
and the condition of the milk, muft chiefly be obferved ; the 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 1^9 

iiiirfe raufl be cautioned that i>.e eat no green fruit, northings 
of a hard concoction, "f the child fuck not, remove the flux 
with purges, fuch as leave a blooding quality behind them^ : As^ 
fyrup of honey, of rofes, or a clyfter. Take the decoction of 
miliium, myrobolans, each two or three ounces, with an ounce 
or two of fyrup of rofes, and make a clyfter. After cleanfing, if 
it proceed from a hot caufe, give fyrup of dried rofes, quinces, 
myrtles, coral, maftic, hart's horn, red rofes, or powder of 
myrtles, with a little Sanguis, Draconis : Ifo anoint with oil 
of rofes myrtles, maftic, each two drams, with oil of myrtles and 
wax, make an ointment. Or take red rofes, moulin, each a 
handful, cyprefs roots, two drams : make a bag, boil it in red 
wine and apply it to the belly. Or ufe the plaifter of bread or 
ftomach ointment. If the caufe be cold, and the excrements 
white, give fyrup of maftic, and the quinces, with mint water. 
Ufe outwardly mint, maftic, cummin ; or, take rofe feeds an 
ounce, cummin and annis feed, each two drams ; with oil of 
maftic. vNormwood, and wax, make an ointment. 

Section X. Of the Epilepfy and Cofinjuljions in Children , 

THIS is a diftemper that is the death of many young 
children, and proceeds from the brain firft, as when the humors 
are bred in the brain that caufe it, either from the parents, or 
from vapors, or bad humors, that twitch the membranes of the 
brain ; it is alio fometimes caufed from othen diftempers, and 
from bad diet ; likewife the tooth ache, when tfie brain confents, 
caufes it, and fo does a fudden fright. As to the diftemper it- 
felf, it is manifeft, and well enough known wliere it is ; and as 
to the caufe whence it comes, you may know by the figns of the 
difeafe whether it comes from bad milk, worms, or teeth if thefe 
are all abfent, it is certain that the brain is firft affe^fed . if it 
comes with the fmall pox or meaftes, it ceafeth when they 
come forth, if nature be ftrong enough. 

For the remedy of this grievous and often mortal diftemper, 
give the following powder to prevent it to a child as foon as it 
is born : Take male piony roots^ gathered in the decreafe of the 
moon, a fcruple, with leaf gold make a powder ; or, take piony 
roots a dram, piony feads, mifletoe of the oak, elk's hoof- man's 
fkull, amber, each a fcruple, mulk two grains ; make a powder. 
The beft part of the cure is taking care of the nurfe's diet which 
muft not be diforderly by any means. If it be from corrupt 
milk, provoke a vomit, to do which, hold down the tongue, and 
put a quil dipped in fweet almonds down the throat. If it comes 
from worms give fuch things as will kill the worms. If there 
be a fever, refpedt thatalfo, and give coral fmaraged, and elk's 
hoof. In the fit give epileptic water, as lavander water, and rub 
with oil of amber, or hang a piony root, elk's hoof, and fmarag- 
ed coral, about the neck. 

As to a convulfion, it is when the brain labors to caft out that 
which troubles it : the matter is in the marrow of the back, 
and fountain of the nerves ; it is a ftubborn difeafe and often 
kills. 

For the remedy whereof, in the fit wa(h the body, efpecially 
the back bone, with Decoltion of AUhasa, lily rootS; piony and 



140 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

camomile flowers, and anoint it with man's and goofe greafe, 
oils of worms, oris, lilies, turpentine, maftic, ftorax and cala- 
mint. The f'unflower is alfo very good, boiled in water, to 
waih the child. 



THE 

EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

PART II. 

Containing proper and fafe Remedies for curing of all thofe dijlem' 

pers that are peculiar to the Female Sex, and efpecially thofe that 

ha-ue Ohflrudions to the bearing of Children. 

HAVING hnifhed the firft part of this book, and I 
hope therein amply made good my promife to the reader I am 
now come to treat of the diflempers peculiar to the female fex : 
in which it is not my delign to enlarge, or to treat of all the dif- 
tempersthey are incident to, but thofe only to which they are 
moft fubjeft , when in a breeding condition, and that keep them 
from being fo : for each of w^hich diftempers I have laid down 
fuch proper and iz.it remedies, as, with the divine blelTmg, may 
be fufficient to repel them 5 and imce as amongfl all the difeafes 
to which human nature is fubje<5l, there is none that more dia- 
metrically oppofes the very end of our creation, and the delign 
of nature in the formation of different fexes, and the power 
thereby given us for the work of generation, than that of fteril- 
ity or barrennefs, which, where it prevails, renders the moftac- 
complifhed midwife, but an ufelefs perfon, and deff roves the de- 
fign of our book j I think therefore barrennefs is an' effect that 
deferves our firft confideration. 

CHAP. I. 
Of barrennefs ; its fe^ver at kinds , ivith propen emedies againf it 3 
and the Signs ofinfufficiency both in men and 'women. 
Section I. Of barrennefs in general. 
AS there is no general rule but will admit of fome 
exception, againft this fecond part ; for though I have promifed 
to treat herein only of difeafes peculiar to the female fex, yet 
this chapter will engage me to fpeak of a defect in men, barren- 
nefs being an eiFe(5l incident to them alio; and therefore it is 
necefiary to be handled with refpe(!:l to men as well as women, 
that without treating of it io, I fhall not be able to make good 
the old proverb, of letting the faddle on the right horfe. 

Having prom.ifed this, and thereby anticipated an obje(rtion, I 
fhall now proceed to the fubjed of this chapter, which is bar- 
rennefs. 

Barrennefs is either natural or accidental 

Natural barrennefs is, when a woman is barren, thouoh the 
inftruments of generation are perfe61 both in herfelf and huf- 
band, and no prepofterous or diabolical courfe ufed to caufe it ; 
and neither age nor difeafe, or any natural defed hindering, 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. Ul 

and yet the woman remains naturally barren, and conceives 
not. 

Now this may proceed from a natural caufe : for if the man 
and woman be of one complexion, they feldom have children j 
and the reafon is clear, for the univerfal courfe of nature being 
formed by the Almighty of a compolition of contraries, cannot 
be increafed by a compofition of likes; and therefore, if the 
conftitutionof the woman be hot and dry as well as the man, 
there can be no conception ; and if, on the contrary, the man 
fhould be of a cold and moift conftltution as well as the woman^ 
the eifed: would be the fame ; and this barrennefsis purely nat- 
ural. The only way to help it is for people before they marry 
to obferve each others conftitution and complexion, if they de- 
fign to have children. If their complexions and conflitutions 
be alike, they are not fit to cc iie together, for the difcordant 
nature makes the only harmony in the work of generation. 

Another natural caufe of barrennefs is want of love between 
the man and wife Love is that vital principle that ou^ht to in- 
fpire each organ in the act of generation, or elfe 'twill be but 
fpiritlefs and dull ; for if their hearts be not united in love, 
how ihould their feed unite to caufe conception ; and this is evi- 
dently evinced in that there never follows conceptidn on a 
rape : therefore if men and women defign to have children, let 
them live fo that their hearts as well as their bodies may be unit- 
ed, or elfe they may mifs of their expectations. 

A third caule of natural barrerrnefs is virgins letting blood in 
the arm before their natural courfes come down, which is ufual- 
lyinthe fourteenth or fifteenth year of their age; fometimes 
perhaps before the thirteenth but never before the twelfth. 
And becaufe ufually they are out of order and indifpofed before 
their purgations come down, their parents run to the do6lor to 
know what is the matter, and he ftraight way opens a vein in the 
arm, as if it was fulnefs of blood which was the caufe of ofiend- 
ing, and this makes her well at prefent ; and when the young 
virgin happens to be in the fame diforder again, the mother 
ffraight runs to the furgeon, and he dire6lly ufes the fame reme- 
dy ; and by thefe means the blood is diverted from its proper 
channel, that it comes not down the womb as in another wom- 
an ; and fo the womb dries up, and the woman is forever bar- 
ren. The way to prevent this is to let no virgin blood in tiie 
arm before her courfes come down well ; but if there be occd- 
fion, let her blood in the foot ; for that will bring the blood 
downwards, and by that means provoke the r.ienftrues to come 
down. # 

Anotlier caufe of natural -barrennefs is the debility m copula- 
tion ; if perfons perform not that a(^t with all the heat and ardor 
that nature requires, they may as well let it alone, and expeCt to 
have children without^it, for frigidity ana coldneis never pro- 
duce conception. Of the cure of this we will fpeak by and by, 
after I have fpoken of accidental barrennefs, which is whai is oc- 
cafioned by lome morbific matter or infirmity upon the body, 
either of the man or woman, which being removed, they be- 
rome fruitful. And fmce (as I have before noted} thefirft and 



442 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

great law of the creation was to increafe and multiply, and bar- 
rennefs is the direct oppofition to the law, and fruftrates the end 
of our creation ; and that it is a great atfl[i6lion to divers to be 
without children, and often caufes man and wife to have hard 
thoughts of one another, each party thinking the caule not in 
them. I fhall here, for the fatisfa^lion of well meaning people, 
fet down the [igns and caufes of infufficiency both in men and 
women, premiling this firft, that when people have no children, 
they muli not prefcntly blame either party, for neither may be 
in fault, but perhaps God fees it not good (for reafons Left 
known unto himfelf) to give them any ; of which we have di- 
vers inflances in hiftory. — And though the Almighty in the 
produ(^tionof nature, works by natural means, yet where he 
withholds his blefling, natural means are ineffectual : for it is 
the blefling which is the power rnd energy by which nature 
brings forth her pr0du61:ions. 

Sect. I L Signs and caufes oflnfiiffidency in men . 

ONE caufe may bem fome vicioufnefs in the yard, 
as if the fame be crooked, or any ligaments thereof diftorted or 
broken, whereby the ways and pailages through w^hich the ittdi 
ihould flow, come to be uopped or vitiated. 

Another caufe may be too much weaknefs of the yard, and 
tendernefs thereof, fo that it is not ftrongly enough ere(5ied to 
inject feed into the womb ; for the fl:rength and ftiffnefs of the 
yard very much conduce to conception, by r'^afon of the forcible 
mjeftionof the feed. 

Alfo if the ftones have received any hurt, fo that they cannot 
exercife the proper gift in producing feed, or if they be oppreflT- 
ed with any inflamation or tumor, wound or ulcer, or draw up 
within the belly, and not appearing outwardly thefe are figns of 
infufficiency and caufes of barrennefs. 

Alfo a man may be barren by reafon of the defeat of feed ; as 
firft, if he caft forth no feed at all, or Icfs in fubltance than is 
needful. Or, fecondly if the feed be vicious, or unfit for gener- 
ation as on the one fide, it liappensin bodies that are groTs and 
fat, the matter of it being defective, and on the otiier fide too 
much leannefs, or continual wafl:ing of conlumption of body de- 
ftroys the feed ; nature turning all the matter and fubftance 
thereof into nutriment of the body. 

Too frequent copulation is alfo one great caufe of barrennefs 
m men ; forit attraCleth the feminal moifture from the ftones 
before it is fufliciently prepared and concofted ; fb if any one 
by daily copulation do exhauft and draw out all the moiilure of 
the feed, then do the fl:ones draw the moi(tAumors from the fiu 
perior veins into themfelves ; and fo having but little blood in 
them, they are forced of neceflity to caft it out raw and uncon- 
cocted, and thus the ftones are violently deprived of the moift- 
ure of their veins, and the fuperior vdns from all the other 
parts of the body for their proper nourifhment, thereby depriv- 
ing the body of its vital fpirits. And therefore no wonder that 
thofe that ufe immoderate copulation are very weak in their 
bodies ; feeing their whole body is thereby deprived of their beft 
and pureft blood, and of the fpirit, infomuch that many \^ho 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE, 14S 

have been too much addicted to that pleafure, have killed them- 
felves in the very a6l, and therefore it is no wonder if fuch un- 
conco6ledand imdigefted feed be unfit for generation. 

Gluttony, drunkennefs, and the other excefTes, do alfo much 
hinder men from fruitfulnefs, and make them unfit for genera- 
tion 

But among other caufes of barrennefs in men, this alfo is one 
that makes them barren, and almoft of the nature of eunuchs, 
and that is the incifion or the cutting of their veins behind their 
ears, which incafdof diflempersis oftentimes done ; for accord. 
ing to the opinion of moft phyficians and anatomifls, the feed 
flows from the brain by thofe veins behind the ears more than 
from any other part of the body* From whence it is very prob- 
able, that the tranfmiffion of the feed is hindered by the cutting 
of the veins behind the ears, fo that it cannot defcend at all to 
the teflicles, or come thither very crude and raw. And thus 
much for the figns and caufes of barrennefs in men. 
Section III. Signs afid Caufes of Infujficiency, or Barrennefs in 
Women, 
ALTHOUGH there are many caufes of barrennefs of 
women, yet the chief and principal are internal, refpe6ting either 
the privy parts, the womb, or menftruous blood 

Therefore Hippocrates faith (fpeaking of either eafy or diffi- 
cult conception of women) the firft confideration is to be had of 
their fpecies, for little women are more apt to conceive than 
great ; (lender than grofs ; white and fair, than ruddy and high 
colored ; black than wane ; thofe that have their veins confpic- 
uous are more apt to conceive than others ; but to the very flefii 
is evil ; to have great fwelled breads is good 

The next thing to be confidered, is the monthly purgations, 
Whether they have been duly every month, and whether they 
flow plentifully, and are of good color, and whether they have 
been equal every month. 

Then the womb or place of conception is to be confidered, it 
ought to be clean, found, dry and foft : not retracted or drawn 
lip ; not prone, nor defcending downwards, nor the mouth there- 
of turned awry nor too clofe (hut. But to fpeak more particu- 
larly : 

The firfl: parts to be fpoken of are the pudenda, privities, and 
the womb ; which parts are fhut and inclofed, either by nature 
oragainft nature ; and from hence fuch women are called im- 
perfores ; and in fome women the mouth of their womb contin- 
ues comprefTed, orclofed up, from the time of their birth, until 
the coming down of their courfes, and then on a fudden when 
their terms prefs forward to purgation, they are molefted with 
great and unufual pains ; fome of thefe break of their own ac- 
cord, others are diflTedled and opened by phyficians, others nev- 
er break at all, and it brings death. 

And all thefe Aetius particularly handles, (hewing that the 
womb is (hut three manner of ways which hinders conception^ 
And the firft is, when the lips of^the pudenda grow or cleave 
together ; the fecond is, when there are certain membranes 
growing in the middle part of the matrix within ; the third is, 



U4 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

when (tho* the lips and boforn of the pudenda may appear Ld\i 
and open) the mouth of the womb may be quite Ihut up ; all 
which are occafionsof barrennefs, in that they hinder both the 
ufe of man, the monthly courfes, and conception. 

But among all the caufesof barrennelsin women, the greatefl 
is in the womb, which is the field of generation; and if this 
field be corrupt, it is in vain to expe6l any fruit, let it be ever 
fo well fown : for it may be unfit for generation, by reafon of 
many diflempers to which it is fubjetf : as for inftance, over 
much heat and ever much cold ; for women, whofe wombs 
are two thick and cold, cannot conceive, becaufe cold extin- 
guiflies the heat of the human feed. Immoderate moiftureof 
the womb alfo deftroys the feed of man, and makes it ineffect- 
ual, as corn fown in ponds and marflies : andfo does overmuch 
drynefs in the womb, fo the feed perifheth for want of nourifh- 
Hfient. Immoderate heat of the womb is alfo a caufe of barren- 
nefs, for it fcorclieth up the feed, as corn fown in drought of 
fummer ; for immoderate heat hurts all the parts of the body, 
ib as no conception can live in the woman. And wh^n un- 
natural labors are engendered, as too much phlegm, tympanies, 
wind, water, vxorms or any fuch evil humors abounding con- 
trary to nature, it caufes barrennefs ; as does all the terms not 
coming down in due order, as I have already faid. 

A woman may have other accidental caufes of barrennefs 
(at leafl fuch as may hinder her conception) as fudden frights, 
anger, grief and pertubation of the mmd ; too violent exercife, 
as leaping, dancing, running after copulation, and the like. 
But I will now add fomefigns by which thefe things may be 
knov/n. 

If the CMufe of barrennefs be in the man through over much 
heat in his feed, the woman may eafily feel that in receiving it. 

If the nature of the womb be too hot and fo unfit for concep- 
tion, it will appear by her having her terms very little, and the 
color inclining to yellownefs ; fhe is alfo very hafly, choleric, 
and crafty, her pulfe beats very fwift, and flie is very defirous 
of copulation. 

If you would know whether the defeCl is in the man or the 
woman, fprinkle the man's urine upon a lettuce leaf, and the 
woman's upon another, and that which dries away fird is un- 
fruitful AlfojTake five wheaten corns, and feven beans, put 
them into an earthen pot, and let the party make water therein, 
if t^efe begin to fprout, after flanding (even days, then the party 
is fruitful, if not, they are barren whether it be man or woman ; 
This is a certain fign. 

Some make this experiment of a woman's tVuitfulnefs : They 
take myrrh, red ftorax. and fonie odoriferous things and make a 
perfume, whichthe wom.an is to receive into the neck of the ■ 
womb through a funnel : And if the woman feels the fmoke af- 
rcnd, through her body to the nofe, then (he is fruitful, other- 
wife not. Some alfo take garlic and beat it, and caufe the v- oman 
to lie on her back upon it, and if (he feel the fcent thereof to her 
l^efe, it is a fign of fruitful nefs, 

^1 



EXPERIENCED MiDWIi'E. 14^ 

Culpepper and others alfo give a great deal of credit to the 
following experiment. 

Take a handful of barley, and fteep half of it in the urine of 
the man, and the other half in the urine of the woman, for the 
ipace of twenty four hours, and then take it out, and fet 
each by itlelf, in a flowerpot, or fome other thing ; water the 
man's every morning with his own urine, and the wom.an's 
with hers, and that which grows fir ft, is the moft fruitful ; and 
if one grow not at all, that party is naturally barren. 

But, now, having fpoken enough of the difeafe, it is high 
time to affign the cure. 

If barrennels proceeds from ftoppage of the menfes, let the 
woman fweat, for that opens the parts ; and the beft way to 
fweat is in a hot houfe. Then let the womb be ftrengthened hy 
drinking a draught of white wine, wherein a handful of ftink- 
ing arrack, firft bruifed, has been boiled. For by a fec.'-et mag- 
netic virtue it ftrengthens the womb, and by a iympathetic qual- 
ity removes any difeafe thereof. To which add alio a handful 
of vervain, which is very good to ftrengthen both the womb 
and head, which are commonly affiiCted together by fympathy. 
Having ufedthefe two or three days, if they come not down; 
takeof calac, mint, pennyroyal, thyme, betony, dittany, fever- 
few, burnet, mugwort, fage, piouy roots, juniper berries, 
half a handful of each, or fomany as can be got, let all thefe be 
boiled in beer, and drank for her ordinary drink. 

Take one part of the gentian root, two parts of centory, diftil 
them with ale in an alembic, after you have bruifed the gentian 
roots, and infufedthem well. This water is an admirable rem- 
edy to provoke the terms. But if you have not this water in 
readinefs, take a dram of centory, and half a dram of gentian 
roots bruifed, boiled inpolfet drink, and drink a draught of it 
■atnight going to bed. Seed of wild navew beaten to powder, 
and.adram of it taken in the morning in white wine, alio is very 
good ; but if it do not do, you mufl be let blood in the legs. 
And be fure you adminifter yovu- medicines a little before the 
full of the moon, or between a new and full moon, by no means 
in the wane of the moon ; if you do, you will find them inef- 
fe6lual 

If barrennefs proceed from the overflowing of the menflrues, 
then ftrengthen the womb, as you were taught, and afterwards 
anoint the reins of the back v^^ith oil of roles, oil of myrtle, oil 
of quinces every nij^it, and then wrap apiece of white'baize a° 
bout your reins, the cotton fide next the ikin, and keep the fame 
aUvaysto it. But above all I recommend this medicine to you. 
Take comfrey leaves or roots, and blown woundwort, of each a 
handful ; bruife them well, and boil tiiem in ale, and drink a 
good draught of it now and then. Or take cinnamon, cadialig- 
nia, opium, of each two drams : myrrh, viiite pepper gaiban- 
.um, of each one dn.m : diiiblvc tliegimi and opium in white 
wine and beat the re;t into powder ; then make it into pills, by 
mixing them together exactly, and let the patient take two pills 
every night going to bed, but let not the pills exceed fine€^ 
grains. 

N 



146 EXPERIENCED iMIDWIFE. 

If barrennefs proceed from a flux of the womb, the cure muil 
be according to the caule producing it, which may be known 
byitsfjgns: for a flux of the womb being a continual diftilla- 
tion from it for a long time together, the color of what is voided 
/hews what humor it is that olrends : In fome it is red, and that 
proceeds from blood putrified ; In fome it is yellow, and that 
denotes cholor : In others white and pale, and that denotes 
phlegm. If pure blood comes out, as if a vein were opened, 
fome corrolion or gnawing of the womb is to be feared. All 
thefe are known by thefe iigns. 

1 he place of conception is continually moift with the hu- 
mors, the face is ill colored, the party loaths meat, and breaths 
with difficulty, the eyes are mucii fwolen, which is fometimes 
vv ithout pain. If the offending humor be pure blood, then you 
muftlet blood in the arm, and the cephalic vein -stitieft to draw^ 
back the blood, and then let juice of plantain andcomfrey be in- 
jected into the womb- If phlegm bethe caufe, let cinnamon be 
ufed in all her meats and drinks, and let her take a little Venice 
treacle ormitliridate every morning. Let her boilburnet, mug- 
wort, featherfew and vervain, in all her broths. Aifo, halt a 
dramof myrrh taken every morning is an excellent remedy a- 
gainft this mallady. If cholor be the caufe, let her take burrage, 
buglofs and rofes, endive and fuccory roots, lettuce and white 
poppy feed, each a handful ; boil thefe in white wine till one 
half be waited ; i' c her drink half a pint every morning, to which 
add fyrup of peach flowers, and fyrup of chicony, of each an 
ounce with a little rhubarb, and this will gently purge her. If 
it proceeds from putrefied blood, let her be blooded in the foot, 
and then ftrengthen the womb as 1 have directed in (loping ot 
the menfes. 

If barrennefs be occafioned by the falling out of the womb, as 
fometimes happens let her apply f w eet fcents to her nofe, luch 
as civit, galbum, liorax calamitis, wood of aloes and other 
things of that nature ; and let her lay Itinking things to the 
womb, fuch as alfafoetida, oil of amber, or the fmoke of her 
own hair buint j for this is a certain truth, that the v. omb flies 
from all /linking, and cleaves to all fweet things. But the molt 
infallible cure is this, Take common burdock leaf (which you 
may keep dry all the year) apply this leaf to her head, and it 
will draw the w^omb upwards. In fits of the mother apply it 
to the foles of her feet, and it will draw the womb downvv ards. 
But leed beaten into powder draws the woiHb which way you 
pleaie according as it is applied. 

If barrennefs proceed from a hot caufe, let the party take 
whey and clarify it, then boil plantain leaves and roots in it and 
drink it for her ordinary drink. Let her alfo inject the juice of 
plantain into the womb with a fyringe ; If it be in winter, 
when you cannot get the juice, make a (Irong decodion of tlie 
leaves and roots in v\ater, and jnje^^t that up with a fyringe; 
but let it be but blood warm, and you will find this medi- 
cine of great efficacy. And farther, take often conferve of 
rofes, cold lozenges made of tragacanth, the confedfions of 
traifantaii, frequently fmell caniphire, rofe water, and faun- 



EXPERIENCED xMIDWiFE. 147 

d'^rs. It is alfo good to bleed the bafilica, or liver vein, and 
take 4 or 5 ounces of blood, and then u{e this purge. Take 
electuarum de epirhiino.de fucco rofarum, of each two drams 
and a half, clarified whey four ounces, mix them well together, 
and take it in the morning fafting ; fleep after it about an hour 
and a half, and faft four hours after it And about an hour be- 
fore you eat any thing, drink a good draught of whey : Alfo, 
take lilly water four ounces, i-.androgory water one ounce, faf- 
fron hair a Icrupla ; beat the fafrron to powder, and mix it with 
the waters, and drink them warm in the morning, Ufe this 
eiglit days together. 

Some excellent Remedies agninjl Barrennefsy and to canfe frun- 
fulnefs, 
TAKE broorn Rowers, parHey {^t^, cummin, mug- 
wort, featherfew, of each half a fcruple ; aloes half an ounce : 
India fait, faflron, of each half a dram ; beat and mix them well 
together, and put it to five ounces of featlierfew water warm. 
fldjp it up clofe, and let it iland and dry in a warm place, and > 
thus do two or three times one aijer another; then niake each 
dram into lix pills and take one of them every other day before 
flipper. 

For purging medicine againft barrennefs ; take conferve of 
benedicla iax, one quarter of an ounce : dipfillo. three drams; 
electuary de fucco rofatiun, one drjm ; mix them together 
with featherfew water and drink it in the morning betimes. A- 
bout three days after the patient hath taken a purge, let her 
blood four or nveouncesimlie median or common black vein 
in the right foot ; and then take, for five days one after another, 
filed ivory, a dram and a half in featherfew water ; and dur- 
ing the time, let her fit in the following bath an hour together, - 
morning aiid nighb; Take wild yellow rapes, daucus, balfam 
wood and fruit, afhkeys, of each two handfuls : red and white 
bhen, broom flowers, of each a handful; mufk three grains, 
amber, fcittron, of each one fcruple ; boil all in water fufticient- 
ly ; but the mufk, fatfron, amber, and broom flowers, muft be 
nut into the decodtion after it is boiled and Ifrained. 

A confeftionvery good againll barrennefs ; lake piftachia, 
pingles, eringoes, of each half an ounce, fatfron one dram, lig- 
num aloes, gahingade, mace, balm fiowers, red and white bhen 
each four fcruples, fliaven ivory, caflia bark, each tw^o fcruples ; 
fyrup of confefted ginger twelve ounces, white fugar fix ounc- 
es ; deco!:f all thefe well together, in twelve ounces of balm wa- 
ter and {fir it well together ; then put to it mulk and amber, 
each a fcruple : Take thereof the (quantity of a nutmeg three 
times a day, in the morning, an hour before* noon, and an hour 
after fupper. 

But if the caufe of barrennefs e'tlier in a man or woman, be 
through fcarcity or diminution of the natural feed, then fuch 
things are to be taken asdoincreafe the feed, and incite or (tir 
up to venery, and further conception, whicii I lliall here fet 
down, and conclude the chapter of barrennefs. 

For this, y<^llow rape feed baked in bread is very good ; alfo 
young fat fleib, not toonuich fa! ted ; a'fo faftVon, the fails fiin- 



U8 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

cus, and long pepper prepared in wine. But avoid four, Tnarp;,- 
Goughy and iliiny meats, long fleep after meat, with furfeiting. 
anddrunkennefs, andas much as they can, keep ihemfelves 
from forrovv. 

Thefe things following increafe the natural feed and ftir up 
yenery, and recover the feed again when it is loft, viz. eggs, 
milk, rice boiled in milk, fparrow's brains, fiefh bones and all ; 
the bones and pizzles of bulls, bucks, rams, and bears ; alio 
rock ftones, lamb ftones, partridges, quails, and pheafants eggs, 
for this is an undeniable aphorifm, that whatever any creature- 
is addi61:ed unto, they move or excite the woman or man that 
eats them to the like ; and therefore pait ridges, qiails, fparrows,. 
Sec being extremely addicted to veners^ they work the fame 
effc6t'inthofe men and woiTicn that eat them. Alfo take no- 
tice that in what part of the body the faculty v.hich you would 
ftren^then lies, tak^ the fame part of the body of another crea- 
ture, in w-hom the faculty is ftrong, asa medicine. As for in- 
stance, th(! procreative faculty lies m the tefticles, therefore 
cock (tones, lamb ftones, &:c are proper to ftir up venery. I 
will alfo give you another general rule ; all creatures that are 
fruitful being^ eaten, make them fruitful th^t eat them ; as crabs, 
iobfters, prawnes, pidgeons, ^c. The ftones of a fox dried arid 
beaten to powder and a dram taken in the morning in lheep''a 
milk ; and the ftones of a boar taken in llie like manner are ve- 
ry good. The heart of a male quail carried about the man, 
and theheartof a female quail carried about the woman, cauf- 
eth natural love and fruitfulnefs Let them alfo that would in- 
creafe their fecdy eat and drink of the beft as near as they can ; 
for Jine cerere et llbere frlgit Venusi is an old proverb, v hich is, 
Without good meat and good drink, Venus will be frozen to 
death. 

Pottages are good to increafe the feed, fuch as are made of 
beans, peas and lupines, and mix the reft with fiigar, French 
beans, wheat fodden in broth, annis feeds, alfo onion s fte wed, 
garlicks, leeks, yellow rapes, freih bugwort roots, orin^o roots 
ginger confe^fed, &c. Of fruits ; hazle nuts, cyprefs nuts, 
piftachia almonds, and marmupane made thereof. Spices good- 
to increafe feed, are cinnamon, cardanum. galengal, long 
pepper, cloves, ginger, faffron, adaf^etida, take a dram and a 
halt in good wMne, is very good for this purppfe. 

The vv eaknefs and debility of a man's yard being a great 
hindrance to procreation, let him to ftren^then it, ufe the fol- 
lowing ointm.ents. Take wax, oil oi bevercod, marjorum 
gentle, add oil of coflus, of each a like quantity, iriix it into an 
ointm.ent, and put to it a little muftc and with it anoint the yard, 
cods, ScQ, Take of houfe emmets three drams, oil of white fef- 
anum, oil of lilies of each an ounce ; pound andbruife the ants, 
and put them to the oil, and let them ftand in the fun ftx days, 
then ftrain out the oil, and add to it euphorbium one fcruple, 
pepper and rue, of each one dram ; muftard feed half a drarn.V 
Set this again all together in the fun tw:o or three days, then a- 
noint the inftruments of generation therewith. Sq much fof 
this chapter. 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. U9 



CHAP. II. 

ne difeajes of the ^Vornh . 
I HAVE already faid, that the womb is tlie field of 
p:eneration ; and if this field be corrupted, it is in vain to expect 
any fruit though it be never fo well fown ; it is therefore not 
without reafon, that I intend in this chapter to fet down the 
feveral diftempers to which the womb is obnoxious, and proper 
and fafe remedies againfi: them. 

Section I. Of the hot Dijle?nfer of the V/omb. 
THISdiftemper confiftsm the excefs of heat ; for the 
heat of the womb is neceffary for conception, but if it be too 
much it nouriilieth not the feed, but difperfeth its heat, and 
hinders the conception ; this preternatural heat is fometim.es 
from the birth, and makes them barren ; but if it be accidental it 
is from hot caufes that bring the heat and the blood to the 
womb ; it arifes alfo from medicines, and from too much 
hot meat, drinks and exercife, Thofe that are troubled 
with this diftemper have but few courfes, and thole yellow, 
black, burnt or Iharp, have hair betimes in their privities ; they 
a re Very prone to luli, andare fubje6l to the headache, and a- 
bound with choler. And when the diilemper is ftrong upon 
them, they have but few terms, and out of order, being bad and 
hard to flow, ana in time they become hypochondriacs, and for 
the moll: part barren, haying fometimes a frenzy of the womb. 

The remedy is to ufe coolers, fo that they otiend not the . vef-- 
fels that mv-idbe open mr the tlux of the terms. Therefore in- 
wardly ufe coolers, fucli as fuccorys, endive, violrts, water- liL 
ies, forrel, lettuce, fanders, and iyrups, and conserves made 
thereof. Alfo take conferve of luccory, violets, water lilies, 
burrage, each, an ounce ; conferve of roies half an ounce, diam- 
argaton frigid, diatriafcantal, each half a dram ; and with fyrup 
of violets, or juice of citrons, make an ele^^tuary For outward 
applications make ufe of ointment of rofes, violets, water lilies, 
gonrds, Venus narvel applied to th&back and loins.- 

Let the air be cool, her garments thin, and her meat endive, 
lettuce, fuctory and barley Give her no hot meats, nor ftrong 
v':ie, unlefs rrjxed with water. Reft-is good for her, butfhe- 
miiiiabiiain from copulation though fhe may lleep aslongas ihe 
will. 

SfCTiorv: 11.- Ofthecddd'iflemperofthe Womb. 

THIb cii (temper is the reverie of the foregoing, 
and equally an enemy to generation, being caiifedby cold qnai- 
ify abounaing to excefs, and proceeds from too cold air, reir, 
idlenCiS and cooling medicines, it may be known by an aver- 
f»Gn to letchery ; and taking, no pleafure in the a«:t of copulation 
Vv hen they fpend tlieir feed. 1 iieir terms are phle^ mane, rhck 
and ill my, and do not How as they Ihouldi 'i he wcmb is wm- - 
dy, and tiie feed crude and waterifh. It is the Caiile of obftruc- - 
tions and barrennefs, and hard to be cured. 

For the cure of this diltemper ufe this v^ater : Take galangal, 
^Injiamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves, each two drams ; ginger cu- 
•j'^bs,- :zero:y, c-aidanum, e.ivh u.r; oui^ce ; grains oi Faradile^ , 



150 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

long pepper, each half an ounce ; beat them and put themihta 
iix quarts of wine for eight days ; then add fage, mint, balm^ 
motherwort, each three handfuls. Let them Hand eight days, 
more, then pour off the wine, and beat the herbs and the fpices, 
and then pour on the wine and dillil them. Or you may ufe 
this : Take cinnamon, nutmegs, cloves, mace, ginger, cubebs, 
cardamums, grains of Paradife, each an ounce and a half, galen- 
oal fix drams, of long pepper half an ounce, zedony five drams, 
bruifethem, and add fix quarts of wine : put them inoacel-^ 
lar nine days, daily flirring them : then add of mint two hand- 
fuls, and then let them ftand fourteen dap, pour off the wine 
and bruife them, and then pour on the wme again, and diftil 
them. Alfo anoint with oil of lilies, rue, angelica, bays, cinna- 
mon, cloves, mace^ and nutmeg. Let her diet and air be warm, 
her meat of eafy conco<^tion, feafoned with annis feed, fennel, 
and thyme, and let her avoid raw fruits and milk diets. 
Section HI- Of the inflation of the IFomb 

iHE inflation of the womb, is the ftretching 
of it by wind, called by fome the windy mole, the wind proceed- 
ing from a cold matter whether thick or thin, contained in the 
veins of the womb by which the weak heat thereof is overcome, 
and it either flows thither from other parts, or is gathered there 
by cold meats or drinks : cold air may be a procuring caufeof 
k alfo, as lying in women are expofed to it. The wind is contain- 
ed either in the cavity of the veffelsof fhe womb, or between the 
Tunicles, and it may be known by the fwelling in the region of 
the womb, which fomietimes reaches to the navel, loins, and di- 
sphragma ; and it rifes and abates as the wind increafeth or de- 
creafeth. It differs from the dropfy, in that it never fwells foe, 
high ; and that neither the phyiician nor midwife may take it 
for conception, let them obferve the figns of women with child 
laid down in the firftpart of the book j and if one fign be want- 
ing, they may fufpe^lil it to be an inflamation, of which this is a. 
farther (ign, that in conception the fwelling ftiil increafeth alio, 
if you ftrikeupon the belly in an inflation, there w.ill be a noife, 
but not fo in cafe there be a conception. It alfo differs from a 
mole, becaufe in that there is a weight and hardnefs in the belly; 
and when they move from one fide to another, they feel a weight 
which moving ; but not fo in this. If the inflation be without 
♦he cavity of the womb, the pain is greater and more extenfive, . 
nor is there any noife, becaufe the womb is more pent up. 

This diftemperis neither of any long continuance, nor danger- 
ous, if looked after in time, and if it be in the cavity of the womb 
IS mo|^ eafily expelled. To which purpofe give her diaphoni- 
conwitha little caftor and (harp cly(ters that expel wind. If, 
this diftemper happens to a woman in travail, let her not purge 
after delivery, nor bleed, becaufe it is from a cold matter ; but 
if it come after child bearing, and her terms come down fufli- 
ciently, and that flie has fuUnefs of blood, let the fephaena veia 
be opened ; after which let her take the following electuary ; 
take confei ve of betony, rofemary, of each an ounce and a half; 
candied eringoes, citron, peels candied, each half an ounce, xiiach- 
ium, galengal, each a dram, oil of annis feed fix drops, and with 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 161, 

fyrup of citrons mai^e anele6luary. For outward applications 
make a cataplafir of rue, mugwort, camomile, dill, calimints, 
new penyroyali thyme, with oil ofrue, keir, and camomile ; 
and let the fc^llowing clyfters, to expel wind, be put into the 
womb : Take agnus, ca(tus, rue, calamint, each an handful ; 
annis feed, caftus, cinnamon, each two drams, boil them in wine 
to half a pint. She may likewife ufe fulphur, baths, and fpaw 
waters, both inward and outward, becaufe they expel wind. 
Section IV. Ofthedropfyofthelromb. 

THIS is another morbific effect of the womb, 
proceeding from water, as that before mentioned did from wind, 
by which the belly is fo fwelled, that it deceives many, caufmg . 
them to think themfelves with child when indeed they are not. 
This is an unnatural fwelling raifed by the gathering together 
of waters, from moifture mixed with the terms, and an evil fan- 
guification from the liver and fpleen ; alio by immoderate 
drinking, or eating of crude meats ; all which caufmg a reple- 
tion, do fuftbcate the native heat : It may alfo be caufed by o- 
verflowing of the courfes, or by any other immoderate evacua- 
tion. The figns of this diftemper, are the lower. parts of the 
belly, with the privities pufted up and pained ; the feet fwell, the 
natural color of the face decays ; the appetite is departed ; the 
terms alio are fewer, and ceafe before their time ; her breads 
are alfo foft, but without milk. This is diftinguifhed from a 
general dropfy, in that the lower parts of the belly are moft 
Iwelled ? neither does the fanguificative faculty appear fo hurt- 
ful, nor the urine fo pale, nor the countenance fo loon changed, 
neither are the fuperior parts fo extenuated, as in a general drop- 
fy. But yet this diftemper k)retels the total ruin of the natural 
fun(^lions, by that fmgular confent the womb hath with the liver, . 
2^n& therefore an evil habit of body or a general dropfy will fol- 
low. . 

For the cure of this difeafe, firft mitigate the pain with fo- 
mentations, of mellilot, mallows, liHfeed, camomile, andalrhae, 
then let the humor be prepared with fyrup of ftoeduis, calamint, 
mugv/ort, both forts, with the diftilled waters, or decoction of 
nodder, marjorum, fage, oringe, fpeerage, pennyroyal, and bet- 
ony ; and let her purge with fenna, agaric, rhubarb, and elite- 
rian. Take calamints, mugwort, lovage roots, pennyroyal, each 
an handful ; favila pugil ; madder roots, angelica, of each an 
ounce ; boil them, in water, and fweeten them with fugar. Or> 
if Ihe like it better, make broths of the fame. Alfo take fpeci- 
rem diambree, diamefcidulcis, diacalamenti,diacinnimcni, diac* 
imini, troce de myrrh, of each two drams, fugar one pound ; 
with betony water make lozenges, and let her take ot them two 
hours before meals. Apply alfo to the bottom of the belly, as 
hot as can be endured, a little bag of camomile, cummin and 
mellilot boiled in oil of rue ; and anoint the belly and privities 
with unguentum Agrippae, mingling therewith oil of Iroes, 
Let the lower parts of the belly be covered with a plailler of bay 
berries, or with a cataplafm made of cummin, camomile and bn- 
ony rootSj adding thereto cow's and goat's dung. For injection 
into the Viornhj take afarum roots three drams, pennyroyal, cal-. 



151 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

imint, each half a handful, favin, a pngil,\nachoacan a dram -y . 
annis feed, cummin, each half a dram. J^oil \hem and take iix. 
ounces llrained with oil of elder and orris, each an ounce ; and 
injtt\ it into the womb by a metrenchita ; let the ^ir be hot and. 
dry. Moderate exercife may he allowed, but rnwch ileep is 
forbidden. She may eat the flefh of partridges, larks, chickens, 
mountain birds, hares, conies, Sec, and drink wine mixed with 
a little water. 

Sectioj^ V. OftheJnJiamationofthelVomb. 

THIS is a tumor polfelTivg the womb, accom- 
panied with unnatural heat, by obftruCtion, and gathering to- 
gether of corrupt blood ; for the blood that comes to the womb, 
gets out of the veflels into itsfubftance and grows hot, putrefies, 
and caufeth an inflammation, either all over, or in part, before 
or behind, above or below- This happens alfo by fupprelfion of 
the menftrues, repletion of the whole body, immoderate copu- 
lation, often handling of the genitals, difficult child birth, ve- 
hement agitation of the body or by falls or blows. The ii^ns 
of this inflammation are tumors with heat and pain inthe region 
af the womb, ftretchingand heavinefs in the privities, alfo a pain 
in the head and flomach, with vomiting, coldnefs of the knees, 
convulfions of the neck, doting, trembling of the heart: and 
lometimes (Iraitnefs of breath by reafon of heat which is com- 
municated to the diaphragma, or midriff ; and the breads fym- 
pathizing with the womb, are pained and fwelled ; but more 
particularly, if the fore part of the matrix be inflamed, the 
privities are grieved, and the urine is fupprelTed, or flows forth 
with diflSculty ; if it be behind, the loins and back fuffer, and 
the belly is bound ; if the iaflammation be in thebottom of the 
womb, the pain is towards the navel ; if the neck of the womb 
be affefled, the midwife, putting up hec finger, may feel the 
mouth of it retracted, and ciofed up, with a hardnels about it. 
As to the prognofticks of it, all inflammations of the womb are 
dangerous and fometimes deadly, efpecially if it be all over the 
womb : if the wcman be with child (he rarely efcapes, an aborr 
tion follows, and the mother dies. 

As to the cure : firft. Let the humors, flowing to the womb 
be repelled ; for the affe(5ling of which after the belly hath 
been opened by the cooling clyfters,- letting of blood will be 
needful : open therefore a vain in the. arm, but have a care of 
bleeding in the foot, left thereby you draw more blood to the 
womb, but if it be from the terms ftopt, you may. The opin- 
ion of Galen is, that the blood may be diverted by bleeding in . 
thearm, or cupping the breaflsand that it may be by opening . 
an ancle vein, and cupping upon the hips- Then purge gently 
with caflia, rhubarb, lenna, and mirobolans thus, take fen na 
two drams, annis feed one fcruple, mirobolans half an ounce, bar- 
ley water a fufficient quantity ; make a dococ^tion, diffolve it in 
fyrup of fuccory, with rheubarb two ounces, pulp of cafTia half • 
an ounce, oil of annis feed two drops and make a portion. At 
the beginning of the difeafe anoint the privities and reins with 
ollofrofes and quinces. Make plafters of plantain, linfeed 
bitriey meal, Ihelhlot, fenugreek and white of egg ,• and if the - 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 153 

pain be vehement, add a little opium. For repellers and ano- 
dynes take Venus navel, purilain, lettuce houdeek, vine leaves, 
eacha handful, boil them in wine ; barley meal two ounces, 
pomegranate flowers two drams, boil a dram with oil of rofes, 
and make a poultice. Or take diacibilou fimple two ounces, 
juice of Venus navel, and plantain each half an ounce; takeot 
fenugreek, Miallow roots, decocted figs, linfeed, barley meal, 
dove's dung, turpentine, each tjiree drams; deer's fuet half a 
dram, opium half a fcruple, and with v/ax make a plaifter. Af^ 
ter it is ripe break it by the motion of the body, coughing, 
fneezing, orelfe by cupping and peflaries ; as, Take rue half an 
handful, figs an ounce, pigeon's dung, orris root each half a 
dram; with vvool make pelFary. After it is broken and the 
pains abate, then cleanfe and heal the ulcer with fuch cleanfei's 
as thcfe, viz. Whey, barley water, honey, wormwood, fmallage 
orris, birthwort, myrrh, turpentine, allum : Take new milk 
boiled a pint, honey halfapint, orris powder half an ounce, and 
Mic. it very often every day. If it break about the bladder, ufe 
an emulfion of cold feeds^ whey, and fyrup of violets. Let her 
drink barley water, or clarified whey, and her meat be chick- 
ens, and chicken bread, boiled with endive, fuccory,forrel, bug- 
le fs and mallows. 

Section VI. Of Schirrofity and Hardnefs of the If^omb. 

A SWELLING in the womb neglci^ted, or not 
perfe611y cured, often produces a fchirrofity in the matrix, 
which is a hard infenfible, unnatural fwelling, caufnig barren- 
nefs, and begetting an indifpofition of the whole body. The 
immediate caufe is a thick, earthy humor (as natural melan- 
choly, for inilance) gathered in the womb, and caufmga fchir- 
rous without imflammation. Itisaproperfchirrous when there 
is neither fenfe nor pain, and it is an improper fchirrous when 
there is fome little fenfeand pain. Thisdiflemper is moft uf- 
ual in women of a melancholy conftitution, and alfo fuch as 
have not been cleanfed from their menfes, or from the retention 
of the lochia, or after purging ; itisllkewife fometimes caufed 
by eating corrupt meat ; or thofe inordinate lodgings called pi- 
ca, to which breeding women are often fubjedt ; and laffly, it 
rnay alfo proceed from obllrudtions and ulcers in the womb, or 
fome evil efl'e6ls in the liver and fpleen. It may be known by 
thefefigns ; If the effect be in the bottom of the womb, fhe 
feels as it were a heavy burden reprefenting a mole, yet differ- 
ing, in that the. breaits are attenuated, and the whole body alfo. 
If the neck of the v/omb be hardened, no outward humors will 
appear, the mouth of it is retradted, and touched with the fin- 
ger, feels hard : nor can fhe have the company of a man without 
great pains and prickings. This fchirrofity or hardnefs is 
Twhen confirmed) incurable, and will turn' into a cancer, or 
dropfy : and ending in a cancer, proves deadly; the reafon of 
which is, becaufe the native heat in thofe parts being almofl 
fmothered, it is hardly to be reftored again. 

For the cure of this, firft prepare the humor with fyruj)of 
burrage, fuccory, epicymum, and clarified whey ; which being 
done, take of thefe pills following, according to the flrength of 



154 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

the patient ? take hicra picra, fix drams and a luilt ; agaric, 
Japillazuli, abliiti Talis Indoe, coloquintida, of each one\iram 
and a half ; mix them, and make pills. The body bein^ piir^- 
cdy proceed to mollify the hardnefs as foUoweth ; anoint the 
privities and the neck of the womb with the followin|;ointment : 
take oil of capers, lilies, fweet almonds, jeifamin, each an ounce ; 
mucilage, fenuj^reek, althiv, ointment of alth.x, each fix dran\s : 
amoniacum dillblved in wine, an ounce, which with wax make 
intoan ointment. Th.cn apply below ihe navel diochylon fer- 
nclli ; and make emullions of rigs, mu^^vort, mallows, pcnny- 
reyal, aUhae, fennel roots, mellilot, fenus^reek, and linfeed boil- 
ed in water ; but for injection, take bdellium dillblved in wine, 
oil of fweet almonds, lilies, camomile, each two ounces, mar- 
row of veal bones, and hen's [^reafe, (»ach an ounce, with the 
yolkofanegg. The air muft be temperate; and as for her 
diet, let her abilain from all grofs, vicious and fait meats, fuch 
a,^ pork, fi/b, oil, cheefe, Sec. 

Section VII Of the ftralghtnefs f>f the JVomh and its rf/fe/s . 
THIS being feated in tlie veilels of the womb, and 
neck thereof is an obf!ru6tion to the bearing of children, as it 
hinders both the flowing of the menles and conception 1 he 
caufe of this ftraitnefi is thick and tough luimors, that fiop the 
mouth of the veins and arteries ; thefe luimors, are bred of ^rcfs 
or too muchnourlllmient : when tlie heat of tlie womb is fo 
weak that it cannot attenuate the humor which, bv reafon there- 
of, either fiow from the whole body, or are gathered into the 
womb. Now, the veilels are made clofer or firaUer fevcral 
"vvays ; fometimes by inflammations, fchirrous, or other tu- 
mors ; fometimes by comprellions, or by a fear, or flefh, or 
membrane, that grows after the wound. The figns by which 
this is known, are ftoppage of the terms, not conceiving, crudi- 
ties abounding in the body, w hich are known by particular 
iigns ; for if there was a wound, or the fecundine was pulled 
out by force, phlegm comes from the wound. If ftoppage of 
the terms be from an old obilruCftion by humors, it is hard to be 
cured; if it is only from the diiorderly ufe of adringents it is 
more curable; ifi'tbefrom a fchirrous, or other tumors that 
comprefs or clofe the veilels, the difeafe is incurable. 

For the cure of that which is curable, obflruviriions murt: be 
taken away, phlegm muft be purged, and (he muft be let blood, 
as will be hereafter direCrled in the floppage of the terms. 
Then ufe the following medicines ; take of annis feed and fen- 
nel feed, each a dram ;"rofemary, pennyroyal, calamint, betonv^ 
flowers, each an ounce ; ceiKis, cinnamon, galengal, each half 
anounce ; fatlVom half a dram, with wine. Or, take afparagus 
roots, parfley roots, each an ounce; pennyroyal, calamints, each 
a handful ; wall flowers, diU flowers, each two piigils • boil, 
ftrain, and add fyr<*:p of mugwort, an ounce and a half. For a- 
fomentation, take penny! oval, mercury calamint. marjoram, 
mugwort, each two handVuls ; fage, rofemary, bays, camomile 
flowers, each an handful ; boil them in water, and foment the 
groin and the bottom of the belly, or let her Jit up to her na-. 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 155 

vel in a bath, and then anoint about the groin with oil of rue, 
hlies, dill, Sec. 

Section VIII. 
Of the falling of the Womb. 
THIS is another evil atred of the womb, which Is 
both very troublefome, and alfo a hindrance to conception. 
Sometimes the womb falleth to the middle of the thighs, nay, 
almoil to the knees, and it may be known then by its hanging 
out. Now that which caufeth the womb to change its place is 
when tlie ligaments by which it is bound to the other parts are 
not in order for there are four ligaments, two above, broad and 
membraneous, that come from the peritoneum, and two below 
that are nervous round and hollow; it is alfo bound by the 
great velTels by veins and arteries, and to the back by nerves. 
Now the place is changed when it is drawn another way, or 
when the ligaments are loofe, and it falls down by its own weight. 
It is drawn on one fide when the menfes are hindered from flow- 
ing, and the veins and arteries are full, namely thofe which go 
to the womb. If it be a mole on one fide, and the fpleen caule 
it ;^ by the liver veins on the right fide and the fpleen on the 
left, as they are more or lefs filled. Others are of opinion it 
comes from the folution or connexion of the fibrous neck, and 
the parts adjacent, and that from the weight of the womb de- 
fcending. This we deny not ; but the ligaments mufl be loofe 
or broken But women in a dropfy could not be faid to have 
the womb fallen down, if it came only from loofnefs ; but in 
them it is caufed by the faltnefs of the water, which dries more 
than itmoilteus. Now, if there be a little tumor within or with- 
out tlie privities, it is nothing elfe but a defcent of the womb ; 
but if there be a tumor like a goofe egg, and a hole at the bot- 
tom there is at firfl a great pain in the parts to which the womb 
-is faftened as the loins, the bottom of tJie belly, and the os fa- 
crum, which proceeds from the breaking or flretching of the 
ligai7ients, but a little after the pain aba.es ; and there is an 
impediment in walking ; and fonietimes blood comes from the 
breach of the veflels, and X\\t excrements and urine are ftopt, and 
then a fever and a convulfionenfueth, which often times proves 
Ttiortal, efpecially if it happens to women witli child. 

For thecure or tliis diflemper, firfl put it up before the air alter 
it, or it be fwolen or inflamed ; and therefore firfi of all give a 
clyfter to remove the excrements ; tlien lay heron her back with 
her legs abroad, and thi^Iis lifted up, and head down ; then 
take the tumor in your hand, and thruft it in without vi- 
olence If it be fwelled by alteration and cold foment it 
with the decoL^lion of mallows, althss, line, fenugreek, cam- 
omile flov\ers, bay berries, and anoint it with oil of lillies 
and hen's greafe. If there be an inflamation, do not put 
it up, but fright it in, by putting red hot iron before it, 
and making a (how as if you intended to burn it ; but firfl 
fprinkle upon it the powder of mafich, trankinccnfe, and the 
like : Take frankhicenfe, maflich each two drams ; fai^ocol 
(leeped in milk, a dram ; mumij^y, pomegranate flower, fan- 
guis draconis, each half a dram ; when it is put up, let her 



156 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

lie with her legs (Iratched, and one upon the other, for 8 or 10 
days, and make a peflary in the form of a pear, with cork or ' 
fpunge and put it into the womb, dipped in (harp wine or 
juice of afcacia, with powder of fanguis, galbanum bdellium. 
Alfo apply a cupping glafs, with great flame under the navel or 
paps, or to both kidneys, and lay this plairter to the back : 
Take opoponix two ounces, ftorax liquid half an ounce, mafHch 
frankincenle, pitch, bole, each two drams, then with wax make 
a plaifter ; or laudanum a dram and a half, maftich, and frank- 
incenfe, each half a dram, wood aloes, cloves, fpikes, each a 
dram ; afh colored amber greafe four grains, mufk half a fcru- 
ple ; make two round plaifters to be laid on each fide of tlie na- 
vel ; make a fume of fnail fkins falted, or of garlick, and let it 
be taken in the funnel. Ufe alfo aitringent fomentations of 
bramble leaves, plantain, horfetail, myrtle, each two handfuls. 
wormfeed two pugils, pomegranate flowers half an ounce, boil 
them in wine and water. Foran injedion, take comfrey roots 
an ounce, rupture wort two drams, yarrow, mugwort, each 
half an ounce, boil them in red wine, andinjetl it with a fyringe. 
To firengthen the womb, take hartfhorn bays, of each a dram, 
myrrh half a dram : make a powder for hvo aofes, and give -it 
with rtiarp wine. Or, Take zedoary, parfnip feed, crabs eyes 
prepared, each a dram ; nutmeg half a dram, and give a dram in 
powder ; butaftringents mud be ufed with great caution, left by 
Itopping thecourfes a worfe miichief follow. To keep it in its 
place, make rollers and ligatures as lor the rupture \ and put 
pellaries into the bottom of the womb, that may force it to re- 
main. 1 know fonie phylicians objetSl a^ainft tnis, and lay they 
hinder conception ; but others in my opmion, mudi more juftly 
aftirm. that they neither hinder conception, nor bring any incon- 
venience ; nay, fo far from that, they help conception, and re- 
tain it, and cure the difeafe perfeirtly. Let (he diet be luch as 
are of drying aftringent, and glewing qualities, fuch as rice, 
ftarch, GLiinces, pears, and green cheefe ; but let fummer fruits 
be avoided, and let her wine be aftringent and red. 
CHAP. III. 
Of D if cafes relcwngto U^omen^s monthly courfes. 
Section I Of Women' s monthly courfes hi general, 

DIVINE providence which, with a wifdom worthy of 
itfelf, has appointed woman to conceive by coition with the 
man, and to bear and bring forth children, has provided for the 
nouriftiment of children during their recefs in the v/omb of their 
mother by that redundancy of the blood which is natural to all 
women, and which flowing out at certain periods of time (when 
they are not pregnant) are from thence called terms and menfes 
from their monthly flux of excrcmcntitious and unprofitable 
blood; which is only to beunderf.ood with refpecl to the redun-. 
dancy thereof, being an excrement only with refped: to its 
quantity, for as to its quality it is as pure and incorrupt as any 
blood in the veins; and this' appe3rs from the final caufe ct it, 
which is the propagation and confcrvation of mankind ; and al- 
fo from the generation of it, it being the fuperfluity of the laft a- 
liment of the flediy parts. If tny alk, if the menles be not of a 



EXPERIENCED xMIDWIFE. 15T 

hurtful quality, how can it have fuch venomous cfFefls, :.s if it 
fall upon trees and herbs, it makes the one barren, and morti- 
fies the other? laufvver, This malignity is contraaed in the 
womb ; for the woman wanting native heat to di:.;cf}: thiis fu- 
perfluity, fendsit to the matrix, where feating i tie! f till the 
mouth of the womb be dilated, it becomes corrupt and niortiti- 
ed, which may eafily be, confidering the heat and moifLnels of 
the place ; and fo this blood being out of its proper vcfR^ls, and 
too long retained, oftendsiii quality. But if rigidity be the caufc 
why v/omen cannot digelt all iheir laft nouri/hnieiit. and by 
confequence have thofe monthly purgations, liow comes it to 
pafs, may fome fay, that they are of fo cold a conftitution more 
than men ? Of this I have already ipoken in the ciiapter of bar- 
renncfs ; It i^ chiefly thus : The Author of our being has laid 
aninjun.:tion upon men and women to propagate their kind, 
hath alfofo wilely fitted them for that work; and feeing that in 
the a^t of coition there muft bean agent and a patienr (for if 
they be of oneconditution, there can be no propagation) tliere- 
forethemanis hot and dry, and the woman cold and moiil. 
It is therefore necefTary that the woman fhould be of a cold 
-conftitution, becaufe in her is required a redundency of matter 
for the nouri:hment of the infant depending on her. And this 
is wifely ordained by nature, for otherwife the child would de- 
tra t from, and weaken the principal parts of the mother ; 
which would moft unnaturally render the provilion of the infant 
to be the deftruCliion of the parent. Now, thcfe monihl)^ purg- 
ations ufually begin a bout the 14th year and continue till the 
4ith or 50th year : yet not fo conftantly, but that oftentimes 
there happens a fupprelFion, w>.ich is fometimes natural and 
fometanes morbifical When they are naturally fuppreft, it is 
either in breeding women, or fuch as give fuck ; but that which 
is morbifical muft be the fubjecl of the following fe61ion. 
Section II. 

Ofthefuppreffion of the monthly Courfes. 

J HE fuppreflion of the terms which is morbific, is 
an interception of that accuftomary evacuation of blood which 
fhould come from the matrix every month, and which proceeds 
from the matter vitiated Thecaule of this fuppreflion is either 
internal or external ; The internal caufe is either inftrumental, 
or material, in the bioed or in the womb. The blood may be 
faulty two ways, in quantity, or in quality ; in quantit)(, when 
it is fo confumed that there is no overplus left, as in viragoes, 
and all virile women, who through their heat and (irength of 
nature digeft and confume all their beft nourifhment ; but wo- 
men of this conftitution are rather to be accounted anthropoph- 
ageae, that is women eaters, than women breeders becaufe they, 
coniurae one of the principles of generation which gives a be- 
ing to the world, i. e. the menfiruous blood. The blood may 
alio be confumedj and the terms flayed, by too much bleeding 
at the nofe, and iikewife by a flux of the hemorrhoides, or by 
adyfenteria, evacuations ; chronicle and continued dif'eafes. 
But fecondly, the matter may be vicious in quahty, as if it be 
O 



S58 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

fangrj neons, phlegmatical, melancliolic : each of ihefe if they 
otiend in grollriefs, will caufe an obllriKirlion in the veins* 

The womb alfo may be in fault diverfe ways: as by the nar- 
row nefs of the veins and pa(rages,by apollumoiis, tumors, ulcerS) 
and by overmucli cold or heat, the one vitiating the action, and 
the other confuming the matter ; alfo, by an evil compofition 
of the uterine parts by the neck of the womb being turned a- 
Tide ; and fometimes though but rarely, by a membrane or ex- 
crefence of F.efh growing about the wohib. 

The external caufe may be heat, or drynefsof the air, immod- 
erate watchinjT, great labor, violent motion, whereby the matter 
5S lo conlumed, and the body is fo exhau(kd, that there is no 
redundant blood remaining to be expelled ; whence it is recor- 
ded of the Amazons, that being active, and always in motion, 
they had little or no monthly flukes: It may alfo be caufed 
from cold ; and moft frequently it is fo making the blood vic- 
ious and grofs, condenfmg and binding up the pafla^es, that it 
cannot flow fjrth The iigns of the diieale are pains in the head, 
neck, back, and loins, with wearinefs ot the whole body but el- 
picially of the hips and legs, by .feafon of a confinity which the 
womb hath in thofe parts ; if the fiippreflion proceeds from 
cold it caufelh a heavy fluggilh difpofition^ a pale color, a (low 
pulfcj the urine crude, waterifh and much in quantity, and no 
defire to copulation, tlie excrements of the guts being ufually 
retained; but if it proceeds from heat the (igns are contraiy. 
If it be natural, or caufed by conception, it may be known by 
drinking water and honey after fuppers, going to bed ; fo if af- 
ter the taking it, it caufeth the woman to feel a bearing pain a- 
bout the navel and lower parts of the belly, it is a fignihe hath 
conceived, and that the fupprefiion is natural, if not then it is vi- 
cious, and ought medicimlly to be taken away, otherwife many 
dangerous difeafes will follow ; fuch as fwoonings, faintings, 
intermidion of pulle, obltructions, epilepfies, apoplexies, fren- 
rzies, melancholy^, pallions, &c. which makes it highly necella- 
ry to fay fomething now of the cure. 

The cure ofthis\iiflemper iriuil be by evacuation, for this 
fupprellion is a phlethoric eft'e<fv, it will thereto re be beft in the 
midll of the humor two days before the wonted evacuation, o- 
pen the faphasna veins of both feet : and if the repletion be no 
great, apply cupping glalles to the legs and thighs, after letting 
blood, the humor mufr be prepared and made Ircxible with iyr- 
up of ftaechus, horehound, hyfop, betony, maidei\ hair, of each 
one handful, make adecodtion, and take thereof three ounces of 
i'yrup of mugwort, fuccory, maiden hair, mix each half an^ 
ounce, and after Ihe comes out of the bath, let her drink it oft'. 
Then purge pil de Agarick, Elephang, Coch ; Faedit Galen in 
this cafe commends l^ilula de i-iicra cum coloquintida ; for as 
they areproper to purge the humor offending, io they open the 
pallage of tJre.w^omb. Ifthr ftomach be overcharged, let her 
take a vomit., but let it be fo prepared as to a6t both way5 left the 
humors fhouldbe too much turned back by working only up- 
wards ; to which end, take trochifk ofa-raria two drams, infufe 
fhrm in three ounces ofoximei^ in whicli ditfolv€benedi<5f, kix- 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 159 

at, half an oimce; and of the eleiSluary diafariim one fcriiple j 
and let her take it after the manner of a purge. When the hu- 
mor has been ihus purged you may proceed to more proper and 
forcible remedies. Take extra(^l of mugwort one fcruple and 
a halt, rinds ol cadia, parOy feed, caftor, of each a (cruple ; and 
with juice of fmallage, after fupper going to bs^d. Alfo, adinin- 
ifter to the lover parts fuf/umigations of amb'^r, unctions, in- 
jedionsandinceHions; make futiiimigationsof amber, galbaiuim, 
melanthum, bayberries,mugwort, cinnamuii, nutmegs, cloves,' 
&c. Make peiJaries of figs, and the leaves of mercury bruifed, 
and roled up in lint. Make injedionsof tlie decoction of mer- 
cury ; betony, origin, mugwort, and t^gs, and inject it into the 
womb by an inftrument fit for that purpofc. For unCtion, take 
ladant,oil of myrrh, of each two drams : oil of lillies, almonds, 
capors, camomUe, of each half an ounce, and with wax make an 
unguent, with which let the place be anointed. Let the aijr be 
hot and dry, her fleep Ihorter than ordinary, let her ufe moder- 
ate exercile before meals, and let her meat and diink be atten- 
uating. 

Section III. 
Of the Overflouo'.ngcf the monthly Courfes, 
IHIS difiemper is directly contrary to tliat ofwhicli 
I have fpoken, in the foregc' \g feccion, and is no lefs dangerous 
than the other; and therefore requires to be fpoken of next in or - 
der. This diftemper is a- fanguineous excrement, proceeding 
from the womb and exceeding in time and quality. I call ii: 
fanguineous, becaufe there are tv. o ways by which the blood 
flows fortli, one is by the internal veins in the body of the womb 
which is properly called the monthly flux ; the other is by thofe 
veins v/hich are terminated in the neck of the matrix, which 
fome phyficians call the hermorrhoides of the womb ; and that 
it exceeds, in quantity, when they flow about three days; but 
this is the moft certain fign of their excefs in flowing, when 
they flow fo long that the faculties of the body are thereby weak- 
ened ; for in bodies abounding with grofs humors, this immod- 
erate flux does fometimes unburden nature of her load, and is 
not to be flopt withoiU advice from a phyHcian. 

The cuufe of this immoderate ilowin^^' is eitlicr external or 
internal The external caufe m.ay be tlie heat of the air; lift- 
ing and carrying heavy burdens, uimatjral child births, falls, 
(i:c. Tlie internal caufe may be threefold, in the matter, in- 
flrument, or faculty : the matter, which is the blood, may be 
vic*ious two ways ; firft, in quantity being fo much that the 
veins are not able to contain it ; fecondly, m quality, being a^ 
dull, fliarp, waterilb, or unconnected. The inflrument, viz. 
the veins, arc faulty by the dilation of the orifice, which may 
be caufed two ways ; nrft by the heat of the conftitution, cli- 
mate, or feafon, heating the blood, whereby the pafles are dilat- 
ed, and the faculty weakened, that it cannot retain the blood ; 
fecondly, by falls, blows, violent motion, breaking of a vein, 
&c. 

This inordinate flux miay be known by the appetite being de» 
cayed, the conco<5i:ion depraved, and all the anions of the body 



1^'^ EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

-^veakcned ; the feet fwelled, the color of the face changed and 
.-4 general fceblenefs poijefTeth the whole body* If it coine*^ Ibv 
the breakingoKi vein, the body is fometimes cold, the blco^ 
flows forth on heai.s and that luddenly, with great pain • if it 
comes through heat, the orifice of the veins being dilated,' then 
" there IS little or no pain, yet tlie blood flows fafier than it doth 
inanerofion, and not fo fail as in a rupture. If by erofion, ox 
iharppefs of t];e blood ftie feels a great heat fcalding the pafiTage, 
i« d:iiers from the other two in that it flows not to fuddenly, 
nor fo ccpicudy as they do. If it he weaknef:, of the womb, (he 
has an avcrfion to copulation ; if it proceeds from the blood, 
drop luTVie of it on a cloth, and w hen it is dry, you n;ay judge of 
the quality by the color ; if it be choleric, it will be yellow, if 
melancholy black, if phlegmatic, waterifh and whitifh 
The cure of th/if coniifts in three particulars, lli, In repelling 
. and carrying back the blood : 2dly, in correcting and taking 
away the flexibility of the matter : and 3dly, coroborating the 
vein or fcicuities. ' For the firll, to caufc a re'greflion of the bleed 
open a vein in her arm, and draw out fo much blood as the 
ftrengih of the /uitient will permit, and that not at once, but 
at feveral times, for thereby the fpirits are lefs weakened, and 
.tl:e retradfion fo much greater. Apply the cupping glalfes to 
tlie liver that the rcveriion may be in the foimtain. 'J'o corre6t 
tlie fluxibility of the matter, cathartics moderated with aftridto- 
ries may be ufed. If it Lc Ciiufed by fharpnefs of blood, confid- 
cr whetiier the corroficn be by fait phicgir,, gr a.duft chclcr ; if 
by fciitphicgi-i, p-epdrc with fyrup of violets, wormwood, rofes, 
citron peels, futcory, &c. and then take this purgation : Miro- 
bolans, chervel, half an ounce, trochifks of agaric one dram, 
with plantain water make a decoClion, add thereto, fvr. rofar. 
lux, three ounces, andmake apotion. If by aduft cholar, pre- 
pare tlie body with fyrup of rofes, myrtles, forrel, piirllain, 
mixed withv^ater of plantain, knotgrafs, and endive, then purg- 
with this potion : Take rinds of mirobolans, rheubarb, of each 
one dram, cinnamon fifteen grains, infufe them one night in 
endive water, add to it the flrainedpulp of tamarinds, cafiia, of 
eacli half dw ounce, fyrup of rofes one ounce, and make a^potion. 
If the blood be waterifh and urxoncocfed, as it is in hydropical 
bodies, and flows forth by reafon of the tenury. to draw ofl" the 
water will be profitable, to which end purge with agaric, elateri- 
uni, and coloquintida- Sweating is aUb very proper in th!s cafe, 
for by it the matter offending is taken away, and the motion of 
the blood is carried to the outward parts. To procuie fwc'at, 
life cardanum water with mith.ridate, or the dcccd'on of guiac- 
um does alfo greatly provoke fweat ; and pills of fafaparilla, ta- 
ken every night at going to bec^, are wcriliily recommended. If 
the blood flows forth from the opening or breaking of a vein, 
without any evil quality of itlelf, then ought coroboratives on- 
ly to be applied, whicli is tlie thing to be done in this inordinate 
flux ; bolearnionic one fcruple, Loudon treacle one dram, old 
conferve of rofes half an ounce, with fyrup of myrtles, make an 
rlechiary. Or if the flux has continued long, take of mafticli 
two drams, olibani. tind. do carcb: :, of each onedv;;m, l)«uaii- 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 161 

iliam one fcruple, make a powder ; with fyriip of quinces make 
it into pills, and take one always before meals. 
Section IV. Of Terms coming out of Order ^ either before or 
after the ufual Time. 
BOTH thefe fhew an ill conftitution of body. Every 
thing is beautiful in its order, in nature as well as in morality, 
and if the order of nature be broke, it (hews the body to be out 
of order Of each of thefe effe6ls briefly. 

When the monthly courfes come before their time it fhews a 
depraved excretion that comes for the time often flowing fome- 
times twice a month : The caufe why thev come foonerisin 
the blood, which ftirs up the expulfive faculty in the womb, or 
fometimes in the whole body, caufed oftentimes by the perfon's 
diet, which increafes the -blood too much, makes it too iharp or 
too hot ; and if the retentive faculty of the womb be weak, and 
the expulfive faculty ftrong, and of a quick fenfe, it brings them 
forth the fboner, and fometimes they flow fooner by reafon of a 
fall, ftroke, or fome violent paflion, which the parties themfelves 
can befl relate. If it be from heat, thin and (harp hum^ors, it is 
known by the diflemper of the whole bod> . The loolenefs of 
the veflels, and weaknefs of the retentive faculty, is known front 
a moift and loofe habit of body. It is more troublefome than 
dangerous but hinders conception, and therefore the cure i"s 
neceflary for all, but efpecially fuch as defire children. If it 
proceeds from a (harp blood, let her temper it by a good diet 
and medicines : for which purpofe, let her ufe baths of iron wa- 
ter, that correct the diftemper of the bowels, and, then evacu- 
ate. If it proceeds from the retentive faculty, and loofenefs of 
the veflels, it is to be corre<^l:ed with gentle aftringents. 

As to the courfes flowing after the ufual time, the caufes are 
thicknefs of the blood and the fmallnefsofits quantity, with the 
Itraitnefs of the pafl^age and weaknefs of the expulfive faculties, 
either of thefe fmgle, may ftop the courfes, but if they all con- 
cur, they render the diftemper the worfe. If the blood abounds 
not in fuch a quantity as may ftir up nature to expel it, its purg- 
ing muft neceflarily be deferred till there be enough. And if 
the blood be thick, the paflage ftopped and the expulfive fac- 
ulty weak, the menfes muft needs be out of order, and the purg^ 
ing of them retarded. 

For the cure of this, if the quantit}rof bloodbe fmall, let her 
ufe a larger diet and very little exercife. If the blood be thick 
and foul, let it be made thin, and the humors mixed therewith 
be evacuated. It is good to purge after the courfes have done 
flowing, and to ufe calamints : and indeed the oftener (he purge 
the better. She ma^ alfo ufe fume and peflaries, apply cupping 
glafles \yithout fcaritication to the inudes of the thighs, aVid rub 
the legs and fcarify the ancles, and hold the feet in warm wate^ 
four or five days before the courfes come down. Let her alfo 
anoint the bottom of her belly with things proper to provoke 
the terms. 

o a 



i6t KXPKKIEKCED MIDWIFK. 

S;:l ti on V. Ofthefalfe ccurfes or White s. 
'FHK whites or falTe coiirfes arc a foul excretion iVom 
thr womb, for from the womb proceeds not 'only the mcnrtru- 
oiis blood, but accidentally many other excrements, whicli is a 
diliillation of a variety of corrupt humors through tlie womb, 
flowing from the v. hole body, or part of the fame ; which, 
though called the ^v]lite5, are fomctimes blue or green, or red- 
illi, not flow i:>.g at a fet time, or every month, but in a difor- 
derly manner, fometimes longer, and iometimes tliorter. It is 
ditierent from the running of tlie reins, both lefs in quantity 
and whiter and thicker in quality, and comingat a great diff- 
ance : it is ditlercnt alfo from thofe niglit pollutions which are 
only in llecp^^and do proceed from the imagination of venery. 

The caufe '-of this diltcmper, is either promifcuoully in the 
whole body, by a cacocliymia, or weaknefs of the fame; or in 
vome of the parts, as in tltC liver, which by the inability of the 
ianguiticativc faculty, caufcth a generation of corrupt blood, and 
ihen t!ne matter is redi(h : fometimes in the gall being remifs in 
us ofPce, not drawing away thofe choleric iuperfluities which 
areen^endjcred m tlic liver, and then the matter is yellow: fome- 
rimes in the fpleen, not defecating and cleanfmg the blood of 
ihc excrementitious parts, and tlien the m.atter flowing forth is 
blackiffe . It may alfo come from catarrhs in the head, or from 
any other putretied or corrupt member. But if the matter of 
the flux be white, the cale is either in the ilomach or reins. In 
the ftomacli by a phlegmatical and crude matter there contra6i:- 
ed and vitiated through grief, melancholy, andothend'ltcmpers; 
for otherv/ife, if the matter were only pituitous, and noways 
corrupt or v'tiated, being taken into the liver, it might be con- 
verted into blood for phlegm in the ventricle is called nouriCh- 
ment half digefied ; but being corrupted, although it be fent 
Into the liver, it cannot correcf that which the hrft hath corrupt- 
ed, and therefore the liver fends it to the womb, which can nei- 
ther digeft it nor repel it, and fo it is voided out, liill keeping 
the color which it had in the ventricle. The caufe alfo may be 
in the veins, being over heated, whereby the fpermatical matter, 
by realon of its tenuity, flows forth. Ihe external caufe may 
be the moiifnefs of tlie air, eating corrupt meats, anger, grief, 
ilothfulnefs, nnmodcrate llceping, and colfivenefs 

The figns are extenuation ot body, Ihortnefs and (linking 
In-^ath, loathing of meat, pain in the head, fwelling of the eyes, 
melancholy, humidity, flowings from the womb, of divers col- 
ors, as reaifn, black, green, yellow, white ; it is known from the 
overflowing oi the courfes, in that it keeps no certain period and 
is of fo many colors, all which do degenerate from blood 

For the cure of this, it muft be by methods adapted to the 
cafe ; and as the caufes are various, fo mulf be the cures. 

If itbe caufed by thediftillation from the brain, take fyrup 
of betony, ftc-echasand majoram, p\irge with pil. loch : make 
napalia, of the juice of fage, hyifop, betony, negella, with one 
dropof oil cloves, and a little fdk cotton. Take elect, dianth 
aromat, rclar, diambre, d.amofci dulcis, of each one dram, 
nutmegs half a dram at night going to bed. 



I 



EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 165 

Ir the matter flowing forth be redifli, open a vein in the arm, 
if not, apply ligatures to the arms and fhoiilders : fome have 
cured this diftemper by rubing the up]per parts with crude 
honey ; andfo Galen fays he cured the wife of Boetius. 

If it proceeds from crudities in the flomach, or from a cold 
diftempered liver, take every m.orning of the deco6Hon of lig- 
num fan^tam : purge with pill deagarico, de harmoda6l, de hi- 
era dyacolocynthid foetida, argragrative. Take ofelecl, aro- 
mat, rof, two drams, citron peels dried, nutmeg, long pepper, 
of each onefcruple, dia^alinga ene dram, fantah albia, lign aloes, 
of each half a fcruple, fugar, fix ounces, with mint water make 
lozenges of it, and then take it after meals. 

If with frigidity of the liver be joined a repreflionof the flom- 
ach, purging by vomiting is commendable ; for wiiich. take 
three drams of the ele61uary of diaru. Some phyficians alfo al- 
low of the diuretical means, of opium, petrofolinum, Sec. 

If the matter of the difeafe be melanchclious prepare with fyr- 
up of maiden hair, epithimum, polipody, burrage, buglofs, 
fumetory, heart's tongue, and fyrup by fantinum, which rnufi 
be made without vinegar, otherw'fe it will rather animate the 
difeafe, than ftrengthen nature, for melancholy is increafed by 
the ufe of vinegar ; and by Hippocrates, Silvius, and Aventinus, 
it is difallowedofas an enemy to the womb, and therefore not 
to be ufed in uterine difeales. 

Purges of melancholy are, Pilulas eumartae, pilulae Indiae, 
pilulae de lap. Lazuli diofena, and confe(5lio hamech. Take 
(iampt prunes two ounces, fenna one dram, epithimum, polypo- 
d^ ; fumetory ; of each a dram and a half, four dates one ounce, 
with endive water make a deco(!:tion ; take of it four ounces, add 
unto.it confections hamech three drams, manna three drams, or 
pilulae indatum, phil, faetidaruni, agarici trochifcati, of each one 
fcruple, lapiduz lazuli, five grains, with fyrup of erithimum make 
pills, and take one everv week. 

If the matter of the flux be choleric, prepare with fyrup of 
endivine, violets, fuccory rofes and purge with mirabolans, 
manna, rhubarb, caflia ; take ot rhubarb two drams, annis feed 
one dram, cinnamon a fcruple and a half, infufe them in fix 
ounces of prune broth ; add to the flraining of manna, an ounce, 
and take it according to art Take fpicierum diflriontafon, dia- 
tragacant. frig, diarrhod- Abbatis diaconit, of each a dram, 
fugar four ounces, with plantain water make lozenges. 

Laflly, let the womb be cleanfed from the corrupt matter, and 
then corroborated and ; for the cleanfing thereof, make injec- 
tions of the decoftion of betony , featherfew, mugwort, fpiken- 
^ard biftort, mercury, fage, adding thereto fugar, oil of fweet al- 
'monds, of each two ounces : then to corroborate the womb, pre- 
pare trochifks in this manner : Take of myrrh, featherfew, mug- 
wort, nutmegs, mace, amber, lign, aloes, florax, red rofes, of 
each an ounce, with mucilage of tragacanth make trochifks, caft 
them on the coals knd fmother the womb therewith : Fomen- 
tations may be alfo made for the womb of red wine, in which 
has been decodled maflich, fine bole, baluflia, red rofes. Dry = 
ingdiet is beft, becaufe this diftemper ufually abounds with 



164 EXPERIENCED MIDWIFE. 

phlegmatic and crude humors. Immoderate fleep is hurtful, 
but moderate exercife will do well. 

Thus I have gone throu<jh the principal difeafes peculiar to the 
female fex, and prefcribed from each of them fuch remedies, as 
with the divine blelling, will cure their diftempers, confirm 
their health, and remove all thofe obfiruclions, which might 
other wife prevent their bearing children : and I have brought 
it into fo narrow a compafs, that it might be of the more gener- 
al ufe, bein^ willing to put it into every one's power, that has 
occafion for it, topurchafe this rich treafare at aneafy rate. 



THE END. 



ARISTOTLE'S 



BOOK OF 



PROBLEMa 



V/ITH OTHER 



ASTRONOMERS, | PHILOSOPHERS, 

ASTROLOGERS, | PHYSICIANS, Sec. 

WHEREIN ARE CONTAINED DIVERS QUESTIONS AND AN- 
SWERS, TOUCHING THE STATE OFMAN'S BOBY TOGETH- 
ER WITH THE REASON OF^IVERS WONDERS IN THE CRE- 
ATION: THE GENERATION OF BIRDS, BEASTS, FISHES, 
AND INSECTS ; AND MANY OTHER PROBLEMS ON THE 
MOST WEIGHTY MATTERS, BY WAY OF QUESTION AND 
ANSWER. 



TO THE READER. 

READER, 

THESE Problems ha^jing been printed ^jery qften^ 
and finding fo general an acceptance^ diners hooks ha^ve been hoift^^ 
ed into the 'world under the name of Aiiftotle,/o that many people 
ha^je bought them^ thinking they had the right fort, by ivbich the 
public has been Injured as ivell as the proprietors. 

The matter it contains is neceffary for all people to knouOy and, as 
man isfaid to be a microcofm^ or little ivorldy and in him the A.]- 
in]ghtY hath imprinted his auun image fo li'velyy that no poiuer 
ivhatfoe'-ver is able to blot it out ; fo his image andfmilitude is the 
foul and under ft anding. And nofwithftanding all the perfections 
"ihhich man hath in himfelffe-io or none take delight in the ftudy of 
himfelf or is careful to knoix) tne fubftance, ftate^ condition^ quahtyf 
or ufe of the federal parts of his oivn body^ although he be the harior 
of nature, and more to be admired thi'n the ftrongeft and rare.ft 
'i^onder that ever happened. I haue therefore publified this irttle 
book ivritten by Arillotle, and the deepeft phih/ophers, ^who teach 
the if e of idl parts of the body , their nature^ quality , property and- 
fuhftance, and queftion not hut it ivill afford both innocent , neccjfa- 
: and uf fat knozvlrdgf, and pro-je profitable to both fe.xfjs.. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

AMONG all li^j'ing creatures^ ivhy hath man only, 
his countenance lifted up toivards heanjen. 
Unto this queftion there are divers anfwers. 
li^r, It proceeds from the will of the Creator. And although 
theanTwer be true, yet it fcemeth not to be of force, becaufe 
that fo :i]l queftions might be eafily refolved. 

2dly, I anfwer, that for the molt part4 every workman doth, 
make his firft work worfe, and then his fecond better, fo God 
created all hearts before man, gave them their face looking 
down on tlie earth, and then he created m^an as it doth appear in 
Gene/is, unto whom he gave an upright fhape, lifted into heav- 
en, becaufe it is drawn from divinity, but this derogates from 
the goednefs of God, who maketh all his works perfec:l and 
good 

3dly, It is anfwered, that man only, ^mong all living crea- 
tures, is ordained to the kingciom of heaven, and therefore hath 
his face elevated and lifted up to heaven, becaufe that defpiiing 
worldly and earthly things he ought to contemplate on heavenly 
things. 

4thly, That the reafonable foul is like unto angels, and finally 
ordained toenjey God, as appears by Averro's de animay and 
therefore he hath a figure looking upwards. 

5thly, That man is a microcofiTi, that is a little world, as Ar- 
idotle faith, and therefore he doth command all gt))er living 
creatures and they obey him, 

6thly, It anfwered that, naturally there is given unto every 
thing, and every work, that form and figure which is fit and 
proper for its motion : as, unto the heaven roundneis, to the fire 
a pyramidical form, that is, broad beneath, and (harp towards 
the top, which form is moft apt to afcend : and fo man has his 
faceup to heaven, to. behold the wonders of God's works, 
Whyisth head of heajls hairy ? 

The c wer, according to the opinion of Conft. is, that the 
•hairs are the ornament of the head and of the brain, and the 
brain is purged and evacuated of grofs humors by the growing 
of the hair, from the higheft unto the lowed parts, wlr.ch pafs 
through the pores of the exterior flefli and do become dry, and 
are converted into hairs. This appears to be true, becaufe that 
in all the body of man there is nothing drier than the hairs ; 
for they are drier than the bones, as Albetus Magnus dorh af- 
firm, becaufe *lhat fome beads are nouriihed with bones, but no 
bead can diged feathers or hair, but do void them undi gelled ; 
they being too hot for nutriment 

2dly, It is anfwered, that the brain is purged four manner of 
ways ; of fuperRuous watery humors by the eyes, from melan- 
choly by the ears, of choler by the nofe, and of phlegm by the 
hair, and that is the intent of the phyiician. 

Whyhanje men longer hair on their heads than ether Vro'mg crea- 
tures ? 

Arift. de generat. anim fajrs men have the molded brain of 
all living creatures, from which the feed proccedeth, which is 
converted into the long hair of the head. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 16T 

2dly, It is anfvvered that the humors of man are fat, and do 
not become eafilv dry, and therefore the hair groweth longer in 
man than in beafts, whofe humors eafily dry, 

iVhy^ doth the hair take deeper root in man's skin than in any oth^ 
€r ifving creature ? 

Becaufe they have greater ftore of nourishment in man, and 
therefore grow more into the inward parts of man — And this is 
alfo the reafon why in other creatures the hair doth alter and 
chcnge with the (kin, and not in man, unlefs it be fonietimes a 
fear or wound. 

Whyha've ix'cmen longer hair than men ? 

1ft, Becaufe women are moifler than men and phlegmatic, and 
therefore there is more matter of hair in them : and further- 
more, this matter is more increafed in women than in men from 
^heir interior parts, and ^fpecially in the time of their monthly 
terms, becaufe the matter doth not afcend, whereby the humor 
which breedeth the hair doth increafe. And Albertus fays, that 
if tjie hair of a woman in the time of their flowers be put into 
dung, a venomous ferpent is engendered of it 

2jly, Becaufe women want beards, and (o the matter of the 
beard doth go into the matter of the hair. 

Why hanjefome men f oft hmr, andjorr e ha rd ? 

We anfwer, with Ari otk', that the hair hath proportion with 
fhe fkin, of which fome is hard-, fome thick and grofs, fome 
fubtil and foft ; therefore the hair which groweth out of a thick 
and grofs fkin, is thick and grofs and that which groweth out-^jf 
a fubtil and foft fkin, is fine and foft When the pores arc open, 
much humor cometh forth, which engenders hard hair ; but 
when the pores arc ftraight, then there groweth foft and fine 
hair Ariflotle fhews that women have lofter hair than men, 
becaufe their pores are more fhut and ftrait, by reafon of their 
coldnefs. 

2dly, Becaufe that, for the moft part, choleric men, have hard- 
er and thicker hair than others, by reafon of their heat, and 
their pores being forever cpen, and therefore they have beards 
fooner than others. Ariflotle giveth example of the bear and 
bear, which have hard hair, proceeding of heat and choler, 
which makes them bold ; and contrawife, thofe beafts that have 
foft hair, as the hart and hare, are fearful, becaufe they be cold. 
Another reafon of the foftnefs and hardnefs of the hair> is 
drawn from the climate v/here a man is born ; becaufe that in 
hot regions hard and grofs hair is engendered, as in the Ethio- 
pians ; and the contrary is true in cold countries. 

Why have fome men curled hair and fome fmooth ? 

The anfwer is, that the caufe of the curlmg of the hair is 
great abundance of heat in a man, then the hair doth eurl and 
grow upward. A fign of this is. that fometimes a man doth en- 
ter into a bath fmooth haired and afterwards becometh curled ; 
and therefore the keepers of baths have often curled hair asalf© 
the Ethiopians and choleric men : but the cauie of the Imooth- 
nefs is the abundance of moid humors which tend downwards : 
and a proof of this, tbey have much humidity in them and fm^u 
heat. 



m ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS 

Why do 'women Jheiu their ripenefs by their hair in their priiy 
parts and not elfcuohexey but men in their breajls ? 

We aniwer, becaufe there is abundance of humidity in that 
place, but more in women than in men. Men have the mouth 
of the bladder in that place where the urine is contained, of 
which the hair in the breads, and about the navel, is engender- 
ed ; but in women the humidity of the bladder, and of the 
womb, is joined andmeeteth in that low fecret place, and is dif- 
folved and fcparated in that place through nmch vapor and 
fumes, which are the caufe of hair. And the like doth happen 
in other places, where hair is, as under the arms. 
Jr/jy hn<ve not ivomen beards ? 

Becaule they want heat as appeareth in fome effeminate men, 
who are beardlefs for the fame caufe, becaufe they are af the 
complexion of a woman. 

If^oy doth the hair grouo in them that are banged? 
Bccanle their bodies are expofed to the lun, which through 
its heal diifolves all the moifture into a fume or vapor, of which 
the hair doth grow. ^ 

IVhy is the hair of the beard thicker and groffer^ than elfe'ivhere^ 
and the more men aie Jbanjen, the harder and thicker it groix^eth f 
Becaiife according to the rule of the phylician, by h'o^\ much 
more the humor or vapor of any liquor is diffolved and taken a- 
way, by fo much more the humor remaining doth drav. the 
fame : and therefore by how much the more the hair is ihaven 
fo much the humors gather, thicken, and of theinhair 'is engen- 
deied and doth there alio wax hard. 

fFhy are ivomen morefmcoth andfcft flan men ? 
The anfwer, according to Ariilotle, is, that in women all hu- 
midity and fuperfluity, is expelled with their monthly terms ; 
whicii fuperHuity remainethin men, and thro' vapors do pafs in- 
to the hair. And a lign of this is, that in women who have run- 
ning at the nofe, impofthume, or ulcer, no fuch matter is expell- 
ed. And fome women begm to have beards in the'r old age, 
after forty or fifty years of age, when their flowers are ceafed. 

Why doth man only, abo-ve all other creatures^ 'wax hoary and 
grey as Pythagoras and Ariftotle affirm ? 

The anfwer according unto the philofophers, is, becaufe man 
hath the hoteil heart of all living creatures; and therefor^ na- 
ture, leil a man fhould be fuffocated through the Iieat of his 
heart, hath placed the heart, which is moflhot, under the brain, 
which is moll c^^ld ; to the end that the heat of the h.eart niay be 
tempered with the coldnefs of the brain and the coldnel'sof the 
brain may be heated with the heat of the heart, and thereby 
there might be a temperature in both- A fign to prove this is, 
becaule of all living creatures man hath the worlt breath, ii he 
comes to his full age. Furthermore, man doth coniimie half 
his time in lieeping, which doth proceed from the great accefs 
of the coldneisand moillure of the brain, and by that means 
doth vvanc natural heat to digeft and confume that moiftnefs j 
which heat he ha'h iuff.ciently \\\ his youth, and therefore in 
that age is not grey, but in his old age, when heat faileth ; and 
thercfoie the vapors afcending from the ftomach remain undi 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS* 169 

gelled and unconfumed for want of natural heat and then putre- 
fies, of which putrefa6lion of humors the whitenefs doth follow 
which is called greynefs or hoarinefs. Whereby it doth appear, 
that hoarinefs is nothing elfe but a whitenefs of thehair, caufed by 
putrefa6tion of humors about the roots of the hair, through the 
natural want of heat in old age. Sometimes alfo greynefs is 
caufed by the naughtinefs of complexion which may well hap- 
pen in youth, andiometimes by reafon of the moifture undigell- 
€d and lometimes through overgreat fear and care, as appear- 
eth in merchants, failors, thieves : from whence cometh this 
vice. 

Curafacitcanos, quam'vis homo non habet annos. 

Why doth red hairgro'w ivhite fooner than other ? 

According to the opinion of Ariflotle, becaufe rednefs is an 
infirmity of the hair, for it is engendered o{ a weak and infirm^ 
matter, that is to lay, of matter corrupted with the flowers of 
the woman, and therefore they wax white fooner than black 
hair. 

Why do 'wol'ves gronv grijly ? 

The better to underftand this queftion note the difference be- 
tween greynefs and grifling : Becaufe that greynefs is caufed 
through the defeft of natural heat, but grillinefs through devour- 
ing and eating, as Ariftotle witnelleth, lib. 7. de animal. The 
wolf being a devouring beafl, and an eater, he lettethrt down 
gluttenouii7 without chewing, and that at once enough for three 
days, by which means grofs vapors are engendered in the wolf's 
bod]^, andby confequence griflinefs. Secondly, greynefs and 
griflinefs do differ, becaufe greynefs is only on the head, and 
griflinefs over all the body. 



Why do horfes grotv grijly and grey ? 
According to Ariftotle,! 



J becaufe they are for the moft part 
in the fun: and in his opinion alfo, heat doth accidentally 
caufe putrefaction : and therefore that kind of heat dotli putre- 
fy the matter of hair, and by confequence they are quickly pil- 
led. 

Why do men become bald, and trees fall their lea^jes in the 
pointer ? 

Ariflotle doth give the fame reafon for both ; becaufe that the 
want of moifture m both i^ the caufe of the want of the hair and 
of the leaves : and this is proved becaufe that a man becometh 
bald through venery, for thjt is letting forth of natural humidi- 
ty and heat. And fo by that excefs in carnal pleafure, moiHure 
isconfumed, which is the nutriment of the ha»r, and therefore 
baldnefsdoth enfue. And this is evidently provedin eunuchs 
and v/omen who do not grov/ bald, becaufe they do not depart 
from their moiflnefs ; and therefore eunuchs are of the com- 
plexion of women. But if you afk v/hy eunuchs are not bald, 
nor have the gout, as Hypocrates faith, the anfwer is, occording 
to Galen, becaufe the caufe of baldnefs is drynefs the which is 
norin eunuchs, becaufethey want their fiones. the which do min- 
ifler heat into all the parts of the body, and the heat doth open 
the pores, which being open, the hair doth fall. 



ITO ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS, 

fFhy are not ivomen bald, 

Bccaufe they are cold and moid, which are the caufes thai 
the hair remaineth ; for moii^nefs doth give nutriment to the 
hair and coldnefs doth bind the pores. 

IFhy are bald men deceitful^ according to the njerfe ? 
Si non ^jis/aUi,fugies confortia calnji, 

Becaufe baldneisdoth witnels a choleric complexion which is 
Iiot and dry : and choleric men are naturally deceitful accord- 
ing to the verle. 

Herfuiousfallaxy irafcens prodiguSy audax. 

And therefore it loWov,' txh., a fri mum adidtimmumy that bald 
men are deceitful and crafty. 

Why are not blind men naturally bald ? 

Becaufe that according to Arillotle, the eye hath mod moiflure 
in it, and that moifture which (hould pafs through by the fub- 
jiance of the eyes, doth become a fufficient nutriment of the 
hair, and therefore they are (eldom bald. 

Why doth hair Ji and on end ivhen men are afraid ? 

Becaufe in time of fear the heat doth go from the out- 
ward part of the body into the inward, to the mtent to help the 
heart, and lothe pores in which tlie hairs are fatiened, are (hut 
up ; after which (topping and fluitting up of the pores, the Hand- 
ing up of the hair doth follow, as it is feen in beaits, as dogs, 
wild boars, and peacocks. 

Of the Head. 

Why is ?nan's head round F 

Becaufe it is mod fit to receive any thing into it, as Arifrotle 
doth afHrm, Lih. de ccessindthc head doth contain in it five lenf- 
es. This is alfo feen in a material fphere. 

Why is the head round P 

Ariltotle faith, becaufe it doth contain in it the moifteft part of 
the living creatures, and alfo becaufe the brain may be defended 
thereby as with a ihield. 

Why is the head abfolutcly long butfomen.vhat round P 

To the end the three creeks and cells of the brain might the 
better be dilHnguilhed ; that is the fancy in the forehead, thedif- 
courling or reafonable part in the middle, and memory in the 
hindermofi: part. 

Why doth a man lift up his head toivards the hea<vens ivhen he 
doth inufgine F 

Becaule the imagination is in the fore part of the head or brain 
and therefore it lifteth up itfelf, that the creeks or cells of the 
imagination may be opened, and that the fpirits which help the 
imagination, are fit for that purpofe, having their concourfe 
thither, m.ay help the imagination. 

Why doth a manivhen he ?nufeth, or thinketh on things' fajl, 
lookdoijun tozvards the earth F 

Becaufe the cell or cicek which is behind, is the creek or 
chamber of m.emcry, and therefore that looketh towards heavea^ 
when the head is bowed down ; and fo that cell is open, to the 
end that the fpirits which perfect the memory fhould enter in. 

Why is not the head fiefiy like umo the other parts of the body F 

Becaufe that, according to Arifrotle, tlie head would be too 



ARISTOTBE's PROBLEMS. ITl 

heavy and would not ftand ftedfiiftly ; and therefore it is with- 
out flefh. Alfb a head loaded with flefh doth betoken an evil 
complexion. 

Why is the headfubjeB to aches and grief s ? 

According to Conilant, by reafon of evil humors which pro^ 
ceed from the ftomach, afcend up to the head and diiturb tiiC 
brain, and fo caufe the pain in the head. And fonietimes it pro- 
ceeds from overmuch filling the ftomach, becaufe, according to 
the opinion of Galen, two great finews pafs from the brain to 
the mouth of the ftomachc, and therefore thefe two parts do fuf- 
fer grief always together. Sometimes the ache doth proceed of 
drinking ftrong wine, of fuming meats, as garlic or onions, and 
fometimes of phlegm in the ftomach, whereof fpring nuotidiaii 
fevers. 

Why hanje ivomen the headache more than men ? 

Albertus faith it is by reafon of their monthly terms, whicli 
men are nottroubled with, and fo a moift, unclean and venom- 
ous fume is dilTolved, the which feeking palhige upward doiii 
caufe the headache. 

Why is the brain ivhite ? 

There are two anlwers ; the fir ft becaufe it is cold, and cold- 
nefs is the mother of white ; the philofophers do teach the {tr- 
ond, becaufe it may receive the firnilitude and likencfs of all col- 
ors, which the white color can beft do, becaufe it is moft fimple. 

W^ a re all the fenfes in the head ? 

Becaufe, as Albertus faith, the brain is there on whicli all 
the fenfes do depend, and are directed'by it and by confequeace 
it maketh all the fpirits to feel, and by, it all the membranes are 
governed. 

W^ cannot a man efcape death if the brain or heart be hurt P 

Becaufe the heart and brain are two of the moft principal 
parts which concern life : and therefore if they be hurt there i;v 
no remedy left for the cure. 

W^j; is the brain moijl F 

Becaufe it may ealily receive an imprefTion, which "moifture 
can befbdo, as it appearethin wax> which doth ea'ily receive the 
print of the feaPwhen it isfoft. 

Why is the brain cold F 

This is anfwered two ways ; firft, becaufe that by this cold 
nefs it may clear the underftanding of a man, and make it iubtil. 
Secondly, that by the coldnefs of the brain the heat of the heait 
may be tempered. 

OftheEvr.s. 

Why haue you but one nofe and tiuc eyes P 

Becaufe our light is more neceilary For us than the fmelling. 
And therefore it doth proceed from the goodnefs of nature that 
if we receive any hurt or lofs of one eye, that yet tliere fhould 
one remain ; unto which the fpirit with v. hich v;e fee, called 
Spiritus Vifus, is directed when the other is out 

Why hanje children in their youth great eyes^ and ^uohy do they be - 
come f mailer and lejferin their age P 

According ti Ariftotle ^V generate It proceedeth from the 
want of fire and from the aUembling and. meeting together of 



172 ARISTOTLE^s PROBLEMS. 

light and humor r the e3^esare lighteiied by reafon of the fai^ 
which doth lighten the eafy humor of the eye, and purge it, 
and in the ablenceof the fun thofe humors become dark and 
black, and therefore the light is not fo good. 

y^^ky dcth the blu'ijh grey eye fee badly in the day time and ivell 
in the night. 

Becaufe, faith Aridotle, greynefs is hght and fhiningof itfelf, 
and xhii fpirits with which we fee are weakened in the day time, 
and ftrengthenin the night. 

W^ be mens eyes ofdinjers colors ? 

This proceedeth, faith Ariltotle, by reafon of tlie diverfity of 
the humors ; the eye therefore hath four coverings and three 
humors: the firii: covering is called confoHdative, which is the 
outermoft, and ilrcng and fat. The fecond is a horny llcin and 
covering to the likenefs of an horn, and that is a clear covering. 
The third is called Uvea, of the likenefs of a black grape. The 
fourth is called a cobweb. But according to the opinion of fome 
the eye doih confitl of fcven coverings or fkins, and three hu- 
mors. The hril humor is called abungines for the likenefs un- 
to the white of an egg. The fecond glacial, that is clear like un- 
t.oiceor chriftaline. The third vitreous, that is, clear as glafs. 
And the diverfity of humor caufeth the diverlity of the eyes. 

V-^ by are ?nen ''^i^bo ha^ve but one eye good archers F and "why do 
ood archers commonly fhiit o?ie eye > enduohy do fuch as behold the 
jlars look through a trunk ivitb one eye ? ^ 

Tliis matter ic handled in the perfpedive arts and the reafon is 
as it doth appear in the bookof Cauies, becaufe that every vir- 
tue and ftrength united knit together, is ftronger than itfelf dif- 
pcrled and fcattered. Therefore all the force of feemg diperfed 
in tv/o eyes, the one being ihut, is gathered into the other, and 
fo th^ light is fortified in him, and by confequence he doth fee 
better and more certainly wi:h one eye being fliut than both 
open. 

\S by do fuch cts drink muchy and laugh muchjjjed much tears* 

Becauie that whilll they drink and laugh without meafure, the 
a-rvriiich is drawn in, doth not pais out through the windpipe, 
and lo with force is directed and fent to the eyes, and by 
their pores palling out doth expel the humors of the eyes, tiie 
wliich humors bciLg fo expulfed do bring tears. 

W/j)' do fuch as "-jueep jnuchy urine but little ? 

Becaufe faith Ariftotle, the radical humidity of a tear and of 
urine are one and the fam.e nature ; and thi^ refore, where weep- 
ing doth increafe, urine doth diminifli ; and that they be of one 
nature, is plain to the tafte, becaufe they are both fait. 

W by do fome that ha've clear eyes fee nothing at all ? 

By realon of the copulation and naughtinefs of the finewswilh 
which we fee ; for the temples being deftroyed, the ftrength of 
the light cannot be carried from the brain to the eye, as philofo- 
phers teach, lib de fen, ^ fentio. 

Why is the eye clear and Jmooth like unto ci glafs ? 

Becaufe the things which may be ioitn are better beaten back 
f : om a fmooth thing than othervvife. 

i^fccondly, I anfwer, it is becaufe the eye is very, moift above 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 1T3 

all parts of the body and of a waterifh nature ; and as the wa- 
ter IS clear and fmooth, fo likewife is the eye. 

H^hy do men luho haue their eyes deep in their head fee ivsll a- 
pr off and the like in be aft s ? 

Becaufe, faith Arifl-Qtle, (2d. de. Gener: Animal J \\\t force 
and power by which we fee is difperced in them, and doth go 
diretHly to the thing which is ieen. And this is proved by a 
limilitude, becaiife that when a man doth Hand in a deep ditch 
or well, he doth fee in the day time, (landing in thofe places, the 
flarsof the firmament ; as Ariftotle doth' teach in his treatifc, 
De Forma Specula ; becaufe that then the power of the fight and 
of t lie beams are not fcattered. 

Wherefore do thofe mew njoho ha've their eyes fat cut^ and not 
deep in their head] fee but meanly and not far diftant ? 

Becaufe, faith Ariitotle, the beams of the fight which pafs 
from the eye are fcattered on every fide, and go directly unto 
the thing that is feen, and therefore the fight is wealcened. 

IFhy are many be aft s born blind as lions' ivhelps^ and dogs'* 
IV helps ? 

Becaufe fiich beafts are not yet of perfe-fl ripenefs and matu- 
r'.ty, and the caufe of nutriment doth not work in lx*iem. And 
this is proved by afimilitudc of the fwallow, thofe eyes, if they 
V. ere taken out when they are little ones in the neft, would grow 
again ; and this is plain in many other beafts, which are brought 
forth before their time, as it were dead, as bears' whelps ^ And 
this reafon doth belong rather to the perfpective than the natural 
philolopher. 

^hy do the eyes ofai.v9man that hath her floi-vers fiain a ne%v 
glafsy as Ariftotlefaith^ de fomno et Vergil, and this is the ptob^ 
I cm Tuhy doth a bajil'ifk kill a man xvith his eyes F 

To the firft, I anfwerthat when the flowers do run from a wo- 
man, then a moft • venomous air is diifolved in them, which 
doth afcend unto the woman's head ; and (he having grief of 
lier head, dot li cover it with many veils and kerchiefs ; and be- 
ciiufe the eyes are fulloffmall infenfible holes, which are^called 
pores, there the air feeketh apaffage, and fo dothinfc^6t die eyes, 
which are full cf blood, and their eyes do appear alfo drooping 
and full of tears, by reafon of the evil vapors, that are in them, 
and thofe vapors are incorporated, and multiplied, until they 
come into the glafs before them, and by reafon that fucha glafs 
is found,' clear and fmooth it doth eafily receive that w hicli 
is unclean-^ 

Ta the fecond it is anfwered, that the bafiliilc is a very veno - 
mous and inte61ed bead and that there pals from his eyes veno 
mous vapors which are multiplied upon the thing which is fecn 
by him, and even unto the eye of -man ; the which venomou% 
vapors or humors entering into the body do infe^ him. and to 
in the end the man dieth And this is alfo the reafon why tlu^ 
bafilifk looking: upon a (hield perfectly well made with fall: clam- 
my pitch, or any hard fmooth thing, doth kill himfelf, becaufe 
the humors are beaten back from the fmooth ha^d thing, unto 
the bafilifK, by which beating back lie is killed._ Andtfelik.^ 
IS faidof a vvoinan wlien fhe hath h?r month! v difr^^fe, vviicreOi^ 
P: %. 



174 ARISTOTLE^s PROBLEMS. 

it folio weth that (ome old women do hurt themfelves whetfc 
they look upon glalfes, or other firm and folid things, in the 
time of their terms. 

Why are not fparkling cats' eyes and ^wol'ves eyes feenin the light 
and not in the dark ? 

Becaufe that the greater light doth darken the leflfer and 
therefore in a greater light the fparkling cannot be feen, but the 
greater the darknefs, the eafier it is leen, and is made more 
ifrong and (hining, becaufe it is not then hindered by a great- 
er external light, which might darken it. 

W^y dotb a man beholding himfelfina glafs prefently forget his. 
oivn difpofttion ? 

x\nfwer is made in Lib. de forma fpeculi, that the image {ctrt 
by the glafs dothreprefent it weakly and indirectly, to the pow, 
erofthe fight; and becaufe it is rep refented weakly it is alfo 
w-eakly apprehended, and by confequence is no longer retained. 

VVi&y is the fight recreated andrejrejhedby a green cslor as rhis 
verfe Jheiveth P 

Fensjfpeculumgramen ocuUsfiint ale'viamen. 

Becaufe the green color doth meanly move the inftrument of 
fight, and therefore doth comfort the fight ; but this doth not 
black nor white colors, becaufe the colors do vehemently ftir 
and alter the organ and inftrument of the light, and therefore 
make the greater violence^ but by how much more violent the 
thing is which is felt or feen, the more it doth deftroy and weak- 
en the fenfe, as Ariftotle doth teach* Lib, % de animal, 
Ofthe Nose. 

Why dotb, the nofeftand out further than other parrs ofthe body ? 

Tliere are two anfwers ; the firft, becaufe the nofe is as it 
were the fmk of the brain, by which the phlegm of the brain is 
purged, and therefore it doth ftand forth, left the other parts 
should be defiled: the fecond (according to Conflant.) is be- 
caufe the nofe is the beauty ofthe face, and therefore^ it doth 
ihew itfelf and (hine. It doth fmell alf« and adorn the face, as 
Boetus faith, de defcip fchol. 

Why hath man the *\v or ft fmell of all Having creajtires, as it doth 
'Appear ^ Lib, de Animal. 
^ Becaufe the man (as the commentator faith) in jefpefi to this 
quality hath the moft brain ot all creatures : and therefore by 
that exceeding coldnefs and moiftnefs the brain wanteth a good ^ 
difpofition, and by confequence the fmelling inftrument is not 
^ood, as Ariftotle and Themiflocles do leach : yea, fome men 
there be who do not fmell at all. 

Why doth the culture or cormorant fmell njery ivell, as the com* 
mentator doth fay ? 

Becaufe they have a very dry brain, and therefore the air car- 
rying the fmell, is not hindered by the humidity of the brain, 
but doth prefently touch its inftrument ; and therefore he faith, 
that the vultures, tygers, and other beafts, came five hundred' 
miles to the dead bodies after a battle in Greece. 

Why did nature make noftr: Is > 

For three commodities. Flrft, becaufe that the mouth being 
fhut, we draw breath in by the noflrils to refrefti the heart with. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS^ 1T5 

The fecond cammodity is, becaufe that the air which proceedeth 
from the mouth doth favor badly, becaufe if the vapors which 
rife from the ftomach, but that which we breathe from the nofe 
i^ not noifome. The third is, becaufe the phlegm which doth 
proceed from, the brain is purged by them. 

^hy do menfneeze ? 

Becaufe that the expulfive virtue of power and the fight 
(hould thereby be purged, and the brain aifo from fuperfluitiesi 
becaufe that as the lungs are purged by coughing fo is the fight 
and brain by fneezing : and thofe who fneeze often are faid to 
have a ftrong brain ; and therefore the phyficians give fneezing 
medicaments to purge the brain, and fuch fick perfons as can- 
not fneeze die cjuickly, becaufe it is a fign their brain is wholly 
ftuflfedwith evil humors, which cannot be purged. 

W^ do fuch as are apoplefJic not fneeze ; that ts,fucb asarefub^ 
jeSl to bleed ? 

Becaufe the palTages or venetricles of the brain are flopped in 
them ; and if they could fneeze, their apoplexy would be 
loofed 

Why doth the heat of the fun prouoke fneezing and not the heat 
of fire ? 

Becaufe the heat of the fun doth difTolve and not confume ; 
and therefore the vapor diffblved is expelled by fneezing ; but 
the heat of the fire doth difTolve and confume, and therefore . 
rather doth hinder fneezing than provoke. 
Ot the Ears. 

Wi&y do beafts move their ears and not men ? 

Becaufe there is a certain mufcle near unto the jaw w^htch 
doth caufe motion in the ear ; and therefore that mufcle being 
extended and flretched, men do not move their ears, as it hath 
been feen in divers men, but all beafts do ufe that mufcle or, 
ftefhy finew, and therefore do move their ears. 

Why is rain prognojiicated by the pricking up ofajfes^ ears ? 

Becaufe the afsis a very melancholy beaft,, and^it proceedeth 
from m.elancholy that he doth forefee rain tocoine. In the 
time of rain, all beafts prick up their ears, and therefore the afs 
perceiving that it will rain, doth prick up. his ears before it come. 

Why hanjefome beafts no ears ? 

Arlflotle dothanfwer and fay, that nature doth give unto eve- 
ry thing that which is tit for it ; but if flie (hould have given birds 
ears, their flying w^ould have been hindered by them : likewife 
fifh do not want ears, becaufe they would hinder their fwim- 
ming, and have only certain little holes through which they hear> 
as Ariftotle declares by the fea calf. 

Why have dates ears, feeing they feem to be birds ? 

Becaufe they are parti v birds in nature, in that they do fly, 
by reafon v/hereof they nave wings ; and partly they are hairy, 
becaufe they are mice, therefore nature has^ being wife, given 
them ears. 

W^ have men only roundears ? 

Becaufe the (hape of the whole and ot the parts (hould be pro- 
portionable, and efpecially in all things of one nature : for, as a 
dro^ of water is round^ fo the whole water, John de facro Bofco 



IT^ ARISTOTLE^s PROBLEMS, 

doth prove ; and fo becaufe a man's head is round, tl\e ears in- 
cline towards the fame figure : but theheads of beads, are fome- 
what lon^jandfo the ears are drawn into length alfo. 

W^ did nature glue linjing creatures ears ? 

For two caufes : 1» Becaufe with them they fliould hear. %.■ 
Becauie that by the ear choleric fuperttuity is purged ; for, as 
the head is purged of phlegmatic fuperfiuity by the nofe, ic 
from choleric by the ears. 

Of the Mouth. 

W^v hath the mouth lips to compafs it ? 

According to Conft. becaufe the lips do cover and defend the 
teeth it were unfeemly that the teeth ihould always be fee n. 
Another anfwer is, that the teeth are of a cold nature, and would 
therefore be foon hurt, if they were not covered with lips. A- 
nother moral reafon is, becaufe a man (hould not be too hafly 
of fpeech. 

W^ hath a man tiuoeyes, tivo ears, and hut one mouth ? 

Becaufea man fliould fpeakbut little, and hear and fee much. 
And withal, Ariftotle doth fay that the hearing and the fight 
doth (hew us the difference of many things ; and Seneca doth 
agree unto this, affirming that nature environed the tongue with^ 
adouble cloifter, and teeth, and lips, and hasmadethe ears open 
and wide, and has given us but one mouth to fpeak but little, > 
though we hear much. 

'Why hath a man a mouth ? 

For manv commodities : 1.' Becaufe the mouth is the gale 
anddoorot theftomach. ^. Becaufe the meat is chewed in the 
mouth, and prepared and made ready for the firfl: digeftion, al- 
though A^^icen doth hold that digeftion is made in the mouth. 
S Becaufe that the air drawn into the hollow of the mouth for 
theYefreihing of the heart is made more pure and fubtil. And 
/or many other caufes which hereafter fhall appear. 

W^ are the lips mo'veable ? 

Becaufe of forming the voice and words, which cannot be 
perfectly done without them. For as without a, b, c, there is ncr 
writing, fo without thehps no voice can be well formed. 

^ by do men gape > 

The glofs upon the laft part of Hippocrates' Aphorifms faith, 
that it proceeds of wearilOmenefs, as when a man fitting among 
iuch as he doth not know, whofe company he would willingly: 
be rid of. Befides, gaping is caufed of the thick fumeand va- 
pors which fill the jaws, by theexpulfionof v/hich is caufed the 
itretching out and expulfion of the jaws, and opening- of the 
mouth, which is called gaping. 

IFhy doth a man gape ivhen he feeth another gape P 

Tms proceedeth of imagination. And this is proved by a 
iimilitude, for an afs isan animal void of fenfe, by reafon of his 
melancholy, becaufe he doth retain his fuperfiuity a long time, 
and would neither eat nor pifs, unleis he fhould hear another 
pifs J andfo a man gapes thro' imagination when another man 
doth gape. 

Of the Teeth. 

JFby have they cmfyj among aU other bones j the fenfe of feeling P 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 177 

Becaufe, as Avicen and Galen fay, they difcern heat and cold 
which hurt them, which other bones need not. 

IVhy ha-ue men more teeth than ^women ? 

By reafon o^the abundance of heat and blood, which is more 
in men than in women. 

W^ doth the teeth groixs to the end of our life^ and not the other 
bones ? 

Becaufe otherwife they would be confumed with chewing and 
grinding. 

W/^y do the teeth only come again njohen iheyjall^ or be taken 
outy and other hones taken anjoay groiu no more r 

Becaufe that, according to Ariflotle,[all other bones are engen- 
dered of the humidity which is called radical, and fo they breed 
in the womb of the mother, but the teeth are engendered of nutri- 
tive humid'ty, which is renewed and increafed from day today. 

Why are the fore teeth fh art and the cheek teeth broad. 

This proceedeth ot the defedt of matter, and of the figure, be- 
caufe the fore teeth are (harp, and the others broad. But, ac- 
cording to Ariftotle, there is another anfwer ; that is, that it is 
the office of the fore teeth to cut the meat, and therefore they are 
/harp ; and the office of the other to chew the meat, and there- 
fore they are broad in fafhion, which is fit for that purpofe. 

Why do the fore teeth gronjo foonejl ? 

Becaufe we want them fooner in cutting thin the other in 
chewing. 

W^ do teeth of human creatures gronjo hlackln old age ? 

This proceedeth of the corruption of meat, and the corrup- 
tion of phlegm, and a naughty choleric humor. 

Why are colt's teeth yelloiVf and of the color offaffron 'when they 
are young andgroiv Tvhite ivhen they are old ? 

Ariftotle faith, that a horfe hath abundance of watery- humors 
in him, which in his youth are digefled and converted into grolT- 
nefs ; but in old age heat is diminifhed, and the watery humors 
remain, whofe proper color is white. 

Why did nature gi've raving creatures teeth ? 

Arfftotle faith {Lib. degenerate Animal) to fome to fight with, 
for the defence of their lives, as unto wolves and bears j unto 
fome to eat with, as unto horfes ; unto fome for the forming of 
their voice, as unto men, as it appeareth by the commentary in 
the book de Animal. 

Why do horned heafts ivant their upper cheek teeth ? 

According to Ariftotle, in his book de Animal, horns and 
teeth are caufed of the felf fame matter, that is of nutrimental 
humidity, and therefore the matter which pafleth into horns 
turned not into teeth, confequently they want the upper teeth. 
And fuch beafls according to Aridotle, cannot chew well ; 
whereupon for want of teeth, they have two ftomachs by confe- 
quence, and fo to chew their meat twice : and they do nrft con- 
vey their meat into the ftomach or belly, and then return it 
from whence it came, and chew it# 

Why are fome creatures brought forth ivith teeth, as kids and 
lambs f and fome nuithout them^ as men \ 

Nature doth not want iathings necclTary, nor abound in things 



17B ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

m. 

fiiperfluous ; and therefore becaufe thefe beads not long after 
they be fallen, do need teeth : but men are nourifhed with their 
mother's dugs for a tune, and therefore, for a time, do not need 
teeth. 

Why ha^ve not birds teeth ? 

Becaufe the matter of teeth palTeth into their deak, and there- 
fore there is their digeftion : orelfe it is anfwered, that although 
they do not chew with teeth, yet their head in digeftion doth 
fupply the want of teeth. 

Ofthe Tongue. 

Why is the tongue fall of pores ? 

According to Ariftotle de Animal, Becaufe the tongue is tlie 
means whereby we tafte ; and through the mouth in the pores of 
the tonc^ue the taftedoth come into the fenfe of taking. Other- 
wife, it is anfwered, that frothy fpittle is fent into the mouth by 
the tongue from the lungs, moilten the meat, and making it ready 
for the firft digeftion ; and therefore the tongue is full of pores, 
becaufe many have patfage through it. 

Why doth the tongue ofjuchas are fick of agues judge all things 
hitter ? 

Becaufe the ftomach of fuch perfons is filled with choleric hu- 
mors, and choler is very bitter, as it appeareth by the gall, and 
therefore this bitter fume doth infect their tongue., and fo the 
tongue being full of thefe taftes, doth judge them bitter, al- 
though the fault be not in the meat. 

Why doth the tongue ivater uuhen ive hear four and fbarp things 
named 'f 

Becaufe the imaginative virtue or power is of greater force 
than the power and facuhy of taf{:ing : and when we imagine a 
tafte, we conceive it by the power of tailing as by a mean, be^ 
caufe there is nothing felt by the tafte j but by means of that 
fpittle the tongue doth water. 

Why do fome fiammer and iijp "i 

This happeneth from many caufes, fometimes through the 
moiftnefs of the tongue and brain, as in children, which cannot 
fpeak plainly, nor pronounce many letters. Sometimes it hap- 
peneth by reafon of the fhrinking of certain fmews, which are 
corrupted with phlegm ; tor fuch fmews there be which go to 
the tongue. 

Why are the tongues of ferpents and mad dogs 'venomous ? 

Becaufe ofthe malignity and tumofity ofthe venomous humor 
w^hich doth predominate in them. 

Why is a dog s tongue fit and aft for medicine and contraryioife 
an horfe's tongue peftiferous > 

'Tis by reafon of lome fee ret property, orelfe it may be faid 
the tongue of a dog is full of pores, and fo doth draw and take 
luvay the vifcofity of the wound. Some fay that a dog hath by 
uature. fome tumor in his tongue, with the which by licking he 
doth heal ; the contrary is in a horfe, 

W^ is the fpittle -xvhite ? 

By reafon ofthe continual moving of the tongue, whereof 
heat is engendered, which m.akes this fuperfluitv white, as is> 
f^^en i^i the froth of water. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS, 1^9 

Why is thefptitle unfanjoryy and nvUhout tajle > 

If it had a certain determinate tatle, then the tongue would not 
tafte at all, but would only have thetafte of fpittle, andfo could 
not receive other taftes. 

Wy^ doth the fpittle of one that is fajlingheal an impojlhume ? 

Becaufe, According to Avicin, it is well digefted and made 
fubtle. 

Vfhy dofome abound in fpittle more than others ? 

Thisproceedeth of a phlegmatic complexion, which doth 
predominate in them, and therefore the phyficians fay that fuch 
ihould take care of a quotidian ague, which arrifeth from the 
predominacy of phlegm : the contrary isinthofe that fpit little 
becaufe heat abounds in them, which confumes the humidity of 
the fpittle ; and fb the defe6l of fpittle is a fign of a fever. 

V^ hyis the fpittle of a man that isfafling more fubtle than on^e njoho 
is full ? 

Becaufe the fpittle is without the yifcofity of meat, which is 
wont to make the fpittle of one who is full grofs and thick. 

From ^whence froceedeth the fpittle of a man ? 

From the frothof the lungs, which according to phyficians 
are the feat of phlegm. 

W/^j; are fuch beafis as often go together for generation 'very full 
of foam and froth ? 

Becaufe that then the lights and the heart are in great motion 
of luft, therefore there is engendered in them much frothy mat- 
ter. 

S^hy hanje not birds fpittle > 

Becaufe they have very dry lungs, according to Ariftotle, in 
his fifth book de AnimaU 

Why do fuch as are called Epileptic^ that is fuch as are O'ver- 
njohclmed and as it njoere droivned in their oiLm bloody and are dif- 
eafed favor badly and corruptly. 

The anfwer according to phyficians is, becaufe the pecant 
matter lieth in the head ; but if he do vomit, then the matter is 
in tilt ftomach ; but if he pifs much, then the matter is in the 
paflage of the urine ; but if he begin to have feed, then it is in 
the veifels of the feed, and according to the phyficians do purge 
them. 

Why doth the tongue lofe fometimes the ufe of f peaking^ 

Theanfwer is out of Hyppocrates. That this doth happen 
through apalfy orapoplexy, that is a fudden etfufion of blood 
and of a grofs humor, and fometimes alfo by infe6lion oifpirit- 
us animahs in the middle of the brain, which hinders the fpirits 
from being carried to the tongue ; and fo is Galen's meaning 
for by the exprefiion of the tongue, many a(5\ions of divers per- 
■fons are made man i fed. 

Of the Roof of the Mouth. 

Why are fruits before they are ripe^ of a naughty relifh or bitter and 
after f'wcet ? 

A naughty relifn in taile proceedeth of coldnefs and want of 
heat in ^rofs and thick humidity ; but a fweet tafte proceedeth 
of fufficient heat, and therefore in the ripe fruit the humidity is 
fubtle through the heat of the fun, ai-d fuch fruits ;3re common- 



180 ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

ly fweet ; but before they be ripe, and huniidity is grofs or 
iubtle for want of heat, the fruit is bitter and four. 

W^ are ive better delighted iJuith fweet tajles than ^th bitter^ 
or any other ? 

Becaufe nature is delighted with fwcetnefs ; the reafon is be- 
caufe a fweet thing is hot and moid ; and through the heat doth 
difTolve and confume fuperfluous humidities, and by this hu- 
midity, immundicity is wafhed away, but a fharp eager tafte, by 
reafon of the cold which, predominates in it, doth bind over- 
much, and prick and offend the parts of the body in purging, 
aad therefore we do not delight in that tafte becaufe the phyli- 
cians counfel us to eat nothing that is bitter, in the fnmmer nor 
in a great heat ; and the reafon is, becaufe bitlernefs doth bread 
heat, but wc fhould eat bitter things in winter only : and there-, 
fore Ariftotle doth fay, that fweet things are grateful unta na- 
ture, and do greatly nourifhi 

Why doth ajbarp tafte as of winnegar provoke appetite y rather 
than any other} 

Becaufe it is cold and doth cool. Now it is the nature of cold 
4o defire and draw, and therefore is caufe of appetite. Mark, 
that there are nine kinds of taftes, three of which proceed from 
heat, three from cold, and three from a temperate mean. 

W^)> do «iu^ dranjo in more air than ive breathe out ? 

Ariftotle and Albertus in his book De Motu Cordis, do an- 
f wer, that much air is drawn in, and fo converted into nutriment 
which together with the vital fplrits is contained in the lungs. 
Wherefore a beaft is not funocated fo long as he receives air 
with the lungs, in which fome part of the air remaineth alfo* 

V^hy doth the airfeem to be expelled and put forth ^ feeing that in- 
deed the air isinnjifibUy by reafon of its ^variety and thinnefs ? 

Becaufe the air which is received in us is mingled with vapors 
and fumofity of the heart by reafon whereof it is made thick, 
and fo is feen, and this Is proved by experience, becaufe that in 
winter, we fee our breath, ibr the coldnefs of air doth bind the 
breath mixed with fumofities, and fo it is thickened and made 
grofs, and by confe^uence is feen. 

W^ ha^e fome finking breath ? 

The reafon is, accordmg to the phyficians, becaufe there rife 
evil fumes from the ftomach ^ and fometimes it doth proceed 
from the corruption of the airy parts of the body, as of the lungs. 
Afld the breath of the lepers is fo infedled, that it doth poilon 
the birds that are near them, becaufe the inward parts are very 
corrupt, as appears by Conft, de Sin, Now the lei)rofy is a 
nourilhmevt of all the parts of the body, together with a cor- 
rupting of them ; and it doth begin in the blood, and exterior 
members of the body. 

W^v ^^e lepers hoarfe ? 

Becaufe that in them the inftruments vocal are corrupted, that 
is the lights. 

Whydc men become hoarfe > 

Becaufe of the rheum ^dcfcending from the brain filling Jthe 
conduit of the lights ; or fometimes through fome impofthumes 
ot'the throat , or rhetim gathering in the neck. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 10 i 

W/^' haw: £ females ofalllt^oing creatures the fJj rill eft voices a cro^.u 
only excepted, and a "woman firlUer than a ynan, and a f mailer f 
^According to Ariitotle, by rcafon of the conipodtion of the 
iff ins, the vocal arteries of voice is formed, as appears by a limii- 
itude, becaufe a fniall pipe founds Ihriiler than a great : And 
alfo in women, becaufe the palfage where the voice is formed is 
made narrow and ftraight, by reafon of cold, it being the nature 
of cold to bind \ but in men the paflage is open and wider thro* 
heat, becaufe itis the property of heat to open and diiTolve. It 
proceedeth in women through the moiitnefs of the lungs and 
weaknefs of the heat. Young men and difeafed have faarp and 
fhrill voices for the fame caufe. And this is the natural caufe 
why a man child at his birth doth cry a. i. which is a bigger 
found, and the female e. which is a flender found. 

Why dath the 'vckechatige hi men and 'ivomen ; in 7uen at 14-, tn 
ivQmen at 12-, iii men ivhen they begin to yield their feed ; in ivo- 
men ivhen their bre^s begin to g^-oxv ? 

Becaufe then, faith Ariftotle the beginning cf the voice is 
flackened and loofened ; and he proves this by a fniiilitude of a 
iiring of an indrument let down or loofed, which ^ives a great 
found. He proves it another way, becaufe creatures that ar^ 
gelded, as eunuchs, capons^ &c. have fafter and more flender 
voices than others by reafon they want (tones. 

VVhy is not a n,voljf hoarfe luben a man tooh on him ? 

Becaufe a man is not lo cold as a wolf, nor of io maljgnanta 
quality. ^ ^ , 

Why doih a man 'who isjlain bleed -ivhen he is feen of him ^vjho 
killed him ? 

This proceedet^^ of divine caufe, and not of natural, becaufe 
his blood callerh for vengeance againft the murderer : but if^ 
there be any natural caufe of it, 'tis this, the committer of this' 
wicked fa'51: calling it to mind, is very forry for it, repents him of 
it, is in anguiih of mind, and in a great heat through the imagin- 
ation he hath conceived, and by that means all his fpirits do ftir 
and boil, and repair into the in(truments of the fight of the eyes, 
unto the wovmds which are made, which if they be frefh, do preC 
ently fall a bleeding. Befides, thisisdone byVhe help of the air. 
tllen brethed in, v/hich being drawn from the wound caufeth 
it to bleed. 

ff^hy do f mall birds fing more and louder than great ones, as ap^ 
pears in the lark ctnd nightingale ? 

Becaufe the fpirits ot fmaU birds are fubtle and foft, and the 
organ conduit ftraight, as appeareth in a pipe, and therefore foU 
low eafily any note, and fing very foft. 

Why doth the male fing more than the female, as appeareth in all 
iinjing creatures ? 

It proceedeth from the defire of carnal copulation, becaufe 
that then the fpirits are mov^d throvighout all the body with t he a- 
forefaid appetites and defire. And, generally fpeaking, the fe- 
males are colder then the males 

Why do hees\ 'ivafpSy flies, locuftsy and many other fuch like infeSls 
m<fkea noife, feeing they ha've no limgs-y nor inftruments of the 'voice f 



182 ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

According to Ariftotle, there is, in them a certain fmall ftcin, 
which, when tlie air doth ftiike, it caufeth the found. 

WAy do not ajb make a found. 

Becaulethe'y have no lungs, but only gills, nor yet a heart ; 
and therefore they need not the drawing in of the air, and by 
confcquence they make no noife, becaufe that a voice is a per- 
cullion of the air wJiich is drawn. 

Of the Neck. 

W^y hath a Jhu'ing creature a neck ? 

Becaufe the neck is the fupporter of the head, and therefore 
the neck is the middle between the head and the body, to the in - 
tent that by it, and by its fmews, as by certain means and ways, 
motion and fonfe of the body might be conveyed throughout all 
the body ; and that by means of the neck, as it were by a dif- 
tance, the heart which is very hot, might b€ feparated from the 
brain. 

Why do fome beafts want necks as ferpent* and fifhes ? 

Becaufe fuch beafts want a heart, and therefore they want that 
didance which we have fpoken of, orelfe we anfwer, they have 
a neck in fome inward part of them, but it is not diltinguiftied 
outwardly from the heart to the head. 

Why is the neck full of bones and joints ? 

Becaufe it may bear and fuflain the head the llronger, alfo be- 
fore the backbone is joined to the brain in the neck and from 
thence \i receives marrow, which is of the fubflance of the brain. 

Why have fome bealls long necks, as cranes, tlorks, and fuch 
like r 

Becaufe fuch beafts do feek their living in the bottom of the 
v/ater ; and fome beafts have Ihort necks, as fparrowhawks, &c* 
becaufe fuch are ravenous beafts, and therefore for ftrength, 
ihave ihort necks as appeareth in the ox, which has a (hort neck, 
and is therefore ftrong. 

W^ IS the neck hollovj, andefpecialiy bcfer€ and about the tongue \ 

Becaufe there are two paifages. whereot the one doth carry the 
meat into the nutritive inftrument as to the flomach and liver, 
and is called of the Greek Oejephagus* 

W hy is the artery made njuitt) rings and circles ? 

The better to bow, and give a lounding again^ 

Why doth a chicken mo<ve <3 good fp^ce after his head is cut cff^ 
and a man beheaded ne^erjlireth ? 

Becaufe a chicken and uich like, have ftraight finews and ar- 
teries, and therefore tjie fpirit of moving continueth long after 
the head is cut off; but men and many beafts, have long and 
large finews and arteries, and therefore the motive fpirits do 
quickly depart from them, and fo by confequence cannot mov« 
tneir bodies. 

Of the Shoulders and Arms. 

Why hath a manfjjoulders and arms ? 

To give and carry burdens, and do any manner of work. 

Why are his arms round ? 

For the fwifter and fpeed'er work, becaufe tint figure is fiteft 
to move. 

Why ^r^ his ar ins ihtc} > 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 18S 

Becaufe they fhould be ftrong to lift and bear burdens, or 
thruft and give a ftrong blow ; i'o their bones are thick, becaul^ 
they containmuch marrow, for elfe they would be eafily cor- 
rupted and marred ; but rnarrovv- cannot fo well be contained in 
fmall bones as in great. 

ff^hy dofuch as are difeafed and In grief unconjcr and co-uer their 
arm 5^ andfuch alfo ns are in agony P ^ 

Becaufe fuch are near unto death : and it is a fign of death 
by reafon of great grief, which caufeth that uncovering, as Hip- 
pocrates doth teach, ///;. P/o^wo/?. 

IFhy do the arms become fmall and Jlcnder in fame f chiefs, as in 
madmen, and fuch as arejick of the dropfy ? 

Becaufe all the parts of the body do fuHer the one with the 
other, and tlierefore one m.ember being in grief all the humors 
do concur and run thither to give fuccor and help to the afore- 
faid grief. For when the head doth ache, all the humors of the 
arms doth run into the head, and therefore the arms become 
fmall and (lender, becaufe they want their proper nutriment. 
lVh\' ha-ue brute beafts no arms ? 

The fore feet are inftead of arms, and in their place, or elfe 
we may anfwer more fitly, becaufe all beafts have fome parts 
for their defence, and to fight with, as the w^olf his teeth, the 
cow her hornSr the horfe his hinder feet^ birds their beak and 
wings, but only mao hath his arms. 

Of the Hands. 
For 'vohat ufe hath a man hands y and an ape alfo ivhich is like 
unto a man F 

The hand is an inftrument which a man doth efpecially make 
ufe of, becaufe many things, are done by the hands, and not by 
anv other part. 

Why are fame men amlo dexter, i. e, ufing the left band as the 
right ? 

By reafon of the great heat of the heart ; for that makes a man 
as nimble of the left hand as of the right ; and without doubt, 
are of good complexions. 

IV^hy are not nvomen ambo dexter as ivell as men F 
Becaufe as Galen faith, a woman in health that is mioft hot. is 
colder than the coldeft man in health : I fay, in health, for if ftie 
have an ague, f^e is accidentally hotter than a man. 
fFhy are the fingers full of joiuts F 

To be more fit and apt to receive, and keep the things received* 
Why kath ei>ery finger three joints, and tks thumb but tivo ? 
The thumb hath three but the third is joined unto the arm, 
therefore it '-s ftronger than the ether fm.^ers 

IVhy are the fingers of the r:gk: hand nl?nbler than the fingers of 
the left^ as Agideus fa ah ? ♦ 

Itproceedeth frdm the heat which doth predominate in thofe 
parts, which rauleth great agility 

JVhy are the fin go s thicker before meat than after ^ as Albertus faith \ 

Becaufe a man wliois fafting, is full of bad humors, which 

p\iffup the parts of the body, and fingers alfo; but when the 

humors are expelled through meat, the fingers become more 

flender. Add for the fame reafon, a m.an who is fafting, is hcav- 



iG4 ARISTOTLE- s PROBLEMS. 

icr than v. hen lie hath meat in his belly, as is moft pla-n in fafter?.. 
Another rcafon may be given, Becaufethat after meat the heat 
is departed from the outward parts of the body into the inward, 
to help dieeftion, andthe outward and external parts become 
(lender ; but after digeftion is made, the blood turneth again to 
the exterior parts, and then they become great again ? 

Why ere fame met} left bajided ^ 

Becaule the heartifendeth out lieat into the right fide, but more 
into the left, and doth alfowork a fiendernefs and fubtilty oo 
the left fide. 

Of the Nails. 

Frc}}i ^dchence do nails proceed ? 

Of the funiofity and humors, which are refolved, and go into 
the excrements ot the fingers and they are dried through the. 
.power of theexternal air, and brought to the hardnefsofa horn. 

W^' do the nails of old fueri gro'zv black and fale ? 
'Becaufe the heat of the heart dccayeth, which decaying, x]\c'i- 
beauty decayetk alfo. 

\V/?j) are men judged to be of good or e-vU complexion by the e</^ 
of the nails ? 

Becaufe they give witnefs of the goodaers or badnefs of the 
heart and therefore of the complexion ; for, if they be fomewhat 
red, they betoken choler well tempered; but if tney be yelfow- 
iih or black they fignify melancholy. 

Why do nji^hitefpots appear In the naih > 

Through mixture of a phlegm with the nutriment. 
Of the Breast. 

For ivbat reafon is the breajl holloiu P , 

Becaufe there is the feat of the fpiritual and aerial membres 
which are moft noble, as the heart and lights ; and therefore be- 
caufe thefe might be kept from hurt, it was neceflary that the 
breafts ihoiildbe hollow. 

li^hy hath man the broadeft breajl of all liqjing creatures ? 

Becaufe the fpirits ot men are weak and fubtle, and therefore 
do require a fpacious place w^herein they are contained, as the 
breaflis. 

Why are the h rec.fis ofheafis round ? 

Becaufe they are in continual motion. 

Why han^e "I'ji^men narroixer breafts tha'i 7nen ? 

Becaufe tliere is more heat in men, which doth naturally move 
to tJie uppcrmcft part of them, making thofe parts great and 
large, and -therefore a great bread is a token of courage, as in the 
lion and bull ; but in women cold predominates, vviiich natural- 
ly tends downwards, and tliCrcfore women often fall on their 
backfide, becaufe the hinder parts are grofs and lieavy, by rea- 
fon of cold afccnding blither ; but a man commonly falls on Ills 
brealt, by reafon of its grcatnefs and thicknef^ 
Of the Paps and Dugs. 

Why are paps placed iipbn the breafts ? 

Becaufe the breaft is the feat of the heart, which is mcft hot, 
and therefore the paps grow there, to the end that tlie menfcs 
being conveyed thither, as being near to the heat of the heart 
Ihouldthc fooner be digefted, and converged Into the matter and 
fubftance of milk. 



AMsidtWs PROBLEMS. 135 

'Why are the pa^s beloix) (he breajl inbeajls and abo-ve the breajl 
in 'women ? 

Becaufe a woman goes upright and has two legs only, and 
therefore, if her paps Ihould be below her breafts, they would 
hinder her going, but beads have four feet, and therefoVe they 
are not hindered in their going. 

Why han)e not men as great hreafts and paps as "women ? 
» Becaufe a man hath no monthly terms, and therefore hath no 
vefTel deputed for them. 

^ hich paps are beft for children to fuck ^ great or little onesy or the 
mean between them both > 

In great ones the beat is difperfed, and there is no good digef- 
tion of milk ; but in fmall ones the power and force is ftrong, 
becaufe a virtue united is ftrongeft, and by confequence there is 
good working and digeftion of the milk, and therefore, thefmall 
are better than the gfeat ones, but yet the mean ones are belt of 
all, becaufe every mean is beft. 

W^ do the paps of young "women begin to grouD about 13 or 15 
years of age ^ as Albertus faith ? 

Becaule then the flowers have nocourfe to the teats, by which 
the young one is nouriftied, but follow their ordinary courfe, 
and therefore wax foft. 

Why hath a "Woman "who is uoitb child of ahoY the right pap hard-^ 
er than the left > 

Becaufe the male child is conceived in the right fide of the 
mother, and therefore the flowers do rim to the right pap, and 
make it hard. 

Why doth it fhew weaknefs of the child when the milk doth 
drop out of the paps before the woman be delivered ? 

Becaufe the milk is the proper nutriment of the chiki in the 
womb of the mother, and therefore, if the milk run out, it is a 
token that the child is not nouriihed, and is therefore weak. 

Why doth the hardnefs of the paps betoken the health of the 
child in the womb ? 

Becaufe the flowers are converted into milk, and thatmilk dotlv 
fufliciently noiirifh' the child, and thereby the ftrengthis fignified. 

Why hath a woman but two- paps, and fome brute beafts ten 
or more ? 

Becaufe for the mo ft: part, a woman'hath but one child, either 
boy or girl, and therefore one pap is fufficient, or two ; but 
beafts have many young ones, and therefore fo many teats. 

Why are womea's paps hard when tliey be with child, and foft 
at other times ? 

They fwell then and are puffed up becaijfe the much moiflure 
which proceeds from the flowers doth run into the paps, which 
at other feafons remaineth in the womb, and is expelled by the 
place deputed for that end. 

By what means doth the milk of the paps come to the matrix: 
or womb ? 

According to Hippocrates, becaufe there is a certain knitting 

and coupling of the pap with the womb, and there are certain 

veins which the midwives do cut in the time of the birth of the 

child; and by thofe veins the milk doth flow in at the navel of 

q ^ ^ 



18G ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

the child, and fo it receives nutriment by the naveL Soine fav 
the child in the womb is nourifhed at the mouth, but it is faliV 
bccaufe that lo it fliould void excrements alio. 

Why is it a lign of a male child in the womb when the milk 
that runneth out of the woman's breaft is thick and not much, 
and a female when it is thin ? 

Becaufe a woman that goeth with a boy hath great heit In her, 
which doth perfecl: the miik. and make it thicker, but fuch as go g 
with a girl hat): not fo much heat, and therefore the milk is uh- 
digefted, watery, and thin, and will fwim above the \sater if it 
be put into it. 

Why is the milk white, feeing the flowers are red which it is 
engendered of ? 

Becaufe blood which is well purged and concocted bccometh 
white as appeareth in fiefli whofe proper color is red, ? nd being 
t)oiled is v.hite. Another anfwer is, every humor which is en- 
gendered of fuch part of the body, is made like unto that part 
• n color where it is engendered, as near as it can be, but becaufe 
the fleih of the paps is white, therefore the color of the milk is 
white. 

Vyhy doih a coiv gl've milk more abitudantly than other beafis ? 

Becaufe llie is a great eating beaft ; and where much monthly 
fuperfiuity is engendered, there is much milk, becaule it is noth- 
ing eife but that blood purged and tried ; and becaufe a cow 
has much of this monthly blood Ihe has much milk. 

'^hy 25 not milk 'U>holefY^r.e ? 

According to the opinion of Galen it is for divers reafons ; 
111, Btcauie it doth curdle in the ftomach, wherefore an evil 
sreath is bred. But to this Hippocrates gives this remedy, fay- 
ing, if the third part of it be mijigled with running water, then 
it is not liurtful. 2dly, Becaufe the milk doth four in the ftom- 
ach, and breeds evil humors which in fe<5l the breath* 

W^' IS milk bad for fuch as hanse the headache ? 

Becaufe it iseafily turned into great fumofities, and hath much 
terreflrial fub flange in it which afcending doth caufe the head- 
iiche. 

W^ is milk fit nutriment for infants ? . 

Becaufe it is a natural and ufual lood, and they were nourifli- 
ed by the fame in the womb. 

For ^uhitt. reafon are the ivbite meats made of a ne'Vf milked coiv 
good. 

Becaufe milk at that time is very fpungy, and does as it were 
pur^e. 

Why is the milk nought for the child, if the ivoman ufe carnal 
copulation } 

Becaufe'in time of carnal copulation, the befir pari of the milk 
goes to the feed veiTels, and to the womb, and the wprft re~ 
mains in the paps which doth hurt to i he child. 

Why is the milk ©f brown women better than that of white ? 

Becaufe brown women are hotter than others, and heat purges 
the milk. 

Why dophyficians forbid the eating fifh Und milk at the fame 
time } 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 18T 

Becaufe the}- are phleginatic, and are apt to produce a leprofy. 

Why have not bird and fifh milk and paps ? 

Becaufe paps would hinder the flight of birds : fifh alfo have 

neither paps nor milk, but the females caftmuch fpawn on which 

the male touches with a fmall gut : wliich caufes their kind to 

be infinite in fucceffion. • 

Of Backs. 
Why have beads backs ? 

P'or "three caufe^ : firft, Becaufe the back {hould be the way 
and means of body, from which all the fmews of the back bone 
are extended and fpread ; as appears in fuch as are hanged, 
whofe finews hang whole in the chine or back bone, when they are 
in pieces, or without flefh. 2dly. Becaufe it fhouid be a guard 
and defence for the foft parts of the body, as of the flomach, liv- 
er, lights, and fuch like., -3dly. Becauie it fhouid be the foun- 
dation of all the bones, becauie we fee other bones, as the ribs, 
fad^ened to the back bone. 

Why hath man above all other creatures a broad back which 
he can lie upon, which no beafl can do ? 

Becaufe a broad back doth anfwer a broad breaft ; if there- 
fore a man fhouid have a fharp back like unto a beafl, he would 
be of an unfeeming fhape, and therefore it is requifite that he 
have a broad back. 

Why hath a man that lieth on his back horrible vifions ? 
Becaufe the pafTage or fign of the fantafy is open, which is in 
the fore part of the brain, and fo the fantafy is deflroyed, and 
then thofq vifions follow. Another reafon is becaufe whep a 
man lieth on his back, the humors are diflributed and moved 
. upv/ard where the fantafy i^, which by that means is diftribut- 
ed. To lie on the back difpofes a man to leprofy, raadnefs, and 
to an incubus or night mare, which is a palTion of the heart 
wherein a man thinks himfelf to be ftrangled in his fleep, and 
fomething lying heavy on him, which he would put off. 

Why hath the backbone fo many joints or knots called Spon- 
delia by the phyficians ? 

For the more eaf y moving and bending of it ; and therefore 
they fay amifs, who fay, that elephants have no fuch joints, for 
without them they could not move 

Why do fifh die after their back bone is bui fl ? 
Becaufe in fi{h the back bone is inflead of the heart. N#ow, the 
heart is the firfl thing that lives, and the lafl that dies, and 
therefore when the bone is broke, fifh can live no longer. 

Why does a man die foon after the marrow is hurt or perifhed ? 
Becaufe the marrow proceeds from the brain, which is a prin- 
cipal part of a man ; as appears, 1ft, becaufe the marrow is white 
like the brain : and 2dly, becaufe it hath a thick fkin or rind, 
which that called nucha has not, which differs from the marrow, 
becaufe of two coverings like the brain, called pia matevy and 
dara mater. 

Why have fome men the piles ? 

Thofe men are cold and melancholy, which melancholy firft 
paiTes to the fpleen, its proper feat, but there cannot be retained ^ 
for the abundance of blood ; for which reafon, it is conveyed to 



183 ARISTOTLE'S PxROBLEMS. 

t)ic back bone, where there certain veins which tcrmmate in the 
back, and receive the blood; when thofe veins are full of the 
melancholy blood, then the conduits of nature are opened, and 
the blood ilFues out once a month, like women's terms. Thofe 
men who have this courle of biood, are I'ept from m.any infirmi- 
ties PS dropfy, plague, &:c. 

Wliy are the Jews much fubje6t to this difeafe ? 

Divines fay, becaufe they cried at the death of Chrift, ** let 
his blood be upon us and our children." Another reafon is be- 
caufe, the Jews eat much phlegmatic and cold meats, which 
breed melancholy blood, but it is purged with this flux ; a third 
reafon is, motion caules heat, and heat digeftion, but ilntl Jews 
never move, labor, nor converfe with men, befides they are in 
continual fear left we fnould revenge the death of our Saviour, 
which breeds a coldnefs in them, and hinders digeftion, cauCmg 
melancholy blood, which is by this miCans purged out. 
Of the Heart. 

Why are the heart and lungs called UTely parts of the body > 

From the word Spiritus, wiiichfignifies breath, life, or foul, 
and becaufe the vital fpirits are engendered in the heart. Yet 
tliat's no good anfwer, for the liver and brain might be fo called 
becaufe the liver giveth nutriment, and the brain fenle and life ; 
the confequence is clear, for the vital fpirits are engendered in 
the liver, and the fenfible and animal fpirits in the brain. 

Why are the lungs light, fpungy and full of holes ? 

That the air may the better be received in them for cooling 
tlie heart, and expelling humors becaufe the lungs are the fan of 
the heart : and as a pair of bellows is raifed up by taking in the 
air, and fhrunk by blowing it out, fo likcwife the lungs drawin the 
air to cool the heart and to cai't it out, left through too much 
heat of the air drawn in, the heart Hiould be fiiflbcated. 

Why is the fleih of the lungs white ? 

Becaufe they are in continual motion. 

Becaufe the lungs are no part for themfelves, but for the 
heart ; and therefore it were fuperfluous for thofe creatures to 
have lungs who have no hearts : but nature is never wanting in 
things neceftarv, nor abounds in fuperfluities. 

Why do fuofi creatures as have no lungs want a bladder ? 

Becaufe fuch drink no water to make their meat digeft, but 
only for their tempering their food, and therefore they want a 
bladder and urine, as appears in fuch birds as do not drink at 
all, viz. falcon and fparrow hawk. 

Why is the heart in the midft of the body ? 

Becaufe it fliould impart life to all the parts of the body, and 
therefore it is compared unto the fun, which is placed in the midfl 
of t!ie planets, to pour light unto them all : therefore the Py- 
thagoreans filling the heavens a great living creature, fay, the 
fun is the heart tnereof. 

W^hy only in men is the heart on the left fide ? 

To the end that the heat of the heart fhould mitigate the cold- 
nefsof the f\)leen, for the fpleenls the featof melancholy, which 
is on the left fide alfo. 

Why is the heart firfli^^ngendered, for according to Ariftotle 
the hcvirt doth live firft and die laft ? 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 1S9 

Becaufeas Aridolle faith, deju^ent, etfened. the heart is the 
beginning and the origin of lite, and without it no part can 
live. According to the Philofopher, of the feed retained in the 
matrix there is firft engendered a fmall ikin, which compafleth 
the feed, whereof firft the heart is made of the pureft blood; 
then of blood not fo pure, the liver; and of thick and cold blood 
the marrov.- and brain. 

Why are bealts bold that iiave little hearts ? 

Becaufe in a little heart the heat is well united, and vehement 
and the blood touching it doth quickly he-at it, and is fpeedily 
carried into other parts of the body, which gives courage and 
boldnefs. 

Why are creatures with a fmall heart timorous as the hare ? 

The heart is difperfed in fuch, and not able to heat the blood 
that Cometh to it and fo fear is bred. 

How comes it tliat the heart is continually moving ? 

Becaufe in it there is a certain fpirit v/hich is more fubtle 
than air, which by reafon of its thicknefs and rarefaction, feeks 
a larger fpace, filling the hollow room of the heart, whereof the 
dilating and opening of the heart doth follow ; and becaufe the 
heart Is earthly, the thrufling and ceafmg to move, its parts are 
at pef!, tending downwards. Galen gives an experimicnt of an 
ac^brn, v/hich if put into the fire, the heat diffolves its humidity, 
therefore it doth occupy a greater place, fo that the rind cannot 
contain it but puffs up, throws it into the fire ; the like of the 
heart ; Therefore note, that the heart of a living creature is 
triangular in a manner, haviag its leaft part towards the left fide 
and the greateff towards the right, and doth alio open and (hut 
in the leafl part, by which means it is in continual motion : the 
firft motion is by thephyficians called Diaftde, that is extending 
the heart ; the other ^S'y/o/f', that is, fhutting the heart; and 
from thefe two all the motions of the body proceed, and that of 
thepulfe which phyficians feel. 

Why arc great beafts lean ? 

The natural heat proceeding from the heart confumes tliat 
natural humidity which fhould be converted into fat. 

How comes it that the flefh of the heart is fo compaft and knit 
together ? 

It is becaufe in a thick compacf fubffance heat is ftrongly re- 
ceived and united, as appears in other things : and becaufe. tlie 
lieart with its heat (hould moderate the coldnefs of the brain, it is 
made of that hard Piclh which is apt to keep a ft rong heat. 
How comes the heart to be the hoteft part of all living creatures. 

It is fo compared as to receive heat beii, becaufe it ihould 
mitigate the coldnefs of the brain. 

Why is the heart the beginning of life 

Becaufe in it the vital fpirit is bred, which is the heat of life, 
and therefore according to tlie opinion of Augufline, the heart 
hath two recepticiesthe right and the left : the right hath more 
blood than fpirits, which fpirits it engendered to give life, and 
vivify the body. 

Why is the heart long and (harp like a pyramid. 
A round figure hath no angles, therefore the heart is round 
ror fear any poifon or iivLTtfui matter fhould be letained in it; 



190 ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS, 

and, as Ar'ftotle affirms, becaufe that figure is fitted for rnotior. 
How comes the blood to be chiefly in the heart ? 
The blood is in the heart, as in its proper or efficient place 
which fome attribute to the liver, and therefore, the heart doth 
not receive blood of any 6ther part, but all other parts of it. 
How happens it that lome creatures want a heart ? 
Although they have no heart, yet ihey have fomewhat w hich 
^ anfwers it, as appears in eels anrd nfti which have the back bone 
inftead of a heart. 

Why doth the heart beat in fome creatures when the head is 
cut oft, as appears in birds and hens ? 

Becaufe the heart is what lives firft and dies laft, and therefore 
beats more than other parts* 

Why doth the heat of the heart fometimes fall of a fudden, as 
in thole who have the falling ficknefs ? 

This proceeds from a defe6l of the heart' itfelf and of certain 
fmall fkins with which it is covered, which being infected and 
currvipted, the heart falleth on a fudden ; and fometimes it hap- 
pens by realon of the parts adjoining, and therefore, when any 
venomous humor goes out of the (lomach that hurts the heart 
and parts adjoining, it caufes this fainting. The difpofition of 
the heart is known by the pulfe, for, a fwTft beating pulfe (hews 
the heat of the heart, and a How beating one denotes coldnefs ; 
therefore, a v/o man that is in health, has a flower and weaker 
pulfe than a mao, as iliall appear hereafter. 
Of the Stomach. 
For what reafon is the flomach large and round > 
Becaufe in it the food is firft conco<5ted or digefted, as it v/ere 
in a pot, that what is pure may be feparated from that which is 
not, and therefore, according to the quantity of the food the 
ftomach is enlarged. 

Why is the ftomach round ? 

Becaufe if it had angles and corners, food would remain in it, 
and breed humors, lo a man would ney«r want agues : which 
humors neverthelels are evacuated, lifted up, and confumed, 
and not hid in any fuch corners, by reafon ot the round nefs of 
the ftomach. 

How comes the ftomach to be full of finews ? 
Becaufe the finews can be extended and enlarged, and fo is tlie 
ftomach when it is full, but, when empty, it is arawn together, 
and therefore nature provides thofe finews. 
How comes the ftomach to digeft ? 

Becaufe of the heat which is in it, which comes from the liver 
and the heart. For we (ee in metals the heat of the fire takes a- 
way the ruft and drofs from iron, the Hlver fr.jm tin, and gold 
from copper : fo that by digeftion the pure is feparated from the 
impure 

For what reafon does the ftomach join the liver ? 
Becaufe the liver is very hot, and with its heat helps digeftion, 
and provokes an appetite. 

Why are we cold commonly after dinner ? 
Becaufe then the heat goes to the ftomach to further digeftion, 
and fb other parts become cold. 



ARISTOTLE»s PROBLEMS. 191 

Why is it hurtful to ftudy foon after dinner ? 

Becaufe when the heat- labors to help the imagination, it ceaf- 
eth from digefting the food ; fo that people ihould walk fome 
time after meals. 

How come women with child to have an inordinate defire of 
eating coals, afhes, and fuch like ? 

It Hows from the humors of the ftomach ; and becaule wom- 
en with child have corrupt humors, therefore they defire the 
like things. 

How Cometh the ftomach flowly to digeft fat meat, 

Becaufe it fwims in the ftomach. Now, the bed digeflion is at 
tlie bottom of the ftomach, where the fatdefcends not : fuch as 
eat fat meat are very fleepy, by reafon digeflion is hindered. 

Why is all the body worfe when the ftomach is uneafy. 

Becaufe the ftomach is knit with the brain, heart, and liver 
which are the principal parts in man ; and therefore, when it is 
not well, the others are evil difpofed. Another anfwer is, that 
if the firft digeftion be hindered, the others are alfo hindered ; 
for, in the firft digeftion, is the beginning of the infiimity that is 
in the ftomach. 

Why are young men fooner hungry than old men. 

Young men do digeft tor three caufes, firft, growing ; ther., 
f0r the reftoring oflife ; and laftly, for converfation of life, as 
Hippocrates and Galen do fay : elfe we anfwer, that young men 
are hot and dry, and therefore, lieat doth digeft more, and of 
confequence they delire more. 

Why do phyficians prelcribe that men ftiouid eat when they 
have an appetite. 

Becaufe much hunger and emptinefs will fill the ftomach with 
naughty rotten humors- which are drawn unto it infteadof meat: 
vvhich do eafily appear, becaufe if we faft over night, v/e have 
an appetite to meat, but in the morning none. That is therefore 
a token that the ftomach is filled with naughty humors, and ef- 
pecially its mouth which is no true filling, but a deceitful one. 
And therefore, after we have catena little, our ftomach comes 
to us again ; and then the proverb is, one jnorfel draweth down 
another ; for the firft morfel having made clean the mouth of the 
ftomach, doth-provoke the appetite. 

W^hy do phyficiansprefcribe that we Ihould not eat too much 
at a time, but'by little and little. 

Becaufe when the ftomach is full, the meat doth fwim in it^ 
which is a dangerous thing. Another reafon is, that as very 
green wood doth put out the fire, fo much meat choaks the nat- 
ural heat and puts it out ; and therefore the beft phyfic is, to 
ufe temperance in eating and drinking. 

Why do we defire change of meats according to the change of 
times ; as in winter, beef, pork, mutton ; and in fummer, light 
meats, as veal, lamb, &c. 

Becaufe the complexion of the body is altered, and changes 
according to the time of the year. Another anfwer is, that this 
proceeds from the quality of the feafon, becaufe the cold winter 
doth caufe a better digeftion, and the ftomach and belly is hotter 
in winter, by reafon of the compaffing cold, as Hippocrates and 
Ariftotle doth teach. 



192 ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS, 

Why (hoiild not the meat we eat be as hot as pepper and glnge^. 

Becaufe hot meat doth burn the blood, and difpofe it to a lep- 
rofy. So contraryvvife, meat too cold doth mortify and congeal 
the blood And our meat fhould not be over fl^arp, becaiif'e it 
procureth old age, and too much fauce doth burn the entrails, 
and procureth often drinking, as raw meat doth; and over 
fweet meats do conftipate and cling the veins'together. 

Why is it a good cuftom to eat cheefe after dinner, and pears 
after all meat ? 

Becaule cheefe, by reafon of its earthinefs and thicknefs ten- 
deth down towards the bottom of the Itomach, and fo putteth 
down the meat, and the like oi pears. Note, that new cheefe is 
better than old, for the old dry foft cheefe is very naughty , and 
procureth the headach ; and Hopping of the liver ; and the older 
the worfe. Whereupon it is faid, that the cheele is naught, and 
digefteth all things but itfelf. 

Why are nuts good after fi/h ? — The verfe is, 

After fi!h nuts ; after fle(h cheefe. 

Becaufe fiih is of a hard digeftion, and doth eafily putrify and 
corrupt ; and nuts help digeltion, becaule they are fomewhat 
hot ; hfli is poifoned fom^times, and nuts area remedy againfla 
poifon. And note, they (hould be of a clear ftony water, and 
not of a cold ilandivjg muddy water, and fhould be fo in wine and 
parfley, and fo it hurteth leail. 

Why is it unwholefome to ftay long for one difh after another, 
and eat of divers kinds of meat. 

Becaufe the firfl: begins to digeft when the lad is eaten, and fo 
the digeilion is not equally made, and therefore the meat digeft- 
ed beginneth to corrupt. But yet this rule is to be noted, touch- 
ing theorderof meat, that if there be any dirties whereof ibme 
are light of digeflion, as chickens, kid, veal, foft eggs, and fuch 
like, thefe meats (hould be fir ft eaten ; but grofs meats, as veni- 
fon, bacon, beef, roafted pork, hard eggs, and fried eggs, fliould 
be eaten laft. And thereafon is, becaufe that if they ftiould be 
firft ferved and eaten, and were digeft^d, they would hinder the 
digeftion of the others; and the light meats not digefted would 
be corrupted in the ftomach, and kept in the ftomach violently, 
whereof would follow belching, loathing, headach, bellyach, and 
great thirft. And by confequence, it is very hurtful too at the 
lome meal to fup milk and drink wine, becaufe they difpofe a 
man to leprofy. 

Which is beft for the ftomach, m*:;at or drink. 

Drink is fooner digefted than meat, becaufe meat is of greater 
fiibftance, and more material than drink, and therefore meat is 
harder to digeft. 

Why is it guod to drink after dinner. 

Becaufe the drink fhould make the meat readier to digeft. 
For, if a pot be filled with fi(h or defti without liquor, then both 
the pot and meat is marred. The ftomach is like unto a pot 
which doth boil meat, and tlierefore phyficians do couniel to 
drink at meals. 

Why is it good to forbear a late fupper ? . 

Becaufe there is no moving or ilirring after fupper, and fo the 
meat is not tent down to^the bottom of the ftomach, but remain- 



ARISTOTLE' s PROBLEMS. 1^^ 

t:th undigeiled, and fo breeds hurt; and therefore a light xind 
Ihort fupper is beft. 

How comes fome men to evacuate clear meat ? 

By reafoii of the weaknefs of nature and expulfion ; which d'f - 
sale is called Lienteriat 

Of the Blood, 

^vhy is it neceiTary that every living thing that hath blood 
hath aifo a liver ? ' ' 

According to Ariftotle, becaufe the blood is fir/l made in tlie 
iiver, its feat, and is drawn from the (tomach by certain princi- 
pal veins, and fo engendered. 

For what reafon is the blood red. 

Firft, it is like the part in which it was made, i e, the liver, 
which is red, then it is likewife Iweet becaufe it is well digeited 
and concocted ; but if it have a little earthy matter mixed witli 
It, that makes it fomewhat fait, as appears in Arilt. Lib. Meieor. 

How comes women's blood to be thicker than men's. 

Their coldnefs thickens, binds, congeals, and joins it toc^ether. 

How comes the blood in all parts of the body through the liv - 
er, and by what means. 

Through the principal veins, as the veins of the head, liver, 
&c. tonourilh all the body. 

Of the Urine. 
_ How doth &he uriiie come into the bladder, feeino- tlie bladder 
is fhut. 

Sorae fay by fweating, and it feems to be true. Others fdy ic 
comes by a fmall (kin in the bladder, which opens and lets in 
the urine. Urine is a certain and not deceitful meilenger of the 
tiealth or infirmity of man. Hippocrates fays, that men make 
white urine in. the morning, and before dinner red, but after 
dinner pale, and likewife after flipper ; for there is divers colors . 

How doth the leprofy proceed from the liver. 

Becaufe it doth greatly engender the brains, and breed th : 
falling ficknefs and apoplexy. 

Why is it hurtful to drink mucli water. 

Becaufe one contrary doth hinder and expel another ; for wa- 
ter is very cold, and lying fo on the ftomach hinders digeliion. 

Why is it unwholeiome to drink new wine ; and v,iiy doth it 
very much hurt the Itomach. 

One reafon is, it cannot be digefred, therefore it caufeth the 
belly to fvvell,and in fome fort the bloody flux ; fecondly, it hin- 
ders making water, but to drink good wine is wholefome. 

Vv'hy do phyficians forbid us to labor prefently after dinner. 

For three rcafons ; tirft becaufe motion hinders tlie virtue and 
power of digefti(!n ; fecondly, becaufe itirring immediately after 
dinner caufeth the parts of the body to draw tlie meat raw to 
th-em, which often breeds ficknefs : and thirdly, becaufe motion 
makes the food defcend before it is digefled : but after fiipper it 
is good to (tir, by reafon we foon after go to f.eep, therefore 
Oiould walk a little, that the food may go io the bottom of the 
Itomach. 

K 



tU ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

Why is it good to ftir after dinner. 

It makes a man well dilpofed, fortifies anddrengthensthe nat- 
ural heat, cauling the fuperttuity in the ftomach to defcend : 
wherefore Avicen fays, Inch as negledt this exercife tall into 
inflammation of the heart. 

Why is it wholefome to vomit asfome fay. 

Becaufe it purges the (lomach of all naughty humors, expell- 
ing them, vvKich would breed agues if they Ihould remain in it. 
Avicen fays, a vomit purges the eyes and head, clearing the brain. 

How comes fleep to (trengthen the flomach and the digeltlve 
faculty, 

Becaufe in lleep the heat draws inwards, and helps digeftion ; 
but when we awake, the heat remains, and is difperfed through 
the body. 

Of the Gall and Spleen. 

How comes living creatures to have a gall. 

Becaufe choleric humors are received into it, which^ through 
their acidity, help the gutsto expel fuperfluities, alio it helps di- 
geflion. 

How comes the jaundice to proceed from the gall. 

The humor of the gall IS bluifti and yellow, therefore when 
its pores are ftopt, the humors cannot go into the fack thereof, 
but is mingled with the blood, wandering throughout all the 
body, andinfeciing the (kin. 

W hy hath not a horfe, mule, afs, or cow a gall. 

Though thofe creatures have no gall in one place, as ina purfe 
or veflel, yet they have one difperfed in fmali veins. 

How comes the fplcen to be black. 

It is occaficned by a terreftrial and earthy matter of black 
color, as Ariftotle fays. Another reafon is, according to phyfi- 
cians, the fpleen is the recepticle of melancholy, and that is black. 

Why is he lean who hatha large fpleen. 

Becaufe the fpleen draws much water to itfelf, which would 
turn to fat ; therefore contrarywife, men that have but a fmaJl 
fpleen are fat. 

Why does the fpleen caufe men to laugh, 

Ifod'orus fays we laugh with the fpleen, we are angry with the 
gall, we are w^ife with the heart, we love with the liver, we feel 
With the brain, and fpeak v;ith the lungs, that is, the caufe of 
laughing, anger, love, wifdom, fpeech, and feeling proceeds from 
the fplcen, gall, liver, lungs, and brain. 

1 he reafon is, the fpleen draws much melancholy toit, being 
its proper feat, which melancholy proceeds from fadnefs, and is 
there confumed, and the caule failing, the efle6l doth fo like- 
wife. And by the fame reafon, the gall caufes anger j for chol- 
eric men are often angry V becaufe they have much gall. For 
the better underflandingof this, note, that there are four humors 
in man, namely, blood, choler, phlegm, and melancholy ; each 
has its particular recepticle. Or a hot and dry lubftance, choler 
is engendered, vshich goes to the gall ; but of a coldand dry hu- 
mor, melancholy is engendered, and goes to the fpleen : of a 
coldand inoi ft humor, phlegm is engendered, and goes to the 
*nngs for its reception, nor (as phyhcians fay) to the fpleen; 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS i^$ 

but the blood, which is the moft noble humor is engendered in 
the liver, which is its proper place. 

Of Carnal Copulation. 

Why do living creatures ufe carnal copulation. 

Becaufe it is nioft natural to beget their like ; for, if copula- 
tion were not, all procreation had funk ere now. 

What is this carnal copulation. 

1 1 is a mutual aftion of male and female, with inftruments or- 
dained for that purpofe, to propagate their kind ^ and therefore 
divines fay, it is afmto ufe that a^^t for any other end. 

Why is this a«5tion good in thofe who ufe it lawfully and mod- 
erately. 

Becaufe, fay Avicen and Confl. it eafes and lightens the body, 
clears the mind, comforts the head and fenfes, and expels mel- 
ancholy. Therefore fometimes through the omiffion of this acf: 
dimnefs of fight doth enfue, and giddinefs ; befides the ieed of a 
man retained above its due time, is converted into fome infec- 
tious humor. 

Why is immoderate carnal cop\ilation hurtfuL 

Becaufe it deftroys the fight, dries the body,* and impairs the 
brain; often caules fevers, as Avicen and experience fliew ; it 
ihortens life too as is evident in the fparrow, whicliby reafon 
of its often coupling, lives but three years. 

Why doth carnal copulation injure melancholy or cl^olerlc 
men, efpeciaily thin men. 

Becaufe it dries the bones much which are naturally fo, Ou 
the contrary, it is good for the phlegmatic and fanguine, as Avi- 
cen fays, becaufe they abound with thatfubftance which by na. 
ture is necelTarily expelled. Though Ariftotle affirms, that ev- 
ery fat creature has but little feed becaufe the fubftance turns to 
fat. 

Why do not female brute beafts covet carnal copulation after 
they are great with young. 

Becaufe then the womb or matrix is ihut, and defire doth ceafe. 

Why (hould not theaClbe ufed when the body is full. 

Becaufe it hinders digeftion, and it is net good for a hungry 
belly becaufe it^veakens him- 

Why is it not good after birty. 

Becaufe then the pores are open, and the heat difperfes through 
the bod^j yet after bathing it cools the body very much. 

Why is it not proper after vomiting orloofenefs. 

Becaufe it is dangerous to purge twice in one day : but fo it i ; 
in this act the reins are purged, and the ^utsby the vomit. 

Why are wild heads furious when they couple, as appears in 
atTes which bray ; and harts, who are madaimoft, as Hippocra- 
tes fays. 

Their blood is kindled with defire, and nature alfo labors to 
expel fuperiluities in them, which difpofe to anger and madnefs ; 
therefore the Siti done, they are tame and gentle. 

Why is there hich delight in the adtof venery- 

Becaufe this a6f is a bale and contemptible thing in itfelf, info- 
much that all creatures would naturally abhor it, were there no 
pleafure in it, and therefore nature readily ufes it, that all kind? 
of Jiving creati^res (hould be maiotained t^ndkept. 



196 ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

Why do fuch as ufe it often, take lefs delight in it than thofc 
who come to it feldoni ? 

For three reafons : firf}, becaufe the paflTages of the feed, are o- 
ver large and wide, therefore it makes no (lay there, which , i 
would caiifc the delight Secondly, becaufe that through often 
evacuation there is little feed left, therefore no delight. Third- 
ly, becaufe fuch infiead of feed, caft out blood undigefled and 
raw, or feme other watery fubftance, which is not hot, and 
Txherefore affords no delight. 

Can this carnal copulation be done by the mouth, fo that beaHs 
may conceive thereby, as fome fay of pigeons, that by kifling 
'hey do it, and conceive. Some fay that it is true in the weafel 
or ermine. 

According to Ariftotle it is falfe; for, though pigeons do kifs 
by the beak, yet they do not couple this way nor conceive. 
And becaufe the weafel carries his young ones from place to 
place in his mouth, they are of that opinion : But, Ariftotle fays, 
v.'liatever goerh in at the mouth isconfumed by digeflion, ana if 
the feed fhould go in at the mouth, then that would beconfum.ed 
by digeflion. The m.ajor part is plain, the conclufion doth hold 
true. 

Of the Seed of Man or Beast. 

How or of what cometh the feed of man. 

There are divers opinions cf philofophers and phyflcians in 
this point. Some fay it is a fuperfluous humor of the' fourth di- 
geftion ; others fay, that the feed is pure blood flowing from the 
brain concoited and whitened in the tefricles ; and fome fay, it is 
the fuperfluity of the fecond or third di^efticn ; but Ariftotle 
niys, the feed is always tlie fuperfluity '^f the laft nutriment, that 
is of blood di'perfed througout the body, and comes chiefly from 
the heart, liver, and brain ; which is argued, becaufe thofe parts 
are greatly weakened dy ejecting feed, and therefore it appears 
that carnal copulation is not good, but fome think, when moder- 
ately ufed. it is very wholefope. 

Why is a man's iced white and a woman's red, 

'Tls' white in man by reafon of his great heat and quick digeft- 
ion,hecaufe rarified in the tefticies : but a woman's is red, becaufe 
'tis the fuperfluity of the fecond digeftion, \yhich is done in the 
liver. Or elfe v/e may fay, it is becaufe the terms corrupt undi- 
gefled blood, and hath its' color 

Doth the feed of man come from the parts of the body or from 
humor?. 

Some fav from the parts of the body, and that a lame man be- 
gets a lame child ; and if the father hath a fear, the child hath one 
alfo, which could not be, if the I'eed did not fall from the parts of 
rhe body Orliers fay, it comes from the humors, by reafon it is 
made oi the la(t nutriment, and that is no part but a humor. As 
foriamenefs or fears, they proceed from imagination of the moth- 
er at tlie time of Carnal copulation. 

Hov*- comes the imagination of the m.otlier to caufe her to bring 
forth a blackmoor, as AJbertus Magnus rep^ortsofa queen wha 
in the act of carnal copulation, imagined fi black being p^inted^ 
and in lie r light. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 19T 

As it is faid, the imagination of'a fall, makes a man fall, and the 
imagination of a leprofy makes a man a leper ; fo, in this tlie im- . 
agination is above the forming power, and therefore the child 
born follovveth the imagination, and not the power of forming 
and fhaping, becaufe 'tis weakeft- 

Doth the man's feed enter into the fubftance of the child. 

The feed of both father and mother go into the fubftance of the 
child in the womb, as cream goeth to the fubftance of the cheefe : 
Yet this opinion doth feem to be of force, therefore, vve fay, the 
feed doth not go into the fubflance of the child; and it is proved 
thus, becaufe that fo the matter and the efficient caiife Ibould be 
all one, which is againfl the philofopher. The confequence is 
good becaufe the feed is the efhcientcaufe of the houfe, and there- 
fore is not the material caufe of the child. This is proved^another 
way; as there is the felf fame material caufe of nourifhment and 
generation ; fo we have our being and nourifhment of the fame 
matter : But the feed cannot be the materialcaufe of nourifhment, 
according to Averrois, therefore not of the being. And as both 
feeds are iliut up in the womb, fo that of the man difpofeth and 
prepares the woman's to jeceive the form, perfe<5fion, or foul, 
which being done it is converted into a humidity that is breathed 
out by the pores of the matrix. 

How come females to liave monthly courfes. 

They are cold in refpedit of men, and as their nouri(hment can- 
not all be converted into blood, a great part thereof turns to men- 
ies, which are monthly expelled. 

For what reafon do not the courfes come before thirteen. , 

Becaufe young v/omen are hot; and digell all their aounihment 
therefore they have them not before that age. 

For what reafon do they leave them at about fifty. 

Some anfwer that old women are barren, and therefore they 
ceale ; but a better anfwer is, that then nature is v.eakin theiii, 
and therefore they cannot expel them : ihere is great flore of ini- 
numdities bred in them, which lies in a lump : this makes tliciu 
troubled with coughs and other infirmities. Men fnould refi aiii 
their ufe at thofe times. 

Why have not breeding women the menfes. 

Becaufe that then they turn into milk, and into tlic ncuiinunent 
of the child : for if awoman with child have th^m, it is a lign Ihc 
V.' ill mif carry. 

\yhy are they termed menilrua. 

From the word mcnjls a month, becaiifeit is a time which nieaf- 
^:res the moon, as (!.e ends her courle in 29 days and 14 liours. 
1 he moon luth dominion overmoill things, and the menfes are 
luimid, and moifl things inercafe and decreafeas the moon doe^. 

Why do they continue longer witti fome than others, with 
fome lix orleven but commonly witli all three days. 

'I he lirlt are colder, therefore they increafe mo!t in tliem, arid 
ccnfequently are longer in expelling; other women aie more 
hot, and therefore they have fewer, and are foon expelled. 

V/hereare rlie tetius retained before they are run. 

Some fay in the matrix or womb : but Averrois fay?, th^ iiui- 
nix Is the place lor generation; and that thofe terms t\ rtjier uv>. 



l98 ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

generation at all ; therefore he alTerts that there are certain veins 
about the backbone which retain them : a fign of which is, thofc 
women, at that time liave great pain in their backs. 

Are the menles which are expelled, and thofe of which the 
child is engendered, all one. 

No : becaufe the one are unclean, and unfit for that purpofe, 
but the other very pure and clean, therefore fitted for generation. 

Why do thofe got with child, when they have the terms upon 
them, bring forth weak and leprous children 

Becaufe they are venomous ; fo thecaufeappearethin the effe^l. 

Why liave women their terms, lome at the new moon, fome 
at the full, and others at the wain. 

By reafon of their feveral complexions ; and though all wom- 
en in refpecl of men are phlegmatic, yet fome are morefanguifve 
than others, fome are choleric. As months have their quar- 
ters, fo have women their complexions : one ofafanguine com- 
plexion hath her terms in the fir (1 quarter, a choleric in the fec- 
ond, a melancholic in the third. Sec, 

Why have the fanguine theirs in the firfl: quarter. 

Becaufe Aiith Galen, every fuch thing added to fuch a thing 
doth make it more fuch ; therefore the firft quarter of the moon 
increafeth blood in a fanguine complexion,andthen Ihe expels it. 

How do they come in the end of the month. , 

Becaufe moft women then are phlegmatic, and the lad quarter 
is phlegni ! or elfe it proceeds, from defe6l, and therefore cold 
works, then do multiply the matter, and fo multiplied, is then 
expelled. 

How happens pain and grief at that time. 

Becaufe it is like the pain of the ftranguary in making water 

• drop by drop j fcjr the ftranguary, by reafon of the drink undi- 

geiled, oft^'ends the fubtle paflage of the urine, as happens after 

bathing ; fo the menfes, undigefted and of an earthy iubftance, 

hurt the pallage by which they go. 

Why do women eafily conceive after their menfes- 

Becaufe the womb.being cleanfe<l, they are better prepared 
lor conception. 

Why do women look pale when they are upon them. 

Becaufe then the heat goes from the outward part of the body 
ro the inward to help nature and expel their terms, which dep- 
rivation of heat doth caufe apalenefs in the face. Or elfe it is, 
becaufe that liux is caufed of raw humors, which when they 
run, make the face colorlefs. 

Why do they at that time abhor their meat. 

Becaufe nature labors more to expel their terms, than to diged, 
and therefore, if they ihould eat it would remain raw on their 
Komach. 

Why are fome women barren and cannot conceive. 

1 . It proceeds fometimes of the man, who being of a cold na- 
tv.re his feed is unfit for generation ; ^. Becaufe it is waterifli, 
and fo doth not ftay in the womb : S. The leed or both is not 
proportionate: as if the man be melancholy and the woman 
fanguine, or the man choleric and the woman phlegmatic ; for 
it is evident inphilefophy, that the agent and the patient ought 
to h:ive the fame proportion, elfe the aftion is hindered. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 1&9 

Why do fat womeji feldom conceive with child. 

Becaufe they have a flippery womb, and the feed will not ftay 
in, or elfe becaufe the mouth of the matrix is very (trait, and the 
feed cannot enter in, or if it do, itisfo very flowly, that it grows 
cold in the mean time, fo is unfit for generation, and isdilTolved 
into any fleHiy fubftance. 

Why do thofe of very hot conftitution feldom conceive. 

Becaufe the feed in them is exlinguifhed or put out as water 
ca(t into fire. 

Why are whores never with child. 

By reafon of divers feeds, which corrupt and fpoil the inftru- 
ment of conception, for it makes them fo llippery that they can- 
not retain the feed. Or elfe it is becaufe one man's feed deftroys 
another, fo neither is good for generation. Albertus lays, the 
beft thing to help conception is to take the matrix of a hare beat 
to powder in drink. 

Why have fome women long and flender children, and others 
thick and (liort. 

Becaufe, as Galen and Averrois fay, the child is formed ac- 
cording tothedimenfionsof the womb : wherefore, becaufe fome 
women have a long and narrow womb : Their children are long 
and llender, others, on the contrary, (hort and large, therefore 
their children be fhort and thick. 

Why doth a woman conceive twins. 

According to Galen, becaufe there are feveral cells or recep- 
tacles of the womb, wherefore they may naturally have fo ma- 
ny children at once, as there falls feed in thofe cells : There are 
3 in the right fide and 3 in the left : in the right fide boys are 
engendered, in the left girls : and in the midftof thefe cells or 
chambers, there is another, where the ancients aHert hermaphro- 
dites to be engendered If a woman fhould have more than 7 
children at once, it would rather be miraculous than natural. 

Why are twins not fo ftron^ as ©ther men. 

By reafon the feed which Ihould have been for one is divided in - 
totvvo, and therefore they are weakly,, and in truth do not often 
live long. 

Of Hermaphrodites. 

Hov/are Hermaphrodites begotten. 

There are feven cells in the womb, three on the righ*- fide, and 
three on the left, andafeventh in the centre, into which the feed 
falls, an hermaphrodite is faid to be begotten in this manner ; 
Nature tends always to that which isbeft, therefore (lie does al- 
waysintendto begeta male; which male is fometimes begotten 
in all its principal parts, and yet, through the evil difpofition of 
the womb and obje6l, and inequality of the feeds, when nature 
cannot per fe (1:1 the male, (he brings forth the female too: and 
therefore an hermaphrodite is impotent in the privy parts of man 
as appears by experience. 

vViiy dofh not nature difpofe in him two fecret parts of a man 
or twootawoman ? But one of a man and one of a woman! 

Becaufe nature would make one in vain * Butphilofophersfay 
vliat God made nothing in vain. 
Is an hermaphrodite accounted a man or woman. 



200 ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

It is to be con fide red in which member he isfitteft for the a«Sr of 
copulation: Iffitteftinthe woman's then it is a woman : Ifia the 
man's he is a man. 

Should he be baptized in the name of a man or a woman. 

In the name of a man, becaufe names are given adplacitum^ and 
therefore he (houldbe baptized according to the worthieft name. 

Should he (land in judgment in the name of a manor a woman. 

According to the law he (houldfirft fwear before he be admitted 
to judgment, which fecret part he can ufe, and fo is to be admit- 
ed according to the ufe and power of that part. 
Of Monsters. 

Doth nature make any monflers- 

She doth ; forif fhedid not, we would foon be deprived of 
her end. For of things poflible the doth always propofe to bring 
forth that which is moft perfect : but in the end, through the evil 
difpofition of the matter, and influence of fome efpecial conftel- 
lation, notbeingable to bring forth that which fhe intended, flie 
brings forth that which fhe can. In Albertus* time a cow 
brought forth a calf half a man, the countrymen fufpe6ting a 
fhepherd, would have burnt him with the cowj but Aibertus 
being (killtul inaftronomy, faid that this did proceed from a 
fpecial conftellation, and delivered the ftiepherd from their hands. 

Be they one or two ? 

Ariftotle faith you mud look into the heart, and if there be 
two hearts there be two men. 

Why is a man born fometimes with a great head, and fix fiit- 
gers on one hand, or with four ? 

Ariftotle faith it proceeds of fuperfluity and abundance of 
matter : when there is too much matter, then he is born with a 
great head, or fix fingers ; but if there be want of matter, then 
there is fome part wanting or lefs than it ought to be. 
Of Infants. 

Why are fome children altogether like the fatlier, fome like 
the mother, fome like both, and fome like neither ? 

If the feed of the father do wholly overcome that of the moth- 
er, the child doth wholly refemble the father ; but if the moth- 
er's predominate, then it is like the mother : but it he be not 
like either, that doth happen for many caufes fometimes through 
the four qualities, fometimes thro' the influence of fome heaven- 
ly conftellation. Aibertus faith, that there was on a time a 
good conftellation for begetting of hogs, and a child was then 
begotten and brought forth, which had a face like a hog ; Ac- 
cording to this divers forts of monfters are brought forth. 

Why are children oftenerlike the father than the mother ? 

That proceeds of imagination of the mother in the a6t of cop- 
uUtion, and therefore the children get the difpofition of the 
father. This appears from an ethippian queen, who brought 
forth a white child, becaufe her imagination was upon a white 
color : and is feen in Jacob's (kill in cafting rods -of divers colors 
into the water when his fheep went t^ram. 

Why do children fometimes more refemble their grandfathers ^ 
and great grandfathers, than their parents <* * 

The virtue and force ofthe grandfather is grafted in the heart • 
^f the begetter, and it may be laid that fon^etuiies it doth pro- 



ARISTOTLE^s PROBLEMS. ^01 

ceed of the fimilitudeof the nutriment, and then the child is 
formed by the fimilitude of the grandfather. 

Why do children, accordingto the courfe of nature, come out 
of the mother's womb in the ninth month ? 

Becaufe the child is then fully perfefl, or elfe becaufe fome 
benign planet doth reign, Jupiter, who is a friend of nature.; 
for, accordingto the aflrcnomers, he is hot, moift, and there- 
fbre doth temper the malice and naughtinefs of Saturn, who is 
cold and dry ; therefore for the molt part, children born in the 
ninth month, and are healthful. 

Wjiy do children born in tl^e 8th month, for the mod part, die 
quickly : and why are they called the children of the moon ? 

Becaufe the moon is a: eolcl planet, which has dominion over 
the child, and therefore doth bind it with its coldncfs which is 
the caufe of its death'. 

Why doth a child cry as it is born ? 

1 ft, Becaufe of the fudden change from heat to cold, which 
cold doth hurt its tendernefs. 2dly, Becaufe the child's foft and 
tender body is wringed and put together, coming out of the nar- 
row and ftrait pafTage of the matrix ; and efpecially the brain 
being moift and the head prefled and wringed together, is the 
caufe that fome humors do diflill by the eyes, which are the 
caufe of tears and weeping. 3dlv, Divines lay it is for the 
tranfgrelTion of our firfl father ana original fin. 

Why doth a child put his finger into his moiJth when he Com- 
eth fidl into the world ? 

Becaufe that*coming out of the womb, he cometh out of a hot 
bath, and entering into the cold, he puts his fingers into his 
niou t h f o r w a n t o f heat . 

How doth a child come intothe world out of the womb ? 

He Cometh forth with the head forward ; for, if he fbould 
come with the thighs or arms, he would kill himfelf an^ the 
mother. ,, 

Of the Young One in the womb. 

Hov/ is the young one engendered in tlie womb ? 

The firft fix days the feed hath the color of milk, but in the 
fix days following a red color, which is near unto the difpofition 
of fle/h, and then is changed into a rhick fubflance of blood, but 
in twelve days following, this fubflance is made fo thick and 
Ibund, that it is able to receive Ihape and form, becaufe a fluid or 
running fubffance (leepeth on till its birth ; and it is governed 
every month by the planets. 

Doth the child in the womb void excrements or make water ? 

No : and the reafon is becaufe he hath the firft digeftion which 
is in the liomach ; he receives no food by the mouth, but it corwes 
to him at the^ navel, he therefore makes no urine, but fweats, 
wiiich at beft is but little, and is received in a Ikin in the matrix, 
and at his birth is caft out. 

Wh.y doth the child come eafily out of the matrix, after feven, 
eight or nine months ? 

Becaufe, faith Galen,, when the fruit is ripe, then the ,liga- 
XUentsare broken, and lo it falls out. 



mi ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

Of Abortion and untimely Birth. 

Why do women that eat unwholefome meats eafily mifcarry : 

Becaufe it breeds putrefied feed in them, which the mind ab- 
horring doth caft out of the worab, as unfit for the moft noble 
fliape which is adapted to receive the foul 

Why doth wreftlino; or leaping caufe the cafting of the child as 
fome fubtle >vomen uled to do on purpofe ? 

Becaufe it loofes the ligaments which (hould hold the child. 

Why doth thunder caufe mifcarriage. 

The vapor is burning, and doth eafily hurt the tender fubftance 
of the child, entering m at the pores of the matrix. Albertus 
fays, if the child be near delivery, liglitning and thunder will 
kill if. 

^ Whv doth thunder and lightning rather caufe young women 
than old to mifcarry > 

Becaufe the bodies of young women are fuller of pores, and 
more flender, and therefore the lightning fooner enters into 
their body ; but old ones have a thick (kin, well compadled, 
therefore the vopors cannot enter. ,s 

Why doth much joy caufe women to mifcarry ? 

Becaufe in a time of joy a woman is deditute of heat, and fo 
the mifcarriage doth follow^. 

Why do women eafily mifcarry when they are firft with child, 
viz. the firft, fecond, or third month ? ' 

Apples and pears eafily fall, at firfl becaufe the knots and liga- 
ments are weak, fo it is of a child in the womb. 

Why is it more hard to mifcarry in the fourth, fifth, or fixth 
month ? 

Becaufe then the ligaments are ftronger and well fortified. 
Of divers Matters. 

Why have fome women greater grief than others in child birth? 

For three reafons, Id. For the largenefs of the child. 2dly, 
The midwife being unflcilful, and thirdly, becaufe the child is 
dead. For the contrary caufes, fome have lefs pain. 

Why hath not a man a tail like a beall ? 

Becaufe a man is a noble creature, whofe property is to fit ; 
io abeaft cannot, that hath a tail. 

Do thofe who keep hot houfes expel the heat of a furnace bet- 
ter with cold water than hot ? 

Yes : becaufe tney are of contrary qualities, which work 
ilrongly one againfl the other, and theirefore, the heat is eafily 
expelled from the ftone- 

Why does hot water freeze fooner than cold ^ 

Becaufe hot water is thinner, and gives better entrance to tlie 
fro ft. 

For what reafon is every living thing dull after copulation ? 

Becaufe the acl is filthy and unclean, and fo every livinp; crea- 
ture abhors it : When men do think upon it they are alhamed 
and fad. 

Cannot drunken men judge of taftesas well as fober men ? 

Mo : becaufe the tongue being full of pores and fpungy, it re- 
ceives great moiflure in it, and more in drunken men than in 
fober ; therefore the tongue, by often drinking, is full of bad 
humors and fo the faculty of the tafte is cut of order j ^here- 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEiVIS. 20S 

lore though tli^ thickening of the mean, /. e. tafte, drink taken 
of drunkards is not prefently felt, for, to due feeling there is re- 
quilite to have a due proportion of the mean. And hy this is 
alfo underftood why drunk perfons have not a perfe6t fpeech. 

Why have melancholy hearts long ears ; and why arenotthofe 
men wife for the moft part thatliave long ears, but thole other- 
vvife that have fhortones ? 

The ears proceed from a cold and dry fubftance called a griftle^ 
which is apt to become a bone ; and becaufe melancholy beaits 
tio abound with this kind of fubftance, they have long ears. 

How comes the other to be half witted ? 

Becaufe the minds and fouls follow the bodies, for if the fen- 
fes of the body be fub tie, the foul exercifes fubtle operation, as 
well active as fpeculativc ; and the contrary is in a grofe body. 

How is the intellectual foul joined to a child in the womb of 
the mother; and how does the man who begets it, make the 
matter apt and fit to receive the foul r 

Divines ^ay, that into a fubftance fufficiently difpofed and 
made fit, God doth infufie the intellectual foul ; and St. Au-- 
^uftine fays the like : the foul in creating kinfufed, and in in- 
tiifingis created. 

Why do hares fleep with their eyes open ? 

Their eyes ftand out and their eyelids are fhort, therefore 
never quite fhut. Befides they are timorous ; and, as a fafe- 
guard to themfelves, fleep with their ey;esopen. 

Why do not crowsfeedtheir young till they are nine days old? 

Becaufe feeing them of another color they think them of an- 
other kind ; meanwhile God feeds them with heavenly dew, as 
the Pfalmift faith, "' He giveth beafls their food, and young 
crows will call upon him." 

Why are fheep and pigeons jnild creatures ? 

Becaufe they want galls, which ftir anger. 

Why have birds their ftones inward ? 

Becaufe if they were outward, they would hinder their flying 
and lightnefy. 

How comes it that birds do nctpifs ? 

Becaufe that fuperflulty V'.'hich would be converted into urine 
is turned into feathers, for there is much moifture in the feath- 
ers. Another reafon is^ they are' in continual motion, there- 
fore moifture in them is di ie«l up by air or wind. 

How come long eggs to he a fign and caufe of the male, and 
flat fhort eggs of the female ? 

Hippocrates fays, it is the property of heat to afcend from the 
centre to the circumference of cold ; therefore long eggs have 
great heat and therefore pafs into the fubftance of the male 
for, in every kina lh^' male is hotter than the female, asphilof- 
ophersfav'. ' If the eggs c Ihcrt and flat, it is a (ign the heat is 
fmall and undifperfed, and goeth into the fubftance of the fe- 
male. 

Wyflo we hear better by night than by day ? 

Becaufe there is agrca ;:r quiernefs in the night than in the 
day, for the fun doth nc^ xhaie the vapors by night, as it doth 
in the day, therefore, the mean is more fii than ready, and the 



^04 ARtSTOTLE^s PROBLEMS. 

mean being fit, the motion is better done by it, which, is faid 
to be done by a found. Another reafon is, there arc more mo- 
tions and founds in the air, in the day than in the night, which 
hinder one another : In the night there is lilence, which iscppo- 
iite to found, and oppofites put one againlt the other ihevy better. 
For what reafon doth a man laugh looner when touched in the 
armpits than in other parts ot the body ? 

Becaufe there is in that place a meeting of maay finews and 
the mean we touch (which is the flefh) is more fubtle, than in 
other parts, and therefore a better feeling. When a man is 
moderately and gently touched there, the fpi'rits are difperfed,run 
into the face, anci thence caufes laughter ; but if touched too 
roughly, tb.en there is not that delight. 

How comes burni: wood to be black, and a bone burnt to be of 
a white fubftance r 

Becaufe the wood, before it was burnt was moid, and the heat 
is not able to con fume all the moifture of the wood, and there- 
fore there remaineth fome after the burning, which is convert- 
ed into black fubliance, becaufe the humidity ot the wood was 
ill my and could not altogether be confumed by the fire. But a 
bone is cold and dry of its ow n nature, having but fmall moifture 
in it, which the burning doth wholly confume, and fo the moift. 
lire being confumed, the body waxeth white. 

Why do fome women love white men and fome black ? 

There are two anfweTs Some women have a weak light, and 
fuch delight in black, becaufe white doth hurt the fight more 
than black. The fecond reafon is, becaufe like delights in like : 
ibme women are of a hot nature, and fuch are delighted with 
black becaufe blacknefs doth follow heat, and others are of a 
cold nature, and thefe are delighted with white, becaufe cold is 
the mother of whitenefs. 

Why do men willingly fleep after labor ? ^ 

Becaufe that though continually moving the heat is difperfed 
to the external parts of the body, which after labor, is gathered 
together to the internal parts, to help the digeltion : and thence 
vapors do arife from the heart to the brain, which flop the paf- 
fages by which the natural heat (houldbe difperfed to the ex^ 
ternal parts ; and then the external parts being cold and thick, 
by realon of the coldnefs of the brain, fleep is procured. And 
by this it appeareth, that fuch as eat and drink much do fleep 
much and long, becaufe great Itore of hum.ors and vapors are 
bred in fuch, which cannot be digefled by the natural heat. 

Why are fuch as fleep much evil difpoled and ill colored ? 

Becaufe that in fleeping much moifture is gathered together, 
which cannot be confumed, and is expelled in walking, and fo it 
doth covet to go out through the fuperficial part of the body, 
and efpecially it reforts to the face, and is the caufe of a bad col- 
or, as appeareth in fuch as be phlegmatic, who defire more 
fleep than others. 

Why doth it appear unto fome in their fleep that they e^and 
drink fweet things ? 

Becaufe the phlegm drawn up by the jaws doth diftil and drop 
to the throat, and this phlegm is after a fort fweet, and there- 
fore that foemeth fo to them. 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. IX- 

Why do fome dream in their Heep that they are in the v.ater 
c.nd drowned and iome that they are in the water and r.ov 
drowned ? 

The reafon is becaufe the phlegmatic fubftance doth ran to the 
liigh parts of the body, and then they think tliey are in the water 
and drowned ; and when that fubflance draweth unto the inter- 
nal parts, then they think they efcape. Another reafon may be 
overcome repletion and drunkeRiiefs : and therefore when a man 
is overcome, filled with meat, the fiiraes and vapors afcend and 
gather together, and therefore they ihink that they are drowned 
and flrangled : but if they cannot afcend fo high then they leerji 
to efcape. 

May a man procure a dream by an external caufe ? 

Ariftotle hcldeth that it may be done, if a man do fj^eak foftly 
at a man's ear, and awake him, then of this llirring of the fpirits 
there are thunderings and buzzings in the head, and fo they 
dream of that. And fo fome men have dreams by divine rev- 
elation, when it pleafed God to fend any. 

How many humors are there in a man's body ? 

Four : whereof every one hath its proper place in man's body. 

The firft is choler, which phyficians call fia^oa bilis^ and is 
placed in tlie liver. The 2 A is melancholy, called afra bills who{Q 
feat is in the fpleen. The 3d is phlegm, w'hofe place is in tlie 
head. The 4ih is blood, wliofe place is in the heart 

What condition and quality hath a m.an oi a languine complet- 
ion ? 

He is fair and beautiful : he hath his hair for the moH: part 
fmooth ; he is bold, he retaineth that .which he >hath conceived ; 
he is fliamefcced, -given tomufic,a lover of fciences, liberal cour- 
teous, and defires no revenge. 

What properties do follow a phlegmatic complexion ? 

They are dull of wi-t, their hair never curL., they are feldotii 
very thirfty, they are much given to deep, they dream of things 
belonging to water, they are fearful covetous, given to heap up 
x-iches, are weak in the a6t ot venery 

What properties do follow the choleric man ? 
He is furious and angry, quarrelfome, given to war, oale color- 
ed and unquiet ; drinks much, fleeps little, and defires much 
company of the women. 

What properties do follow the melancholy man F 

He is unquiet, brown in complexion, his veins hidden, he 
eateth little, and digefteth lefs ; v/hen he dreameth, it is of dai4c 
confufed things ; he is fad, fearful exceedingcovetous and in- 
continent, unlefshe bridle his aife6lion. 

What dreams do follow thefe complexions ? 

Pleafantmery dreams do follow the fanguine complexion 
fearful dreams tlie melancholy ; the choleric dreamof chiidrert 
fighting, and fire ; and the phlegmatic dream of water. And this 
is the reafon why a man's complexion is laid to be known by hrs 
dreams. 

What is the reafon that if you cover an egg over v/ith lalt and 
iet it lie in it a fe^vdays all the meat within is confumed ? 

The great drvnefs of the fait doth confume the fubftance of 
S 



fZOu ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS. 

the egg ; but in fand fomefay tliey may be kept as long as you 
plcafe, as the mariners pra^life. 

Why is the melancholy complexion the worfi: of all F 

Becaufe it is the dregs o( the blood, which is an enemy to 
mirth, and the farthered from the beginning of a man's life, and 
bringing old age and death, becaufe it is cold and dry. 

Why is the phlegmatic for the mod part dull of wit ? 

Becaufe the vivacity of.wit proeeedeth of heat, fo of Jcold, the 
contrary, which they are fubje^: untOr. 

Wherefore doth it proceed that fome men die with extreme 
joy, and fome with extreme grief ? 

Over great joy doth overmuch heat the internal parts of the 
"body, and overmuch heat doth drown and fuffocate the body, 
in which failing a man dieth. 

Why hath a manfo much hair on his head ? 

The hair of the head proeeedeth of the vapors which arifefrom 
the ftomach, and afcend to the head, and alfo of the fuperfluities 
which are in the brain ; and thofe two pafTmg through the pores 
of the head, are converted into hair, by reafon of the heat and 
drynefs of the head. And becaule man's body is full of humors 
and hath rrtore brains than other creatures, and alfo more luper^ 
lluities in the brains, which the brain expelleth, it followeth 
that he hath more hair than other living creatures. 

How many ways is the brain purged, and other hidden places 
of the body ^ 

Four : the watery and grofs humors are purged by the eyes^ 
melancholy by theears, cholerby thenofeandphiegmby the hair. 

What is the reafon that fuch as are very fat in their youth, 
are in danger to die on a fudden F 

Such have very fmalland cloie veins, by reafon of their fatnefs 
fo that the air and the breath can hardly Jiave free courfe in 
ihem ; and thereupon the natural heat w anting fome refrelh- 
. ment of the air, is put out, and as it were quenched. 

Why do garlics and onions grow after th^y are gathered ? 

They grow in the great humidity whi^sh is in them. 

Why do men feel cold fooner thari- women ? 

Becaufe that m.en being hotter than women, have their pores 
more open, and therefore the cold doth fooner enter into them 
than women. 

Wh)^ are not old men fo fubje6t to the plague, as young men 
and children P 

They are cold, and therefore the pores are fhut up, and not fo 
open as in youth ; and therefore the infecting air doch not pen- 
etrate fofoon asw hen they are open, as in youth, by reafon of heat. 

Why do we cad water in a man's face when he fwooneth.'* 
, Becaufe that through the coldnefs of water^ the heat may run 
to the heart, and fo give (irength. 

Why are thofe waters bell, and men: delicate which run towards 
the fun rifing F 

Becaule they are foonafl: frricken with the fun beams, and 
made pure and fubtle, becaule the fun»hath them long under him 
and by that means takes cti' the coldiieis and grofs vapors which 
they gather from the ground they run through. ^ 



ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEMS, ^07 

Why have fome women Inch weak and fmall voices ? 

Becaufe their inftruments and organs of /peaking, by reafoii 
they are cold, are Iniali and narrow; and therefore receiving 
but little air caiifeth the voice to be fniall and ePieminate. 

Whereof doth it proceed that want of ileep doth weaken the 
brain, and the body ? 

Much watching doth engender cholcr, which being hot, doth 
dry up and lelfen the humors which conferve the brain, head and 
other parts of the body 

Whereof duth it proceed tha,t vinegar doth ftaunch blood ? 

It prcceedeth of its cold virtue, for all cold is naturally bind- 
ing, and vinegar being cold hath the like property. 

Why is the iea water falter in fum^iier than in winter ? 

It proceedeih from the heat of the iun, feeing by experience 
that a fait thing being heated, becometh more' fait. 

Why do men hve longer m hot legions than cold ? 

Becaufe they may be more dry, and by that means the natural 
heat is better conferved in them tfian in cold- countries, bccaui^^ 
the cold doth extinguiih the heat. 

Why is well water feldom or never good ? 

All water whlcii flandeth ifiil in the Ipiing, and is never heat- 
ed by the fun beams is very heavy, and hath much earthy ui'at^ 
ter in it ; a^id therefore, wanting the heat of the fun, is nau<^ht. 

Why do we fieep better and more at eafe on the rj^ht fide liian 
on the left ? 

Becaufe, when v/e lie on the left, the lungs do lie onen and 
cover the heart, whi<:h is under that iide under the pap." Now 
the heart, the fountain of life, being thus occupied and hindered 
with the lungs, cannot exercife its own prcper operation as be- 
ing overmuch heated with the lungs lying on it, arid therefore 
wanting the refrefhment of the air, which the lungs do give it 
like the blowing a pair of bellows, is choaked and fuifocated- 
but by lying on the right fide thefe inconveniences are avoided.' 

Whereof doth proceed that holding of the breath doth caufe 
yuxing to ceafe ? 

Becaufe that holding the breath doth heat the internal parts 
of the body. And this heatchafeth away the yiix, being noth- 
ing elfe but cold air within the body 

What is the reafon that old men fneeze v/ith difficultv ? 

Becaufe that through their coldnefs their arteries are verv 
narrow and^ clofe, and therefore the heat is not of force to expel 
the cold ; for I think fneezing is like the ccMnbat in the air made 
h\ thunacr, wh'ich is caufed by heat and cold. 

"Why dotn a drunken man think th.at all things about him do 
turn round : , 

Becaufe the (pints which ferve the fight are mingled with va- 
pors, fumes and wine ; and then tlie overmuch heat caufeth tiie 
eye to be in a c;ontinual moving ; and \\\it eve being round cauf- 
eth all things about it to feem to go round. 

Wherefore doth it proceed, that bread whicli is made with 
fait is lighter than that which is made without it, confidering fait 
very heavy of itfelt ? 

Although bread is heavy of itfelf, yet the fait dries it, and 
makes it light by reafon ,ot the heat which it hath, v/hich heat 



r-iOa ARISTOTLE'S PROBLEM.^. 

doth dr 3', and the more heat tiicre is hi it the better the bread i. 
the lighter and more wholcfome for the body. 

Why is not new bread good for the (lomach > 

Becaiife it is full of moiLllnefs, and thick and hot vapors, which 
do corrupt the blood, and liot bread i.; blacker than cold, becaufe 
heat is the motiier of biacknefs, and becaufe the vapors are not 
gone out of it. 

Wjiy does lettuce make a man fleep ? 

Becaufe tl.ey engender grofs vapors. 

Why do the dregsof wine and oil go to the bottom, and thofe ' 
of honey (vv^im a top ? 

Becaufe the dre^s of wine and oil are earthy and not purged 
before, and tlierefore being of the nature of earth do ^o to the 
bottom ; but honey is a liquor, which ccmeth from the ftomach 
and belly of the bee, and is there in fome fort purified and m.ade 
fubtle ; and by that means, tliar which remains Is light and hot, 
and therefore goes upward 

Why do cats' and wolves' eyes iiiine at night and not in day ? 

Tlie eyes of thole bealls are by nature more chriftaline than the 
eyes of other beads, and theretbre do flune as they do ; but the 
brightnefs cftlic iun doth hinder them to be ieen in the day 
time. 

W^hat is the r^sAori that fome men when ihcy fee others dance, 
do the like with their hands and ft'Ct, or by ibme other gcflure 
of the body ? 

The anfv/er is, becaufe the fight having carried and reprefent- 
ed unto the mind that action, and judging the fame to be pleaf- 
ant and delightful, and therefore (defiring it) the imagination 
dravveth the likcnefs of it in conceit, and (lirs up the body by the 
geftures. 

Why doth much fleep caufe fome to grow fat and fome lean ? 

Thofc who are of ill complexion, when they fleep, do con - 
fumie and digellthe fuperiiuities of that .they have eaten, and 
therefore become fat. But fuch as are of good complexion 
when they fleep are much m.ore cold, audio digcftlefs. 

How^ and for what caufe do we fufler hunger better than thirfl? 

W^henthe uomach hatli nothing to confume, it coiifumeth the 
phlegm and humors which it Mndeth more ready and moflat 
hand : andvherefore we fuifer liunger better than thirfr, becatif e 
the heat hath nothing to refrefl: it withal. 

'VVhy dothi the liair fall after a great flcknefs r 

Where the f -knels is long, as in agues, the humors of the 
head are dried up thirougli overmuch heat, and tlicrefore wa'it- 
ing ncu rifli me nt they la!!. 

Why "does the liair of the eyebrov: s growiong in old men : 

Becaufe thar-through their age the bones of the eyelids arc 
thin, by reafcn of tlie V-fnt of heat, and therefore the hair doth 
grew there, by reafcn ox iKe rheums of the eyes The like doth 
happen in fuch as imagine much, becaufe that with their liear 
they draw up ma;iy humors to the fore part of the head, where, 
the imagination is placed. 

Whereof proceederh gaping ? 

Of grofs vapors which occupy the vital fpirits of the head, and 
the fenies are cold, making them ready to llcepc 



ZIMARAS' PROBLEMS. £09 

Why do fome Howers open with the fun rifing, and fome with 
the fun fetting ? 

Cold doth fluit and clofe as hath been faid, but the heat of the 
fun doth open and enlarge : fome do compare the fun to the 
foul of the body ; for, as the foul giveth life, and when it de- 
parteth, death followeth ; fo the fun doth give life, and vivifies 
all things ; the coldbringeth death, withering and decaying of 
all things. 

Why doth grief caufe men to grow old and grey ? 

Age is nothing elfe but adrynefs, and want of humors in the 
body ; grief then caufeth alteration and alteration heat, and 
heat drynefs ; age followeth immediately, and grey nefs. 

Why are gelded beads weaker than fuch as are not gelded ? 

Becaufe they have lelfer heat and by that means leller force 
and (Irength. 
iM. ANTON. ZIMARAS S ANCTIPERTIAS's PROBLEMS« 

Why is itefteemed in the judgment of themoft wile the hard- 
eft thing to know a man's felf ? 

It is becaufe nothing can be known ; its form and perfe6lion 
cannot be found ; to know the form and perfection of a man's 
felf, as itcometh unto the philofopher, is a matter hard enough, 
and a man, by the authority of Plato, either is nothing, or if he 
be any thing, he is nothing but his foul Or, is it becaufe it 
cannot be done by a refle6ted aftion, and to refle6t and look un- 
to himfelf as a token that he is fcparated by the flefh ; for he 
who would know himfelf fliould be drawn from fenfible affec- 
tions ; and how hard this is, no man is ignorant of ? Or, is it 
becaufe a man liveth by underftanding ; but the underftanding, 
a*tnan cannot conceive of himfelf, but after the underUanding 
of fenfes, which is very hard. 

Why was Socrates efteemed the wifefl: -of all Greece by Apol- 
lo, feeing that, by the opinion of AriHrotle, he was converfant 
and bufied only about morality, and nothing about nature ? 

Whether it is becaufe it is more expedient for the commodity 
and ufe of men to live well and contemplate j or becaufe it 
feemeth to Plato that he was ufually profelfed of him every 
v/here, I know one thing, that I know nothing 

Why do men efpecially ftrive and contend in things of wit I 

It is becaufe they think that ether things which are called 
goods are the power of another ; as the gifts of the body are na- 
ture's and external, and worldly goodsarc fubje»5i: unto the rule 
of fortune whereof it comethto pafs, that every man can eafily 
fuffer himfelf to be overcome in fuch things, as things not hap- 
pening through his fault or occafion, but they think wit to be in 
their own power. Or, it is becaufe they think that the goods of 
the mind do excel all other goods, and therefore do think it ?r 
thing moil natural to contend for that which is mofl excellent. 
Or, It is becaufe it is a common difeafe of all men, as it feemeth 
linto a certain wife man, that every man doth think himfelf 
more learned than he is, and therefore doth defire to p^rforn? 
that v/hich he believeth, without (tudy and labor. 

Why do men fav that philofophv is naked ? 
'fa 



210 ZLMARAS' PROBLEMS. 

It is becaufe truth is naked, and that there needs no color of 
words V, hen v, e handle a matter of trutji ; for, it bf^longeth ta 
fophiers todifptite of terms v.lien tlie (incere truth is fought. 
Ofy it is becaufe they do not play the philofoplier well, who 
ieek philofophy for gain and ambition and not for herfelf. Or, 
it is becaufe he fliould be void from all worldly affeClions who 
defu-e: to endear himfelf in the (ludy of philofophy ; for Arif- 
totle doth fay, the foul is made wife by reft and quiet.iefs. . And 
n wereeafy for'philoiophers to become rich, if they would, as 
it appeareih b\ the example of Thales 

Why do Win deHre to be hvA in memory after their death, 
and tlierefore fome make pyramids, flatues, images, and diver.' 
ether tokens and monuments which they build and leave beliind 
iliem r 

It is becaufe all things, as feems unto Ariftotle, do defire to 
participate of fome perpetuity and divine being, as much as they 
can ; and t]:erefoie, if they cannot remain in nature and being, 
yet they endeavor at leafl: to continue in the opinion and conceit 
of men. Or elfe cullom hath brought it in fo, to (tir up fuch as 
comes after, to tJie end they (liould not degenerate from their 
parents. 

What's the caufe w^hy men'5 defires grow without meafure a- 
bout fortunes' goods r 

It is becaufe natural defires, as Seneca faith, have an end, and 
fuch defires, as proceed of falfe opinion have no where to end. 

W'liy do poets always alTign and appoint fome wife men to be 
familiar v.'ith4:>rinces'; as, Hoir.er doth Neflor with Agamem- 
non ; Eurrpider, Tirefius with Creon ; Hefiodus, Promotheus, 
with Jupiter : and, Maro, Acliates and ^neas.^ 

It is becaufe that by the law of nature, as Plato doth fay, wif- 
dom and povs'er do direct our aftions to one end: and to effeft 
the fame thing, love it and feck it 

W^hy doth Hom.er when he makes mention of Ambalfadors, 
talk always of the embalfy of a commander in bare words ? 

It is becaufe it is the duty of ambalfadors,' to declare the bare 
vill of the commander, and put his fentence in execution ; and 
therefore, it is certain, he fhould add nothing ; or elfe, it is be- 
caufe the commandment of him who doth rule, that is, cf a wife 
man, is put into good order and is pre fumed to be moH: perfect. 
And therefore there (hould be nothing changed; but his decrees 
and conftitutions are to be judged abfolute and perfect. 

Why does Ariftotle ufe exceeding brevity in moft hard mat^ 
ters ? ' 

Whether becaufe it is the cuftom of wife men to load their 
words with fentences, or elfe to the end that he would be ob- 
fcure, to fear and keep off rude wits from reading of his works, 
as it feemethin the expofitors ; or^ whether it is becaufe that in a. 
hard matter, and in a matter ot truth, m.any words are fufpeft- 
ed, becaufe that truth doth confift in few words ; or it is be- 
caufe it feemeth to wife men, in many words there is error often 
committed 

Why do famous men, in any fcience, when they do err in any 
matters, err more dangeroufiy thviii thofe who are lefs famous ? 



ZIMAKAS' PROBLEiMS. 211 

It is becaufe that fuch truftiiig to the heat of their own wit, are 
drawn far from their own fenfes, and therefore, mull needs be 
deceived. Avicen may ferve for a proof of this, who, for all 
his fame in philofophy, faid that a man mipjht naturally be 
brought forth of the earth. And that great famous Averrois, 
thought that a maid might conceive a child in a bath without the 
knowledge of a man. 

Out of ARISTOTLE. 

Why is a man, being endued with reafon, the mod: unjuil of 
all living creatures ? 

. It is becaufe men only are defirous of honor., fo it comes to 
pafs that every one covets to feem good and yet naturally (huns 
labor, though he attains no virtue by it ; orelfe, it is becaufe 
the nature of a fophifter is rather to feem., than be and not feem ; 
but very few do attain to true virtue. 

Why dofome in their youth beget girls, and in their middle 
age. and when old beget boys ? 

It is becaufe the feed waxeth cold in fuch- as ufe carnal copu- 
lation too often, are therefore in their middle age, when they 
grow tired, their feed is hotter, and fo produceth males. 

Why have children or boys pleafure in the adl of venery, fee- 
ing they do not call forth feed ? 

It is as the philofopher faith, becaufe there are certain ticklings 
in the letting out the fpirit or breath, as it is in fuch as are of age 
by carting forth feed. 

Why have thofe the leaft pleafure who ufe the a6l of copula- 
tion often ? 

By often ufmg carnal copulation the fpirit and feed doth in- 
creafe and wax cold, therefore notfo itching or tickling, which 
is of delight ; 

Why doth immoderate copulation do more hurt than immod- 
erate letting of blood ? 

It is becaufe the feed is fuller of fpirit and nutriment, better 
difpofed and prepared for the nurture of the body than the 
blood ; for, fays Galen, the feed is the caufe of the fubflantial 
parts of the body, and of it the body grows and is nourifhed. 
And he who is hungry is hurt more by taking away bread than 
flour, fo the body is more weakened by taking away feed than by 
evacuating bleod. 

What is the reafon that thofe who have a very long yard 
cannot get children ? 

Becaufe the feed in going a long diftance the fpirit doth breathe 
out, and therefore is cold and unfit for generation 

Why do fuch as are corpulent cafl forth little feed in the a6t 
of copulation, and are often barron ? 

It is becaufe the feed of fuch goes to nourifhing the body ; for 
the fame reafon corpulent women havebut few menfes. 

How comes women prone to venery in the fummertime, and 
men in winter ? 

It is becaufe at that time his teflicles hang down and are feeb- 
ler than in winter : orelfe, becaufe hot natures become lively ; 
for a man is hot and dry, women cold and moift, and therefore 
in funimer the flrength of men decays,, and that of women in« 



^H ZIMARAS' PROBLEMS. 

crcafes, and fhe grows livelier by tlie benefit of the contrary qual- 
ity. And for the fame reafon, fome beads of a cold nature lie 
in dens and holes, and, through the frigidity of the air, receive 
little or no nourifhment, but revive a^ainwhen lieat comes 

How comes a man to be the proudell of all living creatures ? 

Whether it is by reafon of his great knowledge, or that (as the 
philofophers fay) all intelligent be.ngs having underftanding, 
nothing remains that efcapes man's knowledge m particular ; or, 
it is becaufe he hath rule over all eartly creatures, and all things 
feemto be brought to his arbitranient ; or, I fhall anfwer, that 
the pride of man proceeds from his not knowing himfelf; for 
truly would remember that he is but duft and alhes, came naked 
into the world, was born to earn his bread by the fweat of his 
brow, and after born to die, he would abhor pride. 

How comes a man to underdand one thing and do another ? 

It is becaufe there is in the fame fcience contrary things ; or 
becaufe the office of the mind is to reach at many things, and 
the appetite tends to one only ; and fo a man chiefly lives by 
underdanding and reafon, but beads are governed by appetite, 
anger, and pleafure. 

How comes mod w^omen's wits unapt in good things, and 
prompt in naughty.^ 

Becaufe of a privation which ieems to be coupled knd joined 
to her nature ; for as a woman is a man's hurt, fo the faculty of 
the privation is always to do mifchief. 

Why do men fay A woman's fird counfel diouldbe cofen P 

Becaufe (as we fee in things that want reafon) their actions 
and motions are guided to their proper ends by a fuperior pow- 
er ; for I think that it is very true which is faid, that there is a 
Providence which puts into a didioned heart the defire of honef - 
ty, and in a poor man the defire of wealth, as far as is fufficient. 
So a woman's underdand'ng, though fhe knows not the reafon of 
good and evil, is fometimes dire6ted by an infalliable truth to 
take fome things in hand ; but fome things they undertake of 
themfelvesare to be let alone, as weak and fubjecl to many errors. 

How comes it that women defire to go fine, and -deck them- 
felves, rather than men P 

It is becaufe by nature they are imperfeff, {o they endeavor to 
fupply their imperfe6fions by art : orelfeit is becaufe they 
want the beauty of the mind, fo they dudy to adorn their bodies. 

How comes it that a tall man is feldom wife ? 

By reafon the largenefs of his body proceeds from excefs of 
heat, and abundance of humidity . Some wife men tliink the per- 
fe6lion, accompli (liment, and goodnefs of the operation is per- 
fected by drynefs, which does always go and increafe till it 
brings us to our end; for the conditution of the body originally 
fprung from the lad humidity, but the vehemence and excefs of 
hej_t overflows the judgment, and hinders quietude. 

^vhy is a number of princes and rulers naught ? 

It is becaufe if the government fhould dwindle into tyranny, it 
is better to be under the yoke of one than many ; or, becaufe a 
multitude of rulers feldom regard the good of the public Hence 
it proceeds, that if once they difagree, great evil is like to befai 



ZIMARAS* PROBLEMS. 21S 

the commonality ; it is eafier for one man to be well difpofed 
than many ; in the government of many, there want not ftrife, 
debate, and envy, for which reafon let there be but one prince 
at a time. 

Why hav^e beads their hearts in- the middle of their breafl, and 
man inclining towards the left ? 

It is becaufe it would moderate the cold on that fide ! for Ar- 
iflotle fays, man hath only the left lidecold. - 'r, it is as phyfi- 
cians fay, becaule it O.ould give place to the liver, which is on 
the right fide. 

Why doth a woman love that man beft who had her maiden- 
head ? 

It is becaufe that as matter doth covet a form of perfe6lion, fo 
doth a woman the male ; Or, it is by reafon of fliame faced nefs, 
for, as Plato faith, fhamefacednefs doth follow love. Or, be- 
caufe the beginning of great pleafiire doth bring a great altera- 
tion in the whole, whereby the powers of the mind are much 
delighted, and flick and refl immoveable in the fame. Hefiod 
advifes to mnrry a maid. 

How comes the night in full of the moon to be fomewhat 
v^arm, fmce the m.ooi^ is cold by night ? 

Whether it is becaufe the opinion of the peripateticks ou^^ht 
to be preferred, which fays, every light heats irf that refpeCt it 
13 receded. 

How is the night colder in autumn than in the fpring ? 

Becaufe the air is very thin, and bodies that are rarified are 
very apt to receive heat, or cold, as is feen in water ; for water 
heated doth fooner freeze than cold. 

How are the bodies fooner hurt with cold in autumn than in 
fpring ? 

Becaufe the bodies which are accuflomed to cold, do in fpring 
receive heat, and therefore the moving or mutation is natural, 
and not furprizing. But in autumn they haften from heat to 
cold, not being accuflomed. Galen lay's, nature doth not en- 
dure hidden things. 

Why are hairy people more luflful than others ? 

Becaufe in them is fuppofed great flore of excrements and 
feed, asphilorophers afTert 

Hov/ comes it that men who have fmall heads are naturally 
angry and tefly ? 

Becaufe when the head is little the brain is (o of courfe, the 
he:n of the heart cannot be moderated with the heat of the brain, 
as it ou^ht to be, and anger proceeds of the boiling of the blood 
about t];ie heart through fome vexation. 

How comes the fundament of a man to clofe after he hath 
:r.?AQ water ? 

Becaufe the air runs prefently to fill that which was empty, 
and fo the parts of the body are altered by the coldnefs of the air, 
which caufes trembling 

Vv^hy have fome men died thro' grief, fome thro' joy, but more 
thro' anger ? 

Becaufe joy cQols the very inward guts ; grief doth futfocate 
?'\d choke the inward parts, and CO0I the outward : but anger 



244 ZliMARAS' PROBLEMS. 

cats both, v.hlle heat remains : hfe and nature doth To too, be- 
caufe the foul is counted the life and natural heat. 

Why doth the voice change in people when they begin to 
have feed ? 

Becavife that heatisin the beginning of veins and blood, as 
Ariftotle faith againfl the phyficians, and thereupon it raifeth 
that, becaufe the change of the excrements of feed is made in 
the highert: part of the body* the voice being above, makes it 
manifeH: : and thereupon it is the voices both of men and women 
do clKinge when they begin to have feed. 

JHow comes it that when a pot full of boiling liquor is feething 
yet the bottom is cold ? 

It is becaufe the hot vapors afcend upward, and therefore 
when the uppermoft water is hot, the bottom is cold, by reafon 
of the coldnefs of the water adjoining to it. 

Why is the grain which we find in the ants holes gnawed at 
one end ? 

Tfiey are dire^led by nature to ^naw and confume that end 
where the virtue of feeding is, for fear it fprout again, left, by 
thefproutingand growing, they would be deprived of the nu- 
triment belonging neceflarily unto themfelves. 

Why do children love their mother more frequently than 
their father .^ 

It is becaufe tliey take great pains with them, or becaufe of 
the great certainty which they have of themfelves. 

Why is not the father, as well beloved of the fon as the fon is 
of the father.? 

It is becaufe love does not go backward, but always forward : 
whence our defire neglects things paft, and looks to thmgs to 
come Or, it is, becaufe ^he father hath fo mew hat of his in the 
fon, the fon nothing of his in the father. 

Wh)r are ajes more nimble when they are young than at any 
other time ? 

Whether it is becaufe theiv nature and conftitution being 
melancholy, it is requifite there fhould be a temperance with the 
recompence of contrary qualities ; for melancholy by nature is 
cold and dry, but when they are young, they are hot and moid. 
This alfo we fee in melancholy children : fome children are of 
great wit, before it be looked for, infomuch that you may hope 
and promiie any thing in time to come, whofe wit neverthelefs, 
in progrefs of time, doth decay and fade. Be therefore, faitJi 
the Greeks naught to the end that thou mayefl live, for the \Y^ 
ture of fuch is moll: (hort. 

Why are there no alies in Pontus and Scythia ? 

It is becaufe their nature is moft impatient of cold, as philofo- 
phers do fay. 

Why are clergymen and women moft covetous ? 

It is becaufe the habit of virtue is bred of many ailions, and 
therefoi'e feeing that priefts want w'ives and children, they are 
forced on ways to fpend their goods, and yet are accuftomed to 
take and receive, and fo become covetous ; for fuch as every 
man's actions are, fuch doth he become. The nature of women 
13 impcrie(5>, and therefore they think it imuoHible fully to fat 



ZIMARAS' PROBLEMS, £1^ 

isfy themf^elves ; they gather together, and keep that by which 
they may help their need ; and by induftry and art ihey covet'to 
obtain that which nature does not give them And for the fame 
reafon, I fuppofe, old men give themfelves to covetoufnefs ; for 
being deftitute of helps by age and nature, they gripe after the 
goods of fortune, that with them they may provide for them- 
felves againft all wants. 

Why do v/ounds grieve lefsin war than out of war F 

It is becaufe the powers of the foul bend another way ; for if 
our mind be ftrongly fixed on other macters, we do not fee thofe 
things which are before our eyes : or, whether it is by reafon of 
anger, which as wife men fay, doth heat the internal and exter- 
nal part ; and as Ariftotle affirms, with the heat the foul works 
all things and therefore it happens that the an^ry man grows but 
flowly whole after his wound, and therefore alfo doth lefs grieve 
and heat. 

Why do we wonder at the eclipfe of the fun and moon, and not 
at the generation of plants and beads ? 

Whether it is becaufe our admiration ceafeth in things that 
are ufual, and our minds negle^Vto fearch o;.t the truth in fuch 
things ; or, that which happens feldom, doth (lir us up to won- 
der, and induceth the underftanding to fearch out the caufe. 

How comes it that the headache, dullnefs of memory and an 
evil difpoiltion, of imagination doth follow the long detaining of 
the feed P 

It is becaufe it dothhinder and makeheavy the brain by ex- 
cefs of feed ; or, becaufe the feed long kept, gets fome venom- 
ous quality, and therefore the fume and vapors of it doth hurt 
the head. 

How is it that priefts and monks fear and abhor death more 
than other men P 

It is becaufe they are by nature cold and melancholy ; becaufe 
they perceive themfelves to perifli utterly ; for, when they are 
*)ut of this world, they neither continue m their own nature nor 
in pofterity. 

Why though trees lofe their leaves, beafts their hair, and birds 
their feathers, do they receive them again, when if a man be- 
comes bald his hair groweth no more ? 

It is becaufe the time of the year doth bring that change of 
bodies : fo that in the firfi" change there floweth an^ interchang- 
ablecourfe one after another, and beafts receive their hair, birds 
their feathers, and trees their leaves : but baldnefs cometh to a 
man through age, and nature giveth no coming to age. 

Why doth fummer end all difeales P 

If force and nature be itrong, it (hall find air r.iofi fit for refo- 
lution, digeftion, and expuliion of fuperiluities ; if weak, the 
heat doth overthrow it more. It doth loofen weak bodies, and 
therefore there cometh nothing but death unto the fick. 

Why ifan;ianput his hands into the water in fummer, is he 
colder if the water be moved, than when it ftandeth ftill P 

It is becaufe that part of the water which toucheth his hand is 

'hotby the heat of his hand : for every agent which doth com- 

miini'cate with the patient in the things whereon he worketh. 



C15 ZIMARAS' PROBLEMS. 

in doing To doth fuffer again, and the water being moved, it i-, 
necedary that tlie parts of it which are rarified be Icattered a- 
broad, and otiicrs more cold fucceedthem. 

Vv hy do fome who have an evil complexion and conftiution of 
body live longer than fome others who are of a languine and 
better nature .^ 

Whether it is through bad government and order ; or becaufe 
there is fome hidden caufe in thofe difpofitions ; for as Averrois 
laith, the nuinber of elements is infinite in works of nature, tlie 
which none belides the Author of nature doth underftand. 

What is tlie caufe that the fu Ho cat ion of the matrix, which 
happens to women through ftrifeand contention, is more dan- 
gerous than the detaining of flow^ers r 

Whether it is becaufe that by how much the more an excre- 
ment is perfed, lo long as it doth continue in its natural dilpo- 
fition, by lo much the more it is worfe when it is removed from. 
that, and drawn to the contrary quality, as :s feen in vinegar, 
which is the Iharpeft when it is made of thebeft wine : and lo it 
happens, that the moie men love one another, the more they hate 
when I hey fall to variance and difcord 

Why doth the land, wliich flandeth fiill, feem to move unto 
fuch as fail by fea F 

It is becaule the nutriment of the fenfe of feeing is accident- 
ally moved when tlie (hip is moved, whereby the likenefs and 
limilitude of things is perceived and received with the moving. 

Why do we love our light above our fenies F 

It is becaufe it both ibews us the dinerence of things, and be- 
caufe its knowledge is more drawn from material iubfiance : 
Or, it is becaufe the divine force of love is placed in that fenfe, 
as Plato laith- 

Why do we not judge aflafFto be broken in the water, feeing 
it doth fo appear to our fight ? 

Becauie we perceive by theienfe of feeling and touching, that 
the fight doth err ; Or, becaufe we do not judge with the fame 
power as we imagine with. Ihus the fun doth feem to be but 
a foot round ; and by a trick and moving of the finger, one fin- 
ger doth leem two, yet we-do not yieid they be two. 

Why do we put our hands over our eyes when we would fee 
afar on F 

Becaufe the light fhould not be difperfed ; and fo thofe who 
have their eyes (landing out, cannot fee far : and contrary, fuch 
as have them hollow m their head can fee far, becaufe the mov- 
ing of the fighcis not fcattered 

How do fome people dilcern things near them, and not at a 
difiance ? 

It is through the weaknefs of the fight, for in fuch the power 
of feeing is very weak ; therefore they do not need a llrong 
moving, asit is alfo leen in luch as have their eyes ftanding out 
w ho cannot fee far. 

"^Vhy do fuch as v.ouLi (lioot aright, w ink with one eye ? 

becaufe thereby the il^.jjt is nu.ie Itrengthened and united. 

Why are fuch as have'becn long in the dark, it on afud'>- 
<hey come into the light, half bl:nd i 



ZIMARAS' PROBLEMS. 2iT 

'Secaufe nature cannot endure thofe fudden mutations, or be- 
cause the fpirit of the fight is fmalland weak, and therefore is 
glad of the light, and fo dilTolves when they come into the light • 
Or, becaufe of the defire of that light they wanted before, which 
when they behold too earneftly, their light is weakened, as it 
happens in fome who have a long time endured famine, and then 
eating greedily, take more than they can digeft and foperifli. 

Why can nothing be the caufe of its own generation and cor- 
ruption ? 

Kecaufe the mover muft be before the thing moved, and the 
engenderer before the things engendered : for it is impoflibie 
for any thing to be before itfelf. 

How comes wom.en's bodies to be loofer, fbfter, and their 
veins lefler thah men's : And why do they want hair P 

By reafon of their menfes : for with them their luperfluities, 
which would produce hair, go away ; and where the fle(h is 
filled, confequently their veins are more hid than mens'. 

What is the reafon that when we think of a horrible thing we 
are llricken with fear ? 

Becaufe the conceit, and thinking; of things hath force and 
virtue : for Plato faith the reafon of things hath fome affinity 
with the things themfelve*! : for the immage and reprefentation 
of cold and heat, is fuch as the nature of the things ai e : Or, be- 
caufe when we comprehend any dreadful matter, the blood runs 
to the internal parts, and therefore the external parts are cold, 
>ri(i (hake with fear. 

Why doth a reddifh root help digeftion and yet itielf remains 
undigelted F 

It is becaufe the fubflance confifteth of divers parts, for there 
are fome thin parts in it which are fit to digeft meat, the which 
being diflTolved, there doth remain fome thick andclofe lubftance 
in it, which the heat cannot digeft. 

Why do fuch as cleave wood, cleave it eafier in length than 
athwart F 

Becaufe in wood there is a grain, if it be cut in length, where" 
by, in the very cutting, one part drawneth another fait by it. 

What is the reafon that if afpear be flricken on the end, the 
found Cometh fooner to one who (tandeth near, than to him who 
111 iketh ? 

Becaufe there is a certain long grain in wood dire(^lly forward 
filled with air : but crofs, or on the fide, there is none ; And 
therefore when abeam oi* linear is {fricken on the end, the air 
which is hidden receiveth a found in the aforefaid grain which 
jferveth for the palTage of the air, and therefore feeing the found 
cannot go eafily out, it is carried unto the ear of him who is op- 
pofite to him, and thofe pallages do not go from fide to fide, and 
therefore a found cannot be diltinClly heard. 

Why are there not famous men in every faculty in our age F 

Becaufe the nature of man decayeth in our age; and (itccef- 

fion being corrupted, the progeny of our Hge is v/orfeby iSirth ; 

Or, it is becaufe fuch are not efleemed of princes ; ior, take a- 

way the reward due unto virtue, and no man will embrace it ; or 

T 



-IJIS ZIMARAS' PROBLEMS. 

it is ordained by nature, that men do always complain of the 
prefent time- 
Why are flatterers in great credit with princes ? 

Becaiife they love themfelves too much ; immoderate love of 
themfelvescaufeth them to admit flatterers, and to give them 
credit : Or, it is becaufe they want the light of reafon ? for a- 
Riong birds, lome through the corruption of their nature, de- 
iight in (linking meat, and whom the day doth blind, the night 
-doth lighten. 

Why have philofophers for the moft part, in thefe days, evil 
conditions ? 

Becaufe they are efteemed of princes : Or,becau(e of the phi- 
iofophy itfelf they are accufed of crimes, and think therefore 
they are compelled to forlake virtue, and follow vice : Or elfe 
deceived through error, they think they have fnatched to them- 
felves fome of her rags ; and therefore they are by us rather call- 
ed fop h iters than philofophers, for certainly a philofopher 
Ibould be of a ftout courage m all refpe6fs, and m all fortunes : 
but as they would be honored of princes, and their deiire is not 
ruled by nature but by error, they are thnift forward with 
flreams of falfe credulity. 

Why do fuchas are angry, wax pale in the beginning, and af- 
terwards red ? 

It is through the defireof revenge for that which grieveth, that 
the heat and blood are called unto the heart, and therefore, of 
TLeceOity, the external parts are pale : when they are determin- 
ed to put that in execution which they defire, the heat and blood 
do run into the outward parts, and then they are greatly to ht 
feared. 

Why do ferpents want a yard and ftones ? 

Becaufe they want thighs, therefore they want a yard and liones 
and becaufe ot the length of the body. 

Why can ferpents turn their heads backwards, and the reft of 
the body Hand flill ^ 

Becaufe they are made o'i a winding compofition, and have 
their joints flexible, and made of grille; and aifo, that they 
rjay avoid alithole things which hurt them, for having no feet, 
iind being long in body, they cannot eafily turn themfelves, 
v.hilft they bow againli thole things which are behind them. It 
V7ere to no purpofe to lift up their head if they could not exer- 
cife anger. 

Why is a camellon changed into many colors ? 

The caufe is to be referred unto the quality of the m-rid, for 
"beingtheilendereftof all four footed bealts engendered of eggs, he 
• is ffark cold for want of blood, and through overmuch coldnefs 
he is of fo many colors, for it is the property of fear to bind faft^ 
through want of blood and heat. 

Why are the thighs and calves of the legs of man flefhy, fee- 
ing the legs of bealts are not io ? 

Becaufe men only go upright, and therefore nature hath giv- 
eh to the lower part corpulency, and hath taken it away from the 
upper : and therefore the buttocks, thighs, and calves of the 
•legs are flefhy. 



APHRCDISEUS' PROBLEMS. 2l9^ 

Why are the fenfible powers in the heart, yet if the hinder part 
of the brain be hurt the memory payeth for it ; if the fore parts? 
the imagination : if the middle, the coagitative part ? 

Becaufe the brain is appointed by nature to cool the heat of the 
heart, wherefore, in divers of its parts, it ferveth thefe powers 
and inftruments of their heat ; for every a*I:tion of the foul doth, 
not proceed from one meafure of heat. 

The PROBLEMS of ALAX. APHRCDISEUS. 

Why doth the fun make men black : and make dirt white ; 
and make wax foft, and dirt hard ? 

By reafon of the difpjofitionof thefubftance that doth fuffer. 
Ail humors phlegm excepted, when they- are heated above meaf- 
ure, do feem black about the fkin, but dirt being- either full of 
faitpeter or fait liquor, when the fun hath confumed its dregs, 
and iilth, doth become white again ; wlien the fun hath drawn 
and ilirred up the humidity of the wax, it is foftened \ but in 
dirt the fun doth confume the huminity which is very muchj^^ 
'^i\di fo doth dry it and make it hard. 

Why doth black choler, com.inginto the paps, cauTea corro- 
fion or gnawing; and in thofe who are melancholy, it doth not, 
but flies into the brain \ 

Becaufe there are many great veins in tlie paps by reafon of 
engendering milk, and therefore (lore of that humor doth run. 
thither. But in the brain becaufe it is above, and alfo bccau^ 
it hath very fmall veins, fmall Irore of choler doth afccnd, and 
w hich Iiath only power and force to pr"»ck aad not to gnaw and 
eat. Moreover the brain is hard and moift, whereby it is, afier 
a fort contrary to the difpofition of black choler, which doth 
mortify it ; that therefore which is properly called black chol- 
er doth breed an eating and gnawing canker in the paps. In 
the brain it doth breed a man fierce and melancholy, but that 
w hich is not properly black choler, but melancholy humor, 
cauieth fwelling only, which is like a cancer but doth not gnaw 
and eat, and doth alfo breed a quiet and peacable melancholy. 
For N^ hat reafon will not the water run out cl iJiebottomofii 
watering pot, when we put our finger on the mouth of it, and the 
finger being taken av/ay it runneth prefently ? 

Becaufe when the finger is taken away from the mouth of the 
pot, the air entering in doth thruft down the water, which of its 
own nature doth go downward, and fo gceth out at the bottoiT}, 
And this is the reafon of all mechanical engines and inftruments 
made to go by air and water, as clocks, and hour glares, made 
by water. 

Why doth wineand water given out of feafon,tc the Tick ofan 
a;:i:ue, ca^ife a diffcnper of t)ie brain, when the water is cold and 
the wine is hot ? 

The wine being apt to afcend, doth burn the brain at the 
time it is didurbed and diftempered with the ague. And we 
fee alfo many Vvho are in health, if they ufe much wine, to be 
fcarce well in their wits. But water doth flop the paflTages of 
the body, by v/hieh the fpirits are dilTolved, and fo caufes them 
to become thick and grofs, and more corrupt and putrified, 



220 APHRODiSEUS' PROBLEMS. 

by the ague, becometh its noiirifhment ; as we fee in a fni'th's 
iorge, where a little water doth kindle the fire, and make it 
burn fiercer 

Why have women, children, and gelded men flirill and loud 
voices ? 

Becaufe that through the abundance of humidity their artery 
is not ftretched wide ; and theref -re, as a fmall flute or pipe 
giveth a fmall (lender found, fo does the aorty in them that is 
iiraight and narrow ; for it is the property of heat tom^ake wide 
and loofen, but eunuchs and women are cold 

Why are children flricken with the planet in the fnmmer time. 

1 hey are fick of a weak and lingering ague, and their eyes 
fink hollow in their head, and they become weak and feeble, and 
fleep very little : ^lid fome of them have a flux, becaufe child- 
ren are tender and fo eafily lufl'er : and having great (lore of 
phlegm in the.head, and that phlegm being overmuch heated, 
and alfo putreFed, doth inflame the ague, whereupon the grift- 
les of the brain are fet on fire, and therefore they fleep little ; 
and that fire defcending by the arteriesof the heart, and fetting 
on fire the lively fpirits, doth kindle an ague : and feeing that 
much choler arifes of an ague, thereby it falleth out, that the 
choler gnaweth andeateth the belly. It is plain, that the caufe 
of that alteration is in the brain, becaufe that cooling medicines, 
are applied unto the head, and fuchas are good to quench ihat 
iire. Someof riper years arc fick of the fame difeafe,. 7. e, fuch 
as have phlegm and choler heaped up in their head, which pu- 
trefies by the very breathing thereof, and after a manner, the 
fpirits are fet on fire by a fiery air. 

Why are round ulcers hard to be cured ? 

Becaufe they are bred of (liarp choler, which eats and gnaws, 
and becaufe it doth run, for which reafon it requires drj^in? 
medicines as phyficians aflTert. Natural philofophers fay it 
Gomes to pafs becaufe there is beginning where the mifchievous 
impofthume doth begin, for in a circle there is neither begin- 
ning nor end. When they are burned by phyficians they do af- 
fume another kind of fhape. 

V/hy is honey fweet to all men, and yet feemeth bitter to 
fuch as have the jaundice ? 

Becaufe they have much bitter choler all aver their bodies, 
but it abounds with the tongue, whence it happens when they 
eat honey the humors are ftirred,and thetafteitfelf, when it hath 
found the bitternefs of choler, caufes an imagination that the 
honey is bitter. 

Why have angry men fiery eyes.^ 

Becaufe the blood about the heart is fervent, and the fpirit 
hot, andfo being very fubtle and pure, and carried upwards, 
and by the »yes, which are clear they do (bine, and have bloody 
vapors thatafcend with them, which makes the face red, which 
Homer not being ignoi ant of; fays** And bis eyes uuere like a 
hurningfiame. 

W'hy dotli water cafl upon ferpantscauie them to fly from us .^ 



APHRODISEUS' PROBLEMS. 2^1 

Becaufe they are cold and dry b>^ nature, having but little 
blood, and therefore fly from exceilive coldnefs. And that they 
be of this quality is plain, becaufe they feekfor dens and fecret 
placesln the earth, as being warm : At fun fet they (hun the 
air, as being cold ; and again in fummer, becaufe the bowels of 
the earth are cold they find out he warmefl places. 

Why doth an egg break if it be roafted, and not if boiled. 

Thereafon is when moifture comes near the fire, it heats it 
too much and fo breeds much wind, which being pent up in a 
little, forceth its way out, and fo breaks the fhell. The like 
happens in tubs, or earthen veflTels, when new wine is put in 
them. Much phlegm breaks the (hell of an egg in roafting, the 
whichdothhappen in earthen pots too much heated; where- 
fore the common people wet an egg when they intend toroa(t it. 
€ot water through its foftnefs, doth feparate its humidity by 
tie and little, and fo difTolves it through the paflTages that are 
in the fhells. 

Why do men, in the a6l of carnal copulation, in a manner 
wink and find a like alteration in all fenfes ? 

Becaufe that being overcome with the effect of that pleafure» 
they do comprehend it better, winking as it were with their 
eyes. They are not lifted up, nor do carry the wind abroad in- 
to the air with the fenfes, whereby they would difcern thofe cor- 
poreal affections. 

Why have fome medicines of one kind contrary force, as ex 
perience doth teach, maftic doth expel, diffblve, and fo knit ; 
vin egar both cools and heats ? 

Becaufe there are lome fmall invifible bodies of them, not by. 
confufion but by inter4>ofition ; as fand moiftened doth clog to- 
gether, and feems toJ^ebut one bod)^, though indeed there are 
many fmall bodies in fand. Since this is fo, it is not abfurd that 
contrary qualities and virtues fhould be hidden in maftic, and 
nature hath given the law to thefe bodies. 

Why do our privities fvvell when we hurt one of our toes ? 

Nature caring for thofe things which belong to the body^ 
haftes to affill the part grieved and becaufe Ihe hath the moli: 
profitable and nourilhing of all the humors, it is requifite when 
(he doth defcend to the toe with the blood, that thofe veins b& 
filled which are about the privy members. 

Why doth not nature give birds a bladder, or a receptacle for 
urifie ? 

Becaufe they do want much moifture to give the matter for 
feathers to grow, and that they do confume 'with the exercife 
of flying ; neither do they pifs at all, and when they drink they 
void very much dung. 

Why have children gravel breeding in their bladder, and 
old men in their kidneys, and reins of the kidneys ? 

Becaufe children have ftraight paflTages in the kidneys, and an 
earthy thick humor is thruft with violence by the urine from 
the fafhion of the moon, even to the bladder, which hath wide 
conduits or pafTagesthat give room for the urine and humor, 
whereof gravel is engendered, to wax thick and feat itfelf, a,- 
the cuftom of it is. In old men it is the leverfe, for they hav- 
t a 



:42:2 APiiRODrSEUS' PROBLKMS. 

^vide pafTages of the reins, back, and kidneys, that ilie urine 
may pais away, and the earthy humor congeal and fink down ; 
the color of the gravel n;e\vs the humor whereof the Itones 
come. 

Why, if the done do congeal and wax hard through heat, 
(children are hot, and by the fame reafonit is done in old men, 
tor there is not fo much cold to be granted as there is in ice or 
inow, through which extreme cold the kidneys would perifti) 
y?t we ufe not contrary things to diifolve coldnefs, but light 
things as parlley, fennel and luch like. 

They fay itfalleth out that by excelTive heat and fcorching, 
theflonesdo crumble into fand, as in earthen velfels which 
when they are overheated or roaited, they become fand. And 
by this means it happens that fmall flones are voided together 
with fand in making water. Sometimes cold drinks thruft oii^ 
the ftones, the kidneys being ftretched, and calling out byiP 
greater lafk, and eafing the belly ofits burden Befides it often 
happens that an immoderate heat of the kidneys or of the reins 
of the back (through which the (tone doth grow) is quenched 
with coldnefs. 

Why is the curing an ulcer or bile in the kidneys or bladder 
very hard ? 

Becaufethe urinebeingvery fharp, doth exulcerate the wound 
while good and fit medicaments would cover the (kin. Ulcers 
are harder to cure in the bladder than in the kidneys, becaufe 
urine (lays in the former, but runs away from the latter. 

What is the reafon that in bathing velFels, the hot water^ 
when it is ftirred, feems the hotter to us, almofi: burning our 
bodies } 

Becaufe, when we enter thefe forts ®f fiaths, the water itfelf 
doth fufFer, that is, when the water heats our bodies it is made 
colder by us. We have learned that whatever works in gener- 
ation of corruption, the fame (without alV doubt) doth fulfer ; 
the water then being in tome fort cooled, doth not heat alike, 
and webeingaccuftomed to it, do not feel the heat as we did in 
the beginning, becaufe it is diminifhed. If, by ftirring the wa*. 
ter, more heat is added, which neither hath yet wrought or 
fuffered any thing.of the body which is in it, thatwill feem very 
hot and fcalding, in regard that it fuffers by fometliing and fo 
by degrees lofes its heat, as the firfl did. 

How is it that whatfoever is moved,, is hotter for it, efpecially: 
in fummer, when the heat of the fun is mod violent. 

This feems a contradiction to the other ; for hot water did 
notfeem better to us by moving. Therefore, it is a common 
thing for what is moil and principal in any thing, either in quan- 
tity or quality, to overcame and change that which is lefs and 
weaker : and that which is ftrong doth fomewhat fufter a^ain 
in doing. Wherefore the hot water, when it is very hot, ftick- 
ing to the hot body cools, and does not retain the fame quality. 
The air then, which doth compafs us about, being hot in fum- 
mer like the water compafling our bodies, is fomewhat heated by 
us, who are hot through the feafon it heats us as linen garments 
do, which being M\ cold, and then ftirred, that air which was 



APHRODISEUS* PROBLEMS. S23 

before heated by us is driven away, and another, not heated, 
fucceeds and leems cold to us. 

Why do thofe lores which breed in the ball of the eyes feem 
white, when they have lefs growing, and are cold, and others do 
not feem fo that grow out of the ball ? 

Becaufe through the ball of the eye the fight proceedeth, 
which is bright and clear, therefore in the white ot the eye, when 
the wound doth make thick that part of the covering which is 
like a horn, the fpirit of the fight cannot iflue out ; hence it coraes 
to pafs (much of it being got together) it makes the wound light 
and clear, (hewing it white ; andbecaufe of the quietnefs of the 
fight, the fpirit cannot go out, it caufes blindnefs. 

Why doth chaff and ftraw keep water hot, and fnow cold, 
which are feemingly contraries ? 

Becaufe the nature of chaff wants a manifeft quality ; feeing 
therefore, that of their nature, they can eafily be mingled, and 
confumed with that which they are annexed unto, they eafily 
alfo take the fame nature unto them; and therefore being put 
into hot things, they are eafily hot, and do heat again, and keep 
hot ; and, on the contrary being made cold of the fnow, and 
making the fnow cold, do keep in its coldnefs. So wax and oil 
will eafily be confumed, and made one with another thing, and 
do help the quality which is mingled with them, as being made 
one with them. 

Why do the flars and heaven feem clearefl in the bright 
winter time ? 

Becaufe the air, either which doth compafs us, or that which 
is higheft, is made thin and purged with winds and fhowers of 
rain, and by that means our fight doth fee both further and 
clearer. The like ismanifeftly feen in running rivers ; for fuch 
things as are in them are far better feen than in the thick fland- 
ing puddle of water, where, either nothing is feen, or confuf- 
edly. 

Why have we oftentimes a pain in making water ? 

Becaufe that fharpcholer iffuingout and pricking the bladder 
of the urine, doth provoke and flir up the whole body to eafe the 
part offended, and to expel the humor moderately. This doth 
happen moflly to children,.becaufe they have moifl excrements, 
by reafon of their often filling. 

Why do nurfes rock and move their children when they would 
have themfleep ? 

To the end that the humors, being fcattered by moving, may 
move the brains ; but thofe of more years cannot endure this. 

Why do fome drunkards fee double ? 

Becaufe the mufclesofthe fight being more or lefs filled, andv 
by the felf fame means weak and feeble, do draw one eye upward, 
and the other downward, and by that means the beams do not 
look that way at once, but towards divers places and bodies ; 
and therefore, each of the eyes ufing a private office and duty of 
feeing, doth caufe a double fight. 

Why are boys apt to change their voices about fourteen years 
of age > 4 



'2U APHRODISEUS» PROBLEMS. 

Becaufe that then nature doth caufe a great and fudden 
change of age ; experience proveth this to be true, for at that 
time we may fee that womans' paps do grow great to hold and 
gather milk, and alfo thofe places that are above the hips, in 
which the young fruit fhould remain. Likewife mens' breafts 
and (boulders, which bear them great and heavy burdens Al- 
fo their ftones in which their feed may increafe and abide, and 
their privy members, td let out the feed with eafe. Further, 
all the whole body is made larger and dilated, as the alteration 
and change of every part doth teftify, and the harfhnefs of the 
voice and hoarfenefs ; for the rough artery, the wind pipe, be- 
ing made wide in the beginning, and the exterior and outward 
part within equal to the throat, the air going out at the rough, 
unequal and uneven pipe, doth become unequal and fharp, and 
after a fort hoarfe like unto the voice of a goat, wherefore it has 
its name Bronchus The fame doth happen to them unto whofe 
rough ar4:ery diftillatlon doth flow : It happens by reafon of 
the drooping humidity that a light fmall fkin filled unequally 
caufes the uneven going forth of the fpirit and air. Underfland 
that the wind pipe of goats is fuch by reafon of the abundance of 
humidity. The like doth happen unto all fuch as nature hath 
given a rough artery, as unto cranes. After the years of four- 
teen they leave off that voice, becaufe the artery is made wider, 
and reachethits natural evennefs and quality. 

Why doth oil, being drunk caufe one to vomit, and efpecially 
yellow choler ? 

Becaufe that feeing it is light, andafcending upwards, itpro- 
Voketh the nutriment in the ftomach, and lifteth it up, and fo the 
ftomach being grieved, fummoneth the eje^live virtue to vom- 
it, and efpecially choler, becaufe that is light, and confifteth of 
flibtile parts and therefore it is the fooner carried upward ; for 
when it is mingled with any moift thing, runneth inta the high- 
eft room ' 

Why doth not oil mingle with moift: things ? 

Becaufe that being pliant, foft, and conflipate in itfelf, it can- 
not be divided into parts, and fo cannot be mingled ; neither 
if it be put on earth, cannot it enter into it. 

Why is water and oil frozen in cold weather, and wine and 
vinegar in hot ? 

Becaufe that oil being without all quality, and fit to be com- 
pounded with any thing, is cold quickly, andfo extremely that 
it is mod cold Water being cold of nature, doth eafily freeze 
when it is made colder than its own nature. Wine being hot, 
and of fubtle parts, is not fo foon cold, but vinegar being of 
moft fubtle parts, fuffereth no freezing. * 

Why do contrary things in quality produce the fame effect ? 

That which is moift is hardened, and abounds alike of heat 
and of cold. Snow and liquids do freeze wiih cold ; a plaifter 
and gravel in the bladder, are made hot with heat. The heat 
doth confume, and eat the abundance of moifture ; but the 
cold (topping and (hutting with its overmuch thicknefs, doth ring 
out the fifthy humidity, like as the fpunge vsrrung with the hana 



APHRODISEUS' PROBLEMS. 2«25 

doth caft out the water which it hath in tlie pores or fmall paf- 
fa ges 

why doth a fliaking or quivering feize us oftentimes, when 
any fearful matter doth happen, as a great noife or a crack made 
by the fudden downfal of water or a great tree ? 

Becaufe that often times the humors being digefted and con- 
fumed with time and made thin and weak, all the heat vehe- 
mently, fuddenly, and((harply flying into the inward part of the 
body, confumeth the humors which caufed the difeafe. So 
treacle hath its effe<5t, and many fuch like, which are hot and 
dry, when they are taken -after concodion. 

Why do fteel glafles Ihine fo clearly ? 

Becaufe they are lined in the infide with white led, whofe na- 
ture is fhining, which being puc to the glals, which is alfolhining, 
doth fhine much more ; and caft-ing its beams through the paf- 
lagesof the glafs, doth double that which is in the fuperficial 
parts of the glals, and without the body of the glafs, and by that 
means the glafs is very (hining and clear. 

Why do we fee ourfelvesin glafles and clear water ? 

Becaufe the quality of the fight palling into the bright bodies 
by refle(5lion, doth turn again by the beam of the eyes, as the 
image of him who looked on it. Ihat qualities do go forth and 
pafs from the face, as it is not abfurd, they do (hew which remain 
near unto trees, becaufe they are wont to look green, for the 
green quality of green leaves pafleth to the face of itfelf ; like- 
wife going into the running water doth make it (hew green. 
\ Why do hard dens, hollow and high places, fend back the 
likenefs and found of the voice ? 

Becaufe that in fuch places reflev!:iion returns back the image 
of a found; for the voice doth beat the air, and the air the 
place, which the more it is beaten the more it doth beat, and 
therefore doth cau(e the more vehement found of the voice ; 
moift places as it were foft, yielding to the ftroke and dilTolving 
it, give no found again^: for according to the quality and quan- 
tity of the (Iroke, the quality and quantity of the voice is given, 
which is called an echo. Some doubly fable, that (he is a god- 
defs ; fome fay that Pan was in love with her, which without 
doubt is falfe. He was fome wife niun, who did firft defire to 
fearch out the caufe of that voice ; and as they who love, and 
cannot enjoy their love, are grieved, fo in like manner, was he 
very forry until he found out the folutionof that caufe. As En- 
dymion alfo, who firfl found out the courfe of the moon, match- 
ing night, and obferving her cOurfe, and fearching her motion, 
did fleep in the day time, and therefore they do fable that he 
was beloved of her, and that (he came to him when he was aile^p, 
becaufe (he did give to the philofopher the folution of the courfe 
of herfelf They fay alfo, that he was a (hepherd, becaufe that 
in the defert and high places,'he did mark the courfe of the moon. 
And they give him alfo the pipe, becar.fe the high places are 
blown with wind, or elfe becaufe he ("ought out the confonancy 
of figures. Prometheus alfo being a wife man, fought the courfe 
of the ftars, which is called the eagle in the firmament, his na- 
ture and place ; and when he was, as it were, wafled with the de- 



226 APHRODISEUS* PROBLEMS 

fire of learning, then at the lafllie refted, when Hercules did re- 
folve unto him all doubts with his wifdom. 

What is the reafon that if you caft a (lone into Handing water, 
it makes many circle?, and not if the water be deep in the earths 

Becaufc that ♦^he (lone with the vehemence of the call dotli 
purfue and follow the water from every part of it, until the 
none come to the bottom ; for if there be a very great vehenien- 
cy in the throw, the circle is the greater, the (tone going down 
upon the earth, caufeth many circles. For firfl of ail, it doth 
drive the overmofl: and fuperficial parts of the water into many 
parts, and fo going down always to the bottom, again dividing; 
the water it maketh into another circle, and this is done fuccef- 
fively, until the ftone refteth ; and becaufe the vehemency of the 
flone is flackened dill as it goes down, of necelTity the laft circle is 
leiTer than the firfl, becaufe that with the flone and alfo with the 
body il\e water is divided. 

Why do fome think that laughter proceeds from the fpleen, 
affirming that it is not like that they laugh as much, v/hofe fpeen 
is corrupted, as they whofe fpeen is found, but fay that fuch are 
very fad ? 

Truly, I think that the caufe of laughter is accidental, and 
Lot pi-operly the fpleen ; for, if it be found and perfect, it doth 
draw from the liver melancholy humors, whereof it proceedeth, 
^hat when the pure blood, without any dregs, doth go through 
the whole body, and alfo in the brain it doth delight both natule 
and mind, and doth make men merry like unto wine and bring 
them to a quietnefs and tranquillity, and fo that of laughter is 
moved. 

Why do not mules bring forth young ones ? 

Becaufe they proceed of divers kinds of beads, andfo then the 
mixture of feed differing in quality and quantity, begets a cer- 
tain other thing ; befides, that which is firft doth mar and abolifh 
the nature of thofe things which were laft, as the mingling of 
white and black, aboliihing the color of excrements, breedeth 
another color which is dark and dun, whibh is none at all of the 
extreme; therefore, the engendering quality is abolillied, and 
the aptnefs of receiving form. 

Why are fuch as are deaf by nature dumb ? 

Becaufe they cannot fpeakand exprefs that which they never 
heard ; fome phyficians fay, that there is one knitting and unit- 
ing of finews belonging to the like difpofition. But fuch as are 
dumb by an accident, are not deaf at all, for then there arifeth a 
local paffion. 

Why do not fwinecry when they are carried with their fnouts 
upwards ? 

Becaufe that above all ether bealls they bend more than others 
to the earth. They delight in filth, and that they feek, and 
therefore in the fudden change of their face, they are as it were 
Grangers ; and being amazed with fo much light, do keep filence ; 
fome fay the wind pipe doih clofe together by reaff^n of the 
(Iraitnefs of it. 

Why do fwine -delight in dirt ? 



APHRODISEUS' PROBLEMS. m 

As the phyficians fay ; they are naturally delighted with it, 
becaufe they have a great liver, in which deTire is ; the widenefs 
of their fnuut is the caufe, for he hath fmelling which doth dif* 
folve itfelf, and as it were Itrive with flench. 

Why doth itching anfe when-an ulcer doth wax whole, and 
phlegm ceafe ? 

Becaufe the part which is healed and made found doth purfue 
the relickof the humors which remaineth there againft nature, 
and which was the caufe of the bile, and fo going out through 
the Ikin, and diflfolving itfelf, doth originally caule the itch. 

Why are thofe difeafes and accidents longeft and moil griev- 
ous which moleftone eye and not both ? 

Fortworeafons : firft, becaufe a running fluxion is heaped 
up at one eye only ; for, whatfoever is divided into many, is 
weaker than when entire, and of a lelfer lorce : fecondly, be- 
caufe, when the whole eye doth make any motion, it often o- 
bligeih the aiHng eye to move too, and the help for any difeaf- 
edpart confifls in quietude. 

How comes a man to fneeze oftener and more vehemently 
than a bea(t ? 

Becaule he ufes more meats and drinks, and of more different 
iorts, and that more than requiiite, which when he cannot di- 
gefl as he would he doth gather together much air and fpirit by 
reafonof much humidity, the fpirits being then very fubtle, af- 
cending into the head, often forces a man to void it, and fo pro-- 
yoke fneezing. The noife caufed thereby proceeds from a ve- 
hement fpirit or breath parting through the conduits of the noft- 

rils, as belching does by the ftomach, or f g by the funda^ 

ment, the voice by the throat, and a found by the ears 

How come the nails and hair of dead people to grow ? 

Becaufe the flefh rotting, withering, falling away, that which 
was hidden about the root of the hair doth now appear, and 
caufes an imagination that the hair doth grow ; fome fay it 
grows indeed, becaufe the deadcarcafes are diifolved, in the be- 
ginning to many excrements and fuperfluities, by reafon of the 
putrefaction which comes to them. Tliefie going out at the up- 
permoft parts of the body by fomepaffagesdo increafe the growth 
of the hair. 

Why doth not the hair of the feet grow prefently grey ? 

Becaufe that through great motion they difperfe and diffolve 
the fuperrtuous phlegm that breeds greynefs. The hair of the 
fecrets do grow grey very late, becaufe of the heat of the place 
and becaufe that in carnal copulation it does dilTolve the phlegm 
alio. 

Why do many beaflswag their tails when they fee their friends 
and a lion and a bull beat their fides when they are angry > 

Becaufe they have the marrow in their backs reaching to the 
tail, which hath the force of motion in it, the imagination ac- 
know]ed5j,es that which is known to them, doth force them to 
move their tail, as men do their hands. This doth manifeftly 
fhew fome fecret force to be within them, which doth acknowl- 
edge what they ought In the anger of lions and bulls, nature 
doth confent to the mind, and cau^th it to be greatl)^ moved, as 
men do fometimes when they are angry beating then: hands on 



t%S APHRODISEUS' PROBLEMS. 

other parts; when the mind cannot be revenged on that which 
doth hurt, it prefently feeks out fome other folace, and cures the 
malady with a ftroke or blow. 

Why, if you put hot burnt barley upon a horfe's fore, is the 
hairwhich grows upon the lore not white, but like the other 
hair ? 

Becaufeit hath the force of expelling, and doth wipe away and 
diflblve the excrements of phlegm, as likewife all unprohtable 
matter that is gathered together through the weaknefs of the parts 
or crudity of the fore. 

Why doth hair never grow on an ulcer or a bile ? 

The reafon is, a man hath a thick fkin, as is feen by the thick- 
nefsof the hair ; and fmce the fear is thicker than the Ikin itfelf, 
it ftops the paffage from whence the hair (hould grow. Horfes 
have thinner (kins, as is plain by the thick hair : therefore, all 
paflages are not fiopt in their wounds and fores, and after the ex- 
crements, which were gathered together, have broke a palfage 
through thofefmall pores, the hair doth grow. 

What is the reafon that fuch as are bitten with a fnake, if they 
are thirfty, quench it by drinking of treacle which is hot and dry. 

I fay then, it doth not quench thirft folely by its own quality., 
but by fome mutual fymj^athy and confent, and natural reafon. 
It is a kind of counterpoifon, and a prefervative too, being com- 
pofed of divers forts of herbs that have fome kind of agreement 
with all the parts of the body, as di6lamnum, dittanger, or gin- 
ger, hath a proportionable confervation of the heart ; agrimony 
or liver wort with the liver ; ftone wort or finger fern with the 
fpleen ; parfley with the mouth of the belly ; hyfop with the 
lungs : elecampane with the reins ot the back : rue with the 
neck ; bitterwort the brain ; and filer montanum with the blad- 
der. Every one of thefe drawn as it were with the fweetnefs of 
honey, doth draw that which is beft for his fafety ; among all 
of thefe the blood of fome vipers is mingled, which hath a cer- 
tain natural difaffeiiion, which we call antipharmicum, a contra- 
ry of all natural qualities againft every venomous beall and cor- 
ruptible creature. Thefe being diftributed into every part they 
fuffer nothing to work that eft'ed: which doth threaten corrup- 
tion, for they do refiftjlike lawful foldiers who have taken arms 
for the defence of their country. 

Why is fortune painted with a double forehead, one fide bald, 
and the other hairy ? 

The baldnefs figniiies adverfity, and hairinels profperity, 
which we enjoy when it pleafesher. 

Why have fome commended flattery ? 

Becaufe flattery fetteth forth before our eyes what we ought 
to be, though not what we are. 

\Vherefore (hould virtue be painted girded ? 

To (hew that virtuous men fhould not be flothful, but dili- 
gent and always in aftion. 

Why did the ancients fay it was better to fall into the hands of 
a raven, that a flatterer ? 

Becaufe the ravens don't eat us till we be dead, but flatterers 
ilevour us alive. 



APHRODISEUS' PROBLEMS. :219 

Why have choleric men beards before others ? 

Becaufe the]/^ are hot, and their pores large and wide* 

How comes it that fuch as have the hicup do ea(e themfelves 
by holding their breath ? 

The breath retained doth heat the interior parts of the body 
and the hicup proceeds from nothing but cold. 

How comes it that old men remember well that Vvhich they 
'have feen and done in their youth, and forget things as they fee 
and do in their age ? 

Things learned in youth have taken root and habituate in the 
perfon, but thofe learnt -in age are forgotten, l^ccaufe the 
fenfes are weakened in them. 

What kind of covetouftiefs is bed ? 

That of time when it is employed as it ought to be. 

Why is our life compared to a ftage play ? 

Becaufe the difnoneft do occupy the place of the honefl, and 
4he worft fort the room of the good. 

Whv do dolphins, when they appear above the water denote 
fome riorm or temped approaching ? 

Becaufe that, at the beginning of the tempeft, there do arife 
from the bottom of the iea certain hot exhalations and vapors 
which heat the dolphins, caufing them to rife up and feek for 
cold. 

Why are things more quiet in the nig*ht than in the day /* 

The motion of the air, and the coldnefs of night, is the caufe 
thereof, which coldnefs continues and hinders the motions. 

How come the Romans to call Fabius Maximus the target of 
the people, and Marcellus the fword ? 

Becaufe the one adapted himfelf to the fervice of the com- 
monwealth, and the other was very eager to revenge the injur- 
ies of his country \ and yet they were in the fenate joined to- 
gether, becaufe the gravity of the one would moderate the 
courage and brevity of the other. 

Why does the {hiningof the moon hurt the head ? 

Becaufe it moves the humors of the brain and cannot after- 
wards refolve them. 

If water do not nourifh why do men drink it ? 

Water caufes the nutriment to fpread through the body. 

Why is fneezing good ? 

"It purgeth the brain, as milk is purged by the cough. 

Where is the feat of the affections of the body f 

Joy dwelleth in the fpleen, anger in the gall, fear in the heart, 
and lechery in the liver 

Why is hot water lighter than cold ? 

Becaufe the boiling water has lefs ventofity, and is more light 
and fubtle, the earthy and heavy fubftance being feparated from itc 

How come mar(h and pond water to be evil? 

By reafon they are phlegmatic, and do corrupt in (ummer 
time, the finenels of the water is turned into vapors, and the 
earthinefsdoth remain. 

Why are ftudious and learned men fooneft bald ? 

It proceeds from a weaknefs of the fpirits, or becaufe warmth 
of digeftion caufes phlegm to abound in them. 



330 APHRODISEUS' PROBLEMS. 

Why doth much watching make the Brain feeble ? 

Becaufe it increafes choler, which dries and extenuates the 
body. 

Why are fleel glafles better for the fight than others P 

Steel is hard, and doth prefentunto us more fubltantially the 
air that receiveth the light. 

How doth love (how its greateft force, by making the fool to 
become wife, or the wife become a fool ? 

It attributes wifdom to him that hath it not ; for it is harder 
to build than to pull dow^n, and ordinary love and folly are but 
an alteration of the mind. 

How comes too much labor to be bad for the fight ? 

Becaufe it dries the blood too much. 

Why is goats' milk counted beft for the ftomach ? 

Becaufe it is thick, not flimy, and they feed upon boughs and 
wood rather than grafs. 

Why do grief and vexation bring gray hairs P 

Becaufe it dries, and age is nothing elfe. 

How is he the moft merry that hath the thickeft blood ? 

The blood which is fat and thick makes the fpirits firm and 
conftant, wherein confills the force of all creatures. 

In your opinion which is hardeft, to obtain the love of a per- 
fon, or to keep it when obtained ? 

To keep it, by reafon of the inconftancy of man, who is 
quickly angry, and foon weary of a thing ; liard to be got and 
liippery to keep. 

Why do ferpents fhun the herb rue ? 

Becaufe they are cold, dry, and full of fmews, but the herb 
rue is of a contrary nature 

How comes a capon better to eat than a cock > 

The capon lofes not his moifiure becaufe he does not tread the 
hens and therefore is better. 

Why do we fmell a thing lefs in the winter than in the fummer? 

Becaule the air is thick, and lefs movable. 

How comes hair to burn fo quick as it does P 

Becaufe the hair is dry and cold. 

Why is love compared to labyrinth ? 

Becaufe the entry and coming in is eafy, and the going out 
^^iqpoflible, or very hard. 



THE END. 



ARISTOTLE^s 

LAST legacy; 

UNFOLDING THE 

MYSTERIES of NATURE 

IN THE 

GENERATION of MAN. 



TREATING, 



I. Of ViPvGiNiTY, its Signs 
and Tokens, and how a 
Man may know whether he 
hath Married a Virgin 
ornot. 

II. Of the Organ of Gen- 
eration in Women, with 
a defcriptionof the Womb. 

III. OftheUsEand Action 
of the Genitals in the 
Work of Generation. 

IV. Of Conception ; and 
how to know whether a 
Woman has Conceived, 
and whether of a Male or 
Female. 

V. Of the Pleasure and 
Advantage of Mar- 
riage ; with the unhappy 
Consequences of unequal 
Matches, and Miseries 
of Unlawful Love. 



VI. Of barrenness, witli: 
remedies againft it; and 
the Signs of the Insuffi- 
ciency both in Men and 
Women. 

VII. Directions to both 
Sexes how to manage them- 
felves in -the Act of Coi- 
tion, or their Venereal 
Embraces. 

VIII. A Vade Mecum for 
Midwives and Nurses; 
Containing particular Di- 
rections for the faithful 
Discharge of their feveral 
Employments 

IX. Excellent Remedies 
againft all Diseases inci- 
dent to Virgins and 
Child Bearing Women ; 
fitted for the ufe of Mid- 
wives, &c. 



INTRODUCTION. 

WHEN the alm'ighty Arch'iteSf of the 'world had 
formed the hea<ven in the beginning, and laid the foundation cf the 
\arthy and by his blejjed Spirit juonjing upon the abyfs, had created 
a fair and beaut fulivorldj out rf a rude mafs and undgejled chaos, 
i:ndby bis poiverful fiat had brought into being all the fe^ueralfpe- 
cles of ^jegetabUs and animals^ and gi'ven e-uen to the plants and 
^jegetables to hax^e feed in thinfeH'es jor producing their fenjeral 
kinds or forms, iind to the aniinals fnx)hich he created 7nale, and 
female) the po'voer of propagating their fpecies, and had adorned 
the ivorld ivith all thofe beautiful and glorious embellijhfnents, that 
bis omnipotent ivifdom and good7ufs faiv fit and lequifite for that 
great gueft he defigned to bring into it ; he at laft created man as a 
microcofniy or lejfer 'wodd to be lord of this greater ivorld, not ivith 
a bare fiat only, as he didthe refi of his creatures, but called fas it 
'Were) a council of the fa crea Trinity about it, faying, Let us make 
man in our o-ivn hnage. after our o-zvn likenefs, &c. as the dii'ine 
hijlorian expreffes .* So that man, in his original, is a ray cf the di~ 
ujinity, and the i^ery breath of the Almighty ; atid ther-Jore it is 
faidy God breathed into his noftrilsthe breath of life, and he became 
a liuin'gfoul. Man being thus created, and made lord of the ivcrld, 
had in hl?nfclf at frft both fexes, for the text tells us, Male and fe- 
male created he tkem, and called their name Adam: but yet till 
Adam ivas di'vtded he ivasfiill alone ; and enjery creature had a 
mate, he ivas lord of all ; fo that in paradife it f elf he feemed to be 
unhappy, iv an ting a meet help ; and therefore his munificent Maker 
refolnjing to make him completely happy, dinjides him f elf from him- 
felf, that by a more agreeable conjuniiion, he might be united to him - 
f elf again ; andfo of a part of himfelf ivas formed Enje, ivhom 
Adam, having ne^erjeen before, bycifympathy of nature, prefent- 
ly called, bone of his bone, andflefb ofnisjlefh : And Adam halving 
thus found a meet help gi^ven him by his Creator, he ivas noiv 
completely happy, and being blefed by the Almighty, had this laiu 
alfo ginjen him, to increafe and multiply, he being endonved ivith a 
natural propenfion thereunto, and the uooman having a plafiic poiv~ 
er ginjen her by nature for the formation of the embryo. This nat- 
ural inclination and propenfion ofbothfexes to each other, ivith the 
plafiic poucer of nature, is only the energy of the firfi blefftng and 
cojnmandofthe Almighty, uohichto this day upholds theivorld. 

The my fiery of the generation of that noblefi piece of creation man, 
and the unfolding of the plafiic poiver of nature, in the fecret uoork- 
ings of generation, and formation of the feed in the ivomb, is the 
fubjeh of the folloiJ^'ing treatife : afubjeil fo neceffary to be knoivn 
by all the female fex (the conception and bearing of children being 
that -vi-^hich nature has ordained their pronjince J that many for 
lAjant of the knoivledge hereof ptriJJj, ivith the fruit of their njcomh 
alfo, nxhohad they but underflood the fecrets oj generation difplayed 
in this book, ?night hanje beenfitllin the land oj the linjing. 

^T IS therefore for the ufe of fuch that this treatife is compiled: 
ivberein the ?nyfiery of generation is not only tmra'velled, and the 
abfirufe fecrets of nature made knoivn, but the obfirudions and 
hindcrauces of generation are declared, cknd proper remedies againfl 
all the defeiis of the ivo/ttb dire^ed^ 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

Fully unfolding the Mysteries of Nature in the Genera- 
tion of Man. 



Of Virginity y ivhat itisyits Signs and Tokens ^ and ho'vo a Man may 
knoix) if he marries a Virgin^ 

THE great maker of the univerfe, that gives all crea- 
tures life and b^ing, and a power in themfelves to propagate 
their kind, even to the end of the world, has to that end created 
them male and female, and thefe of contrary qualities ; for, in this 
noble pair, man and woman, the man is hot and dry, the woman 
cold and moi(t ; and thefe two different qualities uniting, are 
ordained by nature for the procreation of children, the feed of 
the man being the efficient caufe, and the womb of the woman 
the field of generation, wherein the feed is nourifhed, and the 
embryo formed, and in due time brought forth. 

Since women then have fo great part in the generation of man, 
I (hall endeavor to fhew how nature has fitted them for it ; and 
becaufe a knowledge of the difeafe is half the cure, I will give 
a brief defcription ofihe feveral parts or members of generation, 
that lo, if at any time, any part be affected, or out of order, it 
may be fooner reftified : And although I mufl: ufe plainnefs, 
yet I hope to doitfo as not to caufe a guilty blufh on the pheek 
of the fair lex. 

And fmce the firft flate of NVoman is virginity, order and meth- 
od require that I fpeak fomething of that ; and in fpeaking on. 
it, I will firft fhew vyhat it is, and then lay down lome figns and 
tokens of it, how it may be known, and then proceed to what I 
have before promifed. 

Virginity is the boaft and pride of the fair fex, though they 
generally commend it to put it off, and that they may the fooner 
get a good husband and thereby lofe it ; And I think they are 
in the right, for, if they keep it too long, it grows ufelefs, or at 
leaft abates much of its value : a (tale virgin being looked upon 
like an old almanack out of date. Virginity the chief, the bed, 
the prime of any thing, and is properly the integrity of woman's 
privities, not violated by man or known by him, it being the 
property of a virgin not to have known man. But to come a 
little more clofe, there is in young maidens, in the neck of the 
womb, a pendulous production called Hymen, which is like the 
bud of a rofe half blown, and this is broke in the firfl a6t of cop- 
Tilation with a man, and from thence the word dejtora^ to de* 
flower, becaufe the taking away ©f virginity is deflowering a 
virgin, for when the rofe bud is expanded, virginity is wholly 
loft. Certain it is, there is in the firft a6l of copulation, fome- 
thing which caufeth pain and bleeding, which is an evident fign 
of virginity, but, what this is, authors agree not : Some fey it is 
a nervous membrane, or thin fkin, with fmall veins, which 
bleed at the firft penetration of the vard ; Others fay it is fhur 
u 2 



S34 ARISTOTLE'S LASTLEGACY^ 

caruncles, or bits of flefh, or little buds like myrtle berries, and 
theie are plump and full in virgins, but hang loofe and flag in 
thofe that have ufed copulation. Some have obferved a flefl^y 
circle about the nymphcC or neck of the womb, with little ob- 
fcure veins, which make the membrane not to be nervous, but 
flefhy. .. 

There is no doubt but that the part which receiveth the yard 
i s not in woiuen that have uied a man, as it is in virgins, and yet 
it is not alike in all, which hathcaufed diverfity of opinions both 
in authors and anatomifts, for this is not found in all virgins : 
Excels ofluft, and delireofa man,in fome, may break the Hy- 
men, or clauftrum virginale ; fometimes when' it itcheth, they 
put in their finger and fo break it: fometimes the midwives 
break it in the birth ; and fometimes it is done by (topping of 
the urine, coughing, violent flraining, or fneezing and there- 
fore, if there be no bleeding at the firft penetration, it is not al- 
ways a fign of unchaftity ; but where there is bleeding it is an 
unqueftionable lign of virginity. 

Leo Africanus makes mention of the cuflomof the Africans at 
their weddings, wh:ch was this ; After they were married, the 
bridegroom and the bride were fhut up in a chamber, wh'lH: the 
weddmg dinner was preparing, and anoI4 woman (food at the 
chamber door to receive from the bridegroom a fheet, having the 
bloody tokens of the wife's virginity, -which fhe Ibewed in 
triumph to all the guefts, and then they might feaft with joy ; 
but if there was no blood to be feen, the bride was fent home 
with difgrace, and thedifappointed quells went home fadly with- 
out their dinner. But notwithftanding the African cultom I 
affirm that fome honelt virgins have lolt their maidenheads with« 
out bleedirg, and therefore are not to be cenfured for want of 
tJ>is token, as fome ignorant men may do, and caufe their wives 
to live an uncomfortable life all their days, fancying themfelve 
to be cuckolds, when there is no fuch matter. 

Some make the ftraitnefs of the privities to be a fign of vir 
ginity, but this isno certain rule, for much depends upon tlie 
age, habit of body, and other circumftances : Though it cannot 
but be acknowledged, that w^omen that have ufed carnal copu- 
lation are not fo ftrait as virgins, yet this can be no certain argu- 
:nent of virginity for, after repeated a^ls ofvenery, the privi- 
ties may be made fo flraight by theufe of aftrin^ent medicines, 
that a whore may be fometimes taken for a virgm. Culpepper 
mentions a woman that defiring to appear a virgin, ufed a bath 
of comfrey roots, whereby fhc deceived thofe with whom (he had 
to do. 

Some make milk in the breaft a fign of lofl: virginity, not con- 
fideringthere is a twofold milk, the one of virgins contrary to 
nature, the other natural : Thefirfiis made of blood that can- 
not get out of the womb, and io goes to the breads, being noth- 
ing but a fuperfluous nouri(hment that is turned into milk by 
the faculty of the breafts without the knowledge of a man: the 
other is only when there is a child either in the womb, or horn ; 
And the milk differs very much, both in refpe<ft of the blood 
Tnd diverfity of veins that bring it to the brea(l and though both 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. ^S5^ 

Hire white, yet that of virgins is thinner, lefs in quantity and not 
fo fweet ; and therefore, if virgins happen to have fuch milk, 
they are not for that reafon t© be deemed unchafte. 

Upon the whole, when a man marries, and finds, upon lying 
with his wife, the token of her virginity he has all the reafon 
in the world to be fatisfied he has married a virgin : but if on 
the contrary, he finds them not, he has no reafon to fufpefl her 
of unchaflity, as if fhe were not a virgin, fmce the hymen, or 
clauftrum virginale may be broken fo many other ways, and yet 
the woman be both virtuous and chafte . 

And thus much I thought myfelf bound to fay in behalf of the 
female fex, who are often accufed and fufpe<5led of difhonefty, 
when there is no occafion for it. 

CHAP. IL 
Of the Organs of generation in Womeny luith a Defcriptlon of the 
Fabric of a Woman. 
IN Defcribing the organs of generation in women, I 
fliall ufe all poiTible plainnefs and perfpicuity, and fhall not be 
afraid to Ipeak fo as I may be underftoodby the meaneft capaci- 
ty, fmce I defign nothing but the inftru6lion of the ignorant, for 
their own fafety, and fhall fay with the motto of the royal gar- 
ter, Honi foit qui maly penfe. 

In the genitals of women there are feveral parts which mud 
be diftindtly fpoken of : That which appears to view at the bot- 
tom of the belly is thQ f/fura magna, or the great clift or filTureof 
an oval form, with its hair about it, alfo the lips, which nature 
defigned to keep the internal parts irpm cold and duft : Thefe 
are called by the general name oipi^denda, from {hamefacednefs, 
becaufe a woman is afhamed when thofe parts are difcovered or 
made bare. ThefJ/ura magna reaches from the lower parts of 
the OS pubis, near to the annus ; but it is clofer in virgins than in 
thofe who have born children, and has two lips, which towards 
the pubis grow more full and thick, and meeting upon the mid- 
dle of the oj /)«^i/, make that rifing hill called mons Veneris 
or the mount of Venus. 

The next thing is the nymphcs, or wings which appear when 
the lips are fevered, and are framed of fpungy or foft jflefh, of a 
red color, two in number, joined in an acute angle producing 
there a flefhy fubflance compofing the clytoris, andbothin form 
and color refembling the combof acockt 

The clitoris is a fmewy and hard body, full of fpungy and 
black matter within : and in form reprefents the yard of a man 
and is fubjedl to eredlion and falling as that does. This is that 
which is the feat ef veneral pleafure, and gives women delight 
in the a<Sl of copulation : For without this a woman neither de- 
fi res coition, nor hathpleafure in it, nor conceives by it. The 
clytoris fometimes grows out of the body two inches, but this 
very feldom happens. And fome think that hermaphrodites, 
or thofe that have the genitals, are only fuch women in whom 
the clitoris hangs out extremely, and fo refemble the form of a 
yard : and I am almoft inclined to be of their opinion, efpecially 
confidering that the hanging out of the clytoris, is generally 
occafioned through extreme luft ; and both reafon anaauthori- 



256 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

ty demonHrate that the higher theclytoris, in women, the more 
vehement their defires are carried after coition, and confequent- 
]y the more hiflful. 

In the fourth place, under the clytoris, and above the neck of 
the womb are the flefliy knobs or caruncles, placed behind the 
wings, and are like myrtle berries placed one againft another, in 
which place is inferted the orifice of the bladder, for the paflage 
of the woman's urine : fo that the urine of the woman comes 
through the neck of the womb, neither is the paflage of the u- 
rine common as in men, but particular by itfelf 

Near the orifice of the womb, as I have faid before, there are 
the caruncles, or flefhy knobs, in number four, inform like myr- 
tle berries ; in virgins thefe are round and plump, but in wom- 
en that have ufed copulation, thefe are loofe and flagging, and 
often quite undiflinguiihed, fo that the infide of the neck of the 
womb appears fmeoth : theuppermoft of them is large and fork- 
ed, the others are below this on the fides, but they all ferve to 
keep back the air, or any offenfive thing, from entering the neck 
of the womb. Thefe caruncles or knobs are joined together by 
a thin or fmewy fkin or membrane, full of fmali veins this 
membrane hath a hole in the midft for the palfage of the month- 
ly courfes, about the bignefs of the top of one's little finger in 
fuch as are in years fit for marriage ; this is that noted (kin call- 
ed Hymen, of which I have fpoken in the former chapter, and 
which is a certain fign of virginity wherever it is found, for the 
firfl a6l of copulation furely breaks it, though it may be broken 
without the ad: of copulation but it is mod generally broken by it. 

Authors have been of divers opinions concerning this Hymen 
or mark of virginity ; fome affirm it to be one thing and fome 
another ; but whatever it be, this is an undoubted truth, that it 
hath certain veins in it which bleed in the breaking, and that 
blood Ihews it to be then firft broke, and confequently the per- 
fon to be a virgin : and I do believe, that all virgins have at firlij 
it being the mark that God gave the Hebrews to try their vir- 
ginity by : and I cannot believe God would give that for a cer- 
tain fign of virginity which is not always to be found, and tho' 
it may be broke without copulation, yet young maidens ought to 
be ver]^ wary of it, fmce their honor does fo much depend upon 
preferving it. For men are not bound to believe it was broken 
by accident, though perhaps it might be fo, to which end they 
ought to correal and expel all (harp and corroding hiunors 
which fometimes gnaw it afunder, and alfo to avoid all violent 
exercifes which may overftrain them, and by all means touch- 
ing it with their fingers. I have in the former chapter told you 
that the caruncles or flefhy knobs, together with the Hymen, 
reprei'ent the form of a half blowa rofe, from whence to deflow- 
er a virgin had it original. 

The next thing to be fpoken of is the neck of the womb, which 
is nothing but the diftance that is between the privy pafTage and 
>the inouth of the womb, into which the yard goes in the a6l of 
copulation, which in fome women is eight inches in length ; its 
fubftance without is flefhy, but within fkinny, and exceedingly 
wrinkled, that it may the better retain the feed eje61:ed in the 



ARISTOTLE^s LAST LEGACY. ^7 

acloi copulation, and alfo that it may dilate and ftretch in the wo- 
man's labor, and the paiFage may be the wider for the birth of 
the child. The length of the neck of the womb is very necelTa- 
r>; for two reafons : Firfl, that it may be filled with abundance 
of fpirits, and there be dilated, for its better taking hold of the 
penis or yard, great heat being required in fuch motion, which 
becoming nioreintenfe or exquifite by the a6l of frication, con- 
fumes a great quantity of moifture, which there ought to be large 
vefiTels to fupply : Secondly, becaufe the terms or monthly courf- 
es make their way through them; on which account women 
with child fometimes continue their purgations: for although 
the womb be fi^ut, yet the palTage in the neck of the womb 
through which thefe vefTels pafsis open. 

I will only further obferve, that as foon as man penetrates the 
pudendum, there appears two little pits or holes, thefe contain 
an humor, which being prefied out in the lime of copulation^ 
gives great delight to a woman. 

Having thus Ipoken of the organs of generation in w'omen, I 
will no-w defcribe the fabric of the womb. 

The womb is joined to its neck in the lower part of the hypo- 
gaflrion, and is placed between the bladder and theftraight gut. 
Its parts are two, the mouth of the womb and the bottom of the 
womb : The mouth or entrance may be both dilated and con- 
tradled, much like a purfe, for though in the a6l of copulation it 
be big enough to receive the glands, nut, or top of the man's yard, 
yet after conception, it is fo cTofe fhut, that it will not admit the 
point of a bodkin to enter : and after this, at the time of delive- 
ry, it dilates itfelf again fo wide, that it makes room enough for 
the child to come forth, which is fo wonderful a thing, that all 
men muft acknowledge that the wildom and goodnefs of our Cre- 
ator is eminently to be feen in it. 

Its figure is almoft perfe6lly round, and in virgins doth not 
exceed the bignefs of a walnut, yet after conception, it dilates 
itfelf gradually, fo that it is able to contain the child and all its 
appurtenances 

It is thickinfubflance, infemuch that it exceeds a thumb's 
breadth, which after conception, is fo far from decreafing, that 
i t augments very much : and to fireagthen it more, it is interwo- 
ven with fibies over athwart, whicli are both ftraight and wind- 
ing, and its proper velfels are veins, arteries, and nerves among 
which there are two little veins, which pafs from the fpermatic 
velfels to the bottom of the womb, and two krger from the hyp- 
ogaftrics, which touch the bottom and the neck : The mouth of 
the veins piercing as far as the inward cavity. 

Alfo the womb hath two arteries on each fide the fpermatic 
veflTels, and the hypogaftrics, which flill accompany the veins, al- 
fo divers little nerves that are knit and entwined in the form of 
a net, and extended to the pudenda, placed chiefly for fenfe and 
pleafure, moving by way of fympathy between the head and the 
w^omb. 

Theftonesandtefticlesin women differ in feveral refpe61s 
from thofe of men, and that in relation to their place, form, fig- 
ure, &c. As to the place, in men they are without the belly, m 



^8 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

women within : in men they are oval, and have four fkins, t© 
preferve them from injuries : in women they are dc pre (Ted and 
flattifh, and have but one (kin : Their fubftance isalfo more foft 
than thofe of men, and their temperature iscolder. Their office 
is to contain their ovum or egg, according to our modern au- 
thors : But the ancients were of opinion, that they ferved to con- 
nect the woman's feed, and had the fame office in women as the 
flones have in men but as this of the woman's having feed is 
flrongly oppofed by fome, and asftrongly contended for by oth- 
ers, 1 will therefore fet down the opinions of both, having firft 
made an end of the defcription of the feveral parts belonging to 
the organ of generation in women, which is what I am now upon. 

I coine now to fpeak of the fpermatic veflels in women, which 
are divided or diilinguifhed by preparing veifels, and carrying 
veffels : the preparing vellels are the fame in number as in men, 
which are four, two veins and two arteries, not dittcring from 
thofe in a man, but only in their largenefs and manner ot infer- 
tion ; the right vein inuing from the trunk of the vena cava, 
which is the great vein that receives the blood from the liver, 
and diflributes it by branches to all the body, under the emul- 
gentvein which is one of the chief branches of the hollow veins 
pafling to the reins ; but the left fpringing from the emulgent 
of the fame fide. Both the arteries iffue from the great artery 
called Aorta, becaufe it is the noblefl and mother of all the reft. 
Thefe preparing veffels are much fhorter in women than in men 
becaufe their paiHtgeis fhorter : The ftones of a woman, as I 
have already noted, lying within the belly, but thofe ot men 
without : but then what they want in length, they have in their 
various wreathings and contortions, which are more than in men 
that the fubffance they carry may be the better prepared, and 
therefore, their often turning to and fro, and winding in and out 
make amends for the fhortnefs of the pafTage. Obferve alfo, that 
thefe veffels are not united, as they are in men, before they come 
to the flonesbutare divided in two branches, whereof the^reat- 
er only goeth, to the ftones, and the lefler endeth in the womb, 
both lor the nourilhment ofitfelf and the infant, and that part 
of the courfes may pafs through the velTels : Thefe fpermatic 
veins receivethearteriesas they pafs by the fide of the womb, 
and fo there is a mixture between the vital and natural blood, 
and thereby the work of generation might be ^better wrought; 
and thus much for the preparing veliels. 

The carrying veHels called a.^afa de ferentia (that is veffels 
which carry the feed from the ftones to the feminal veffels) arife 
from the lower part of the teflicles, and are in color wliite, but 
in fubftance fmewy ; they pafs not ffraight to the womb, but are 
wreathen, that theihortnefs of the way may be compenfated 
by their various turnings and windings, and, as they come next 
to the womb, they grow broader. 

The ejaculatory veffels are two paffages on each fide of the 
womb, and hardly differ in fubftance from the fpermatic veins, 
they rife from the bottom of the womb but reach not either to 
the ftones, or ajiy other part, but are fhut up and are impaffa- 
ble, adhering to the womb as the collar does to the hind gut, 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 239 

winding halfway about. Although the ftones are at a diftance 
from them, and do not fo much as touch them, yet they are faii- 
ened to them, by certain membranes, nuich refembling the 
wings ot a bat through which certain veins and arteries that pafs 
from the end of the teflicles have their palfages, proceeding from 
the corners of the horns of the womb to the teiticles, being the 
proper ligaments by v>hich the teflicles and the womb are knit 
together ; and thefe ligaments in men are called creamafters, 
which are the mufcles that hold up the Itones, of which I ffeall 
fpeak further, when I treat of the organs of generation in man. 

CHAP. IIL 
Of the Ufe and ASiionofthe Genitals in the Work of Generation, 
THE ufe of the external parts, commonly called the 
pudenda, are defigned to cover the great orifice, and the ufe of 
that is to receive the yard in the act of copulation, and to give 
pafTage to the child at the birth ; and aJfo a patlage for th^ urine. 
The ufe of the wings and knobs like myrtle berries are for the 
fecurity of the internal parts, Ihutting the orifice and neck of 
the bladder ; and by their fwelling up do caufe titillation and 
delight in thofe parts, and alfo to hinder the involuntary paflage 
of the urine. The a6tion of the clytoris in women is like that of 
the yard in men, which is ere6lion, and its outer end is like the 
glans, or top of the yard, and has the fame name, and as the 
glans in men is the feat of the greatefl pleafure in copulation, fo 
is this in women. 

The action and ufe of the neck of the womb is equal with 
that of the yard, and is occafioned feveral ways ; for firfl, it is e* 
reeled and made Oraight for the patFage of the yard to tl^ womb 
in the act of copulation ; and then whiifi the paflage is repleted 
with fpirit and vital blood, it becomes more ftraight for embrac- 
ing the yard : and the convenience of ere61ion is two fold ; firfl 
if the neck or the womb was not ere6led, the yard could have 
no convenient palfage to the womb ; and in the fecond place, it 
hinders any damage that may happen, through the violent con- 
cufTion of the yard in the time of copulation. 

And as for thofe vefTels that make their way through the neck 
of the womb, their office is to replenifh it with blood and fpirit, 
that fo as the moiflure confumes by the heat contracted in cop- 
ulation, it may by thofe vefTels be renewed j but their chief 
bufinefs is to convey nourifhment to the womb. 

The womb has many properties attributed to it ; the firfl is 
the retention of the feed ; as the ancients fpeak, of the fecund- 
ated egg, as others would have it ; and this properly is called 
conception ; and, 2dly, to cherilh and nourifh it till nature has 
framed the child, and brought it to perfection, and 3dly, it 
worketh flrenuoufl)/^ in fending forth the birth, when the time of 
its remaining there is expired, at which time it flretcheth forth 
itfelf in a very wonderful manner. 

The ufe of the preparing vefTels is to conve>ithe blood to the 
teflicles, (part of which is fpcjnt in the nourifhment of them, and 
the produ(^lion of thofe little bladders, in all things refembling 
eggs) through which the preparing velTels run, and are obliter- 
atedinthem; that is done by the arteries ; and as for the veins 



UQ ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

their office is to bring back what blood remains from the afore- 
faid ufes. Thefe veilels are more (hort in women than in men, 
by reafon of their nearnefs to the (tones ; which defe(^i is fuffi- 
ciently repaired by the many windings and turnings to which 
they are lubjeifl:, dividing themfelves in the middle way into 
two branches, though not of an equal bignefs, for one is greater 
than the other. 

The ftones in women are of that ufe that if they aie defective, 
the work of generation ceafes ; for though (according to the 
modern opinion) thole little bladders which are in their outward 
Aiperficies, contain nothing of feed, yet they contain feveral 
eggs (uncertain as to their number, though generally about 
twenty) one of which eggs being impregnated by the fpirituous 
part of man's feed in the a<5l of coition, defcends into the womb, 
and in the time nature has appointed, becomes a living child. 

Having thus given an account of the ufe and action of the 
genitals in the act of generation, I (hall now fliew you the opin- 
ion of both the ancients and moderns touching the woman's con- 
tributing feed for the forniation of the child, as w ell as the 
man's ; which was the opinion of the ancients, but is denied by 
our modern authors. 

Though it is apparent, fay the ancients, that the feed of a man 
is the principal efficient, and beginning of adtion, motion, and 
generation, yet that the woman affords feed, and contributes to 
the procreation of thechild, is evident, from hence, that the wo- 
man has feminal veflels, which had been given her in vain, had 
fhe wanted feminal excreflence: but fmce nature doth nothing 
in vain, it muftbe granted they were made for the ufe of feed 
and procreation, and fixed in their proper places to operate and 
contribute virtue and efficacy to the fe«d ; and this, fay they, is 
farther proved from hence, that if women at the years of matu- 
rity ufe not copulation to eje<^t: the feed, they often fall into 
ftrange difeafes as appears by young women and virgins ; and 
alfo it is apparent, that women are never better pleafed than 
when they are often fatisfied this way, which plealure and de- 
light, fay they, is double in women to what it is in men, for as 
the delight of men confifts chiefly in the ejection of the feed, fo 
women are delighted both by the eje6tion of their own, and the 
reception of the man's. 

But againft all this, our modern authors affirm, that the an- 
cients were very erroneous ; for as minch as tefticles in women 
do not afford feed, but are two eggs, like thofe of fowls ; neith- 
er have they any fuch office as thoie of men but are indeed an 
ovarium, a receptacle for e^gs ; wherein thefe eggs are noiir- 
ifhed by the fanguinary vefllls dlfperfed through them j and 
from thence, one or more (as they are foecundated by the man's 
feed) are conveyed into the w^omb by the oyidu6ls j and the 
truth of this, fay they, is fo plain that if you boil them, they will 
have the fame taite, color and confiftency, with the tafte of birds' 
e.^gs : andif any object:, that they have no (hells that fignifies 
nothing, for the eggs of fowls, while in the ovary, nay after the^y 
have fallen into the uterus have no ftiell ; and though they have 
aiie when they are laid, yet it is no more than a fence, which na- 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. Ui 

tare hath provided for therri againfl outward injuries, they be- 
ing hatched without tliC body ; but thefe of women being 
hatched within the body ; hive no need of any other fence than 
the womb to fecure them. And they further fay, there are in 
the generation of the foetus, two principles, ac:live and paflive ; 
the adiye is the man's feed elaborated in the^ teflicles out of th<e 
arterial blood and animal fpirits ; the paflive principle is the 
ovum or egg impregnat-ed by the man's feed ; for to fay that a 
woman has true feed, is, they fay, erroneous. But the manner 
of conception is this ; The moft fpirituous part of man's feed, in 
the a6t of copulation, readies up to the ovarium or teflicles of 
the woman {which contain divers eggs, fometimes more, fome- 
times fewer) impregnates one of them, which being conveyed 
by the ovidufts to the bottom of the womb, prefently begins to 
{well bigger and bigger, and drinks in the moiliure that is plen- 
tifully fent thither after the iame manner that feeds in the 
ground fuck the fertile moifture thereoTto make them fprout. 

But notwithflandipg all this, Culpepper, in his directory for 
Midwives, pofitively affirms, that the tefticles or ftones of a wo- 
man are for generation of feed, and for to deny this, is botli a- 
gainft reafon and experience I will not undertake to determine 
the controver("y, but leave the reader to judge for himfelf, and 
proceed (having according to the cuftomof Britain, given wo- 
men the preference) todefcribe the organs of generation in man* 
CHAP. IV. 
Of the Injlruments or Organs of Generation in Man. 

THE penis or yard of the man (being the pnncipal 
inftrument of generation) is called fo, from its hanging without 
the belly ; and it confifts of fkin, tendons, veins, arteries, finew's 
and great ligaments, and is long and round : it is ordained by 
nature both for the palTage of the urine, and the convej^ing of 
the feed into the matrix. It hathfome parts common with it to 
the reft of the body, as the (kin and flefhy membrane ; and fome 
parts it has peculiar to itfelt, as the two nervous bodies ; the 
feptum, the urethra, orglans, the four mufcles, and velTels 

The (kin which the Latins call ^«//V, is full of pores, through 
which the fweat and fuliginous or footy black vapors of the 
~ third concoction (which conco6fs the blood into flefh) pafs out : 
The pores are very many and thick, but hardly vidble to the 
eye, and when the yard (lands not, it is flagg;y, but whe» it (lands 
it is fliff : This (kin is very fenfible, becau(e the nerves concur 
to make'up its being. 

The carnis membrane or fle(hy (kin, fo called, becaufe it li- 
eth between the flefh, andpalfethin other parts of the body, 
underneath the fat, and fticks clofe to the mufcles, not that there 
is any tat in the yard, only a few fuperficial veirvs and arteries 
■pafs between the former ficin and this, which, when the yard 
(lands, are vifible to the eye. Thefe are the parts cdRimon both 
to the yard and the red of the body. Now, I will fpeal; of ihe 
parts peculiar to itfelf, and firil, ot the nervous bodieSi 

The two nervous bodies are furrounded with a thick, white 
nervous membrane but are fpungy within andiuU of black 
blood, the fpungy iubftance of the inward part otit feemstobc 
W 



U^2 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

woven together like a net, aadconfifls of innumerable veins and 
arteries; the black blood contained therein isfullof fpirits, and 
the defire of copulation adds heat to them, which caufeth the 
yardtofland; and the hollow fpungy intermixture, or weav- 
ing was ordained on purpofe to hold the heat or veneral fpirits, 
that the yard may not fail before it has done its work ; thefe 
two (ide ligaments of the yard, whei^e they are thick and round, 
fpring from the lower part of the (hare bone, and, at their be- 
ginning are feparated the one from the other, and refemble a pair 
of horns, or the letter Y, where the urethra, that is the com- 
Tnon channel of itrineand feed paflTeth between them. 

The feptum is in fubftance whit€, nervous and finewy, and 
its oflficeia to uphold the two fide ligamentsand the urethra. 

The urethra is finewy, thick, foft, and loofe, like to that of 
xhtftdc ligaments before mentioned. It begins at the neck of 
the bladder, artd fo pafleth to the glans ; in the beginning of it 
are three holes : one large in the midft, which receives the urine 
into it, the other two afefmaller, whichare fent by each femin- 
al veflTel to it, by which it receives feed. 

The mufcles of the yard are four, two on each fide. A muf- 
cle is an inftrumentof voluntary motion without which no part 
of the body can move itfelf; it confifts of fibrous flefh to make 
up its body of nerves for its fenfe, of veins for its nourifhment, 
of arteries for its vital heat, of a membrane or (kin, to kint to- 
gether, and fo diftinguilh onemufcle from another ; one of each 
fide is fhorter and thicker than the other, and their ufe to ere6l 
the vard and make it (land, and are called erectors ; the others 
are longer and fmaller, and their office is to dilate and open the 
lower part of the urethr?, or channel both for making water 
and voiding the (eed; and thefe are called accelerators. 

The glans, in the extreme part of the yard is foft, and of an 
exquifitc feeling, by reafonofthe thinnelsofthe fkin, wherewith 
it is covered. It is covered with the preputium, or fore(kin, 
"which the Jews were commanded t© cutoff on the eighth day. 
The (kin in fome men covers the top of the yard quite clofe, but 
in others not, which moving up and down in the a6l of copula- 
tion brings pleafureboth to the man and woman. The liga- 
ment by which the praeputium is tied to the glans is called froe- 
num or the bridle. 

The vcflTels of the yard are veins, nerves, and arteries Some 
veins and arteries pafs by the Ikin, and are vifible to the eye; 
others pafs by the inward part of the yard, the arteries being 
difperfed through the body of the yard exceeding the difper- 
fion of the veins, for the right artery is difperfed to the left nde, 
it hath alio two nerves, the leiTer of which is bcftowed on the 
greater Upon the mufcles and body of the yard . 

Having thus defcribed the yard, I (hall now fpeak of the ftones 
or tefticles, fo called becaufe they teftify that he is a man. 
Their number every body knows, is two ; their fubftance is 
white, fott and fpungy : Their form is oval, but in fome they 
are bigger than others ; each ftone hath a mufcle, becaufe they 
^ull up the ftones in the a6t of copulation, that fo the veflTels be- 
ing llackened,*inay the better VQid the feed. 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. US^ 

The life of the flones is to convert blood and fpirit into feed 
for the procreation of man, and to add ftreni. th, heat and cour- 
age to man ; as appears from eunuchs, who have lofl their 
Hones, v/ho are neither lo hot, ftrong nor valiant as other men. 

To the upper part of the tefticles are fixed the eqidimes, from 
whence ariies ^afa deferentlay or ejaculatoria, which, when 
they come to the neck of the bladder, depofit the feed in ^ifcu- 
las femlnalest which are two, each like a bunch of grapes, 
which sdmit the feed into the urethra in the a61 of copulation. 
As for the preparing veiTels, which prepare the blood and vital 
fpirits and carry them to the tefticles, where they are elaborate 
ed into leedl have fpoken of them in the chapter of the geni.- 
tals of women ; and fmce thy differ fo little from thofe of men, 
I fliall not need to repeat what 1 have fuid before. 

CHAP V. 

Of Concept' on \ and houo a Woman may knoiv ivhether /be hath 

conceited or not^ and uohether o Male or Female. 

THE nam a^ inftinfl: implanted in men and v/omento 
propagate their own fpecies, puts them upon making ufe of thofe 
ways nature has ordained for that end, which after they Iiave 
ufed, the woman many times, through ignorance of her having 
conceivedjor want of that due care the ought to take is little 
better than a murderer of her own child, though fhe intends it 
not ; for, after conception, finding herfelf not well, and not 
knowing what the matter is, (he runs to a do<51:or, and enquries 
of him, and he knowing nothing but what (he tells him, gives 
her a ftrong cathartical potion, which deilroys the conception. 
And fomeSthereare, that out of afoolifh bafh'ful covnefs, though 
they know they have conceived, yet w ill not confefs it, that fo 
they might be inftruded to order themfelves accordingly : 
Thofe that are fo coy may in time learn to be wifer ; and for the 
fake of thofe that are ignorant, I (ball fetdown the fignsof con- 
ception, that women may thereby know whether they have 
conceived or not. 

Signs of Conception . 

If under the eye the vein be fwelled, that is under the lower 
eyeled, the veins in the eyes appearing clearly, and the eye 
fomcthingdifcolored ; if (be has not her terms upon her, nor 
watched the nij:ht l^efore, you may certainly conclude her to be 
v/iih child. This appears moft plainly jufl upon her conception, 
and the Tirfl: two months I never knevv ihisfign to fail* 

Keep the urine of the woman clofe in aglafs three days, and 
then f^rain it through a fine linen rloth ; if you find fmall living 
creatures in it, fhe hath moff affuredly conceived, for, the urine, 
which was before part of her own fubil-ance, will be generative 
as well as its miftrefs. 

A coldnefs and chillinefs of the outward parts after copula- 
tion, the heat being retired to make conception The tops of 
the nipples look redder than formerly. The veins of the bread 
are more clearly feenthan they were wont to be. The body is 
v/eakened and tne face difcolored. 1 he belly waxeth very fat, be- 
caufe the womb clofeth itfelf together, to nouhfli andchcrifh the 
feed. If cold water be drunk, a coldnefs is felt in the breads.. 



Ui ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY: 

Lofs of appetite to viMiials, four belchings and exceeding weak- 
nefs of iiomach The breafts begin to fvvell and wax hard, not 
without pain a^nd forenefs Wringing or griping pains, Hke the 
t;ranip, liappen in the belly about tlie navel. Divers appetites 
and longings are engendered. T he veins of the eyes are 
clearly leen, and the eyes feem fomething dlfcolored, asa look- 
ing glafs will ihew you This is an infallible fign. The excre- 
rnents of the guts are voided painfully, becaufe the womb fwel- 
ling thrufieth the right gut together. Take a green nettle, and 
put it into the urine of the v/oman ; cover it clofe, and let it re- 
main a whole nijj,ht : if the v/ oman be with child, it will be full 
of red fpots on the morrow ; iffhebe not, it will be blackifli. 
Therearc feveral other rules of this nature, but thefe are the 
beft, and fome of them feldom fail. Now becaufe many are 
mighty defirous to know whether they be with child of a male 
or female, ! will, in tlie next place, lay down fome rules where- 
by they may make ajudgment in that cafe. 
S/gfjs of a Male child. 

A woman breads a boy with lefs pain than a girl, and does 
not carry her burden fo heavily, but is more nimble in ftirring. 
The child is firfi felt by her on the right fidey for the ancients 
areof opinion, that m.ale cliildren lie on tlie right fide of the 
womb. The woman when (lie rifeth' up from a chair, doth 
readier flay herfelf upon her right hand than on her left. TJic 
belly lies rounder and higher than when it is a female. The 
right bread is more plump, and harder than the left, and the 
right nipple. The color of a woman is more clear, and notfo 
fwarthy as when fhe conceived a girl. The contrary to thefe 
are figns of the conception of a female, and therefore it is need- 
lefs to fet them down. But I will add the following ; they have 
been therefult of my own experience, and which 1 never knew 
fail. If the circle under the woman's eyes, which isof a wan 
blue color, be more apparent under the right eye, and the veins 
moft apparent in herright eye, and then moif didblved, (he is 
with child of a boy : ifthemarkbe mod apparent in her left 
eye, (he is with child of a girl. Again, let her milk a drop of 
>icr milk in a bafon of fair water : If it finks to the bottom, as it 
drops in, round in a drop, it is a girl fhe is with child of, but if 
u be a boy, it will fpread and fwim at the top. 1 his I have of- 
ten tried, and it never failed. But before 1 conclude this chap- 
ter, I ihalllay dov»n fome rules that women ouglit to obferve in 
Older to conception : and likewife, what they Ihould do after 
conception, to prevent mifcarriage. 

IFhat JVornen ought to ohjQrDe in order to cotiception. 

Women that are defirous to have children, in order thereun- 
to, mull give themfelves moderate exercife ; foridlenefs and 
want of exercife are very great enemies to generation work; 
and thofe that obferve it, ftall find that your city dam.es, who 
live high and do nothing, feldom have children, or it they have 
they feldom live ; v. hereas the poor women who accudom them- 
felves to labor, have many children, and thofe lufly . Nor need 
we wonder at it, if we confider the benefit that comes by mod- 
erate exercife and labor, for it opens the pojres, quickens the 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. £45 

ipirits/itirs up the natural heat, ftrengthens the bod/, fenfes, and 
ipirits, and comforts tlie limbs, and helps nature in herexercifcs, 
of" which the procreation of children is none of the lealt. 

Next to moderate exercife, (he mufl avoid all manner of dif- 
content, and the occafion of it ; lor dilcontent is a great enemy 
to conception, but contentment and quietnefs of mind are as 
great friends to it ; for content dilates the heart and arteries, 
whereby the vital blood or fpirits is lufficiently diftributed 
throughout the body : and thence arifefuchaifections as pleale, 
recreate, and refrelh the nature of man, as, hope, joy, love, glad- 
nefs and mirth. Nor does it only comfort and ftrengthen the 
body, but alfo the operations and imaginations of the mind ; for 
all agree, that the imagination of the mother works forcibly 
upon the conception of the child ; and therefore woinen ought 
to take great care that their imagination be pure and clear, that 
their children may be well formed. 

Another thing that women ought to do in order to conception 
is to keep the womb in good order ; and to that end, fee that the 
menftruescome down as they ought to do ; if they arc difcolor- 
ed, then they are out of order, but if the blood come down pure 
then the woman will be very prone to conceive with child, ef- 
pecially if they ufe copulation a day or two after the monthly 
terms are (lay ed. 

Another thing a woman ought to obferve that would conceive 
is, that (he ufe not the ait of copulation too often, for fatiety 
gluts the womb and makes it unfit to do its office There are 
two things demonftrate this : one is, that the common whores 
(who often ufe copulation) have leldomany children, the other 
is, that thofe women whofe hu(bands have been long abfent, af- 
ter they come again conceive very quickly. 

And then let the time of copulation be convenient, that the?e 
may be no fear offurprife, for fear hinders conception. 

And let thetime of copulation be natural, and not (lirred up 
by provocatives ; and obferve allb,nhatthe greater the w oman':: 
defire of copulation is, the more (ubject (he is to conceive 

A loadftone carried about a woman caufeth not only concep- 
tion but. concord between man and wife. 

Things necejfar^' for "Women to obferve after Conception* 

Women are very fubject to mifcarriages in the two fir(t months 
after conception, becaufe then the Jigamenis are weak and foon 
broken. To prevent which, let the .woman every morning 
drink a gQod draught of fage ale, and. it will do her al)undance 
of good.; 

Bvitiffigns of abortioRor mifcarriage appear, let her lay a 
toaft dipped in tent, (in cafe mufkadel cannot be gotten ) to her 
navel, tor this is very good : or let her take a little garden tan- 
fey, and having bruifed it, fprinkle it with inu(kadel, and app^y 
it to the navel, and (he will find it much better. Alfo tanfey 
infufed in ale, like fage ale, and a draught drunk every morning 
12 mod excellent for iuch women as are fubje6tto mifcarriages, 
ilfo t-ake juice of tanfey clarify it, and boil it up into a iy rup^ 
with .twice its weight in fugar, and let a wcmari take a i'poonhu 



246 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

or two of it, in fiich cafes it will be an excellent prefervative a 
gainlt mifcarriages. 

Alio let the air be temperate, fteep moderate, avoid watchin^; 
and immoderate exercife, Avith dilrurbing pallions, lloiid clam" 
ors, and tihhy imells ? and let her abftain from all things which 
may provoke either the urine or the courfes, and alfo from all 
/harp and w'ndy meats, and let a moderate diet be obferved, 
If the excrements of the guts be retained, lenefy the belly with 
i-lyders made of the decoction of mallow Sj violets with fugar 
and common oil ; or make broth of burrage, buglofs, beets, mal- 
lows, and take therein a little manna : but on the contrary, if 
ihe be troubled with aloofnefs of the belly, let it not be (topped 
without the judgment of a phyfician, for all uterine fluxes have 
a malignant quality in them, which muft be evacuated and re- 
:noved before the fiux is flayed. 

CHAP. VT. 
Of Barrennefs ivith the rc?nedic5 againji h. and the Signs of In Jut 
fidency both in Men (ind Women. 
HAVING, in the foregoing chapter;, treated of con- 
ception, with the figns, and given dire»5t:ions to the women both 
before and after conception, 1 will in this chapter treat of the 
oppofjte to conception, to wit, barrennefs 

If it is ablelTmg to have children, then certainly barrennefs 
muft be a great curfe ; And indeed in holy writ it is-Io account- 
ed, and thereiore, fomeare threatened that thev (hall die child- 
lefs : and the wife of Jacob, even his beloved Rachel, cried out 
to him *' Give nie children or elfe I die " Indeed it was a paf- 
(ionate expref^ion, and fell out according to her words, for fhe 
had children, and died in childbed But to the fubjedl in hand, 
wliich is barrennefs. 

Barrennefs is threefold, to wit, either natural, accidental or 
againfl: nature. 

Natural barrennefs is when a woman is barren, though the 
inftruments ot generation are perfe^l: both in herfelf and her 
hufband, and no preposterous and diabolical courfe ufed to caufe 
it, and neither age nor difeafe, nor any natural defect hinder- 
ing, and yet the woman remains naturally barren, and con- 
ceives not. 

Now this may proceed noma natural catife ; for if the man 
and woman be of one complexion, they ieldom have children, 
and the reafon is clear, for, the univerfal courfe of nature being 
ionned by the Almighty of a compofition of contraries, 
cannot be increafedby a compofition of likes, and therefore, if 
the coniiitution of the woman be hot and dry, as well as that of 
rlieman, there can be no conception, and if on the contrary, the 
man fhould be of a cold and moift conftitution, as well as the wo- 
man, the effect would be thefiime, and this barrennefs js pure- 
ly natural. The enly v. ay to help it is, for people before they 
:narry to obferve each others conrfitutions and complexions if 
they defign to have children ; if their complexion or conftitu- 
tions be alike, they are not fit to come together ; for difcordant 
natttrds make the only harmony in the v/crksof generation. 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 24T 

Another natural caufe of barrennefs, is want of love between 
man and wife, love is that vital principal that ought to animate 
each organ in the a6l of generation, orelfe itwillbefpiritlefsand 
dull, for, if their hearts be not united in love, how fhould their 
feed unite to caufe conception ? And this is fufficiently eviden- 
ced, in that there never follows a conception upon a rape, there- 
fore if men and women defign to have children, let them take 
care to live, fo that their hearts as well as their bodies may be 
united, orelfe they mifs of their expedtations. 

A third caufe of natural barrennefs is the letting of virgins' 
blood in the arm before their natural courfes are come down, 
which is ufually in the fourteenth and fixteenth years cf their 
age, fometimes perhaps, before the thirteenth, but never before 
the twelfth. And becaufe ufually they are out oforder and in- 
difpofed before their purgations come down, their parents run to 
ado6lorto know what's the matter, and he ftraight prefcribes 
opening a vein in the arm, feeing it was fullnefs of blood which 
was the caufe offending, and this makes her well at prefent, and 
when the young virgin happens to be in the fame diforder again 
the mother ftraight runs to the furgeon, ufes the fame remedy, 
and by thefe means the blood is diverted from its proper chan- 
nel, fo that it comes not down to the womb, as in other women, 
whereby the womb dries up, and the woman is forever berren. 
The way to prevent this, is to let no virgin blood in the arm 
before her courfes come well down, but, if there be occafion, in 
the foot, for that will bring the blood downward, and by that 
means provoke the menftrues to come down. 

Another caufe of natural barrennefs is, the debility of perfons 
in copulation ; if perfons perform not that a6l with all the heat 
and ardor that nature requires, they may as well let it alone, 
and expefl to have children without it ; for frigidity and cold- 
nefs never produce conception. Of the cure of this we will 
fpeak, after I have fpoken of accidental barrennefs, which is 
what isoccafioned by fome morbific matter or infirmity upon 
the body, either of the man or woman, which being removed 
they become fruitful. And hence (as I have before noticed) 
the firft and great law of the creation was to increafe and multi- 
ply, and barrennefs is the direct oppofitionof that law, and fruf- 
trates the end of our creation : and it isfo great an afflidlion to 
many to be without children, as to caufe man and wife to have 
hard thoughts of one another, each party thinking the caufe is 
not in them ; I (hall here, for the fatisfa^lion of all well mean- 
ing people, fet down thefigns and caufesof infufficiency both in 
men and women, premifing this firft that when people have no 
children, they muft not prefently blame either party, for nei- 
ther may be in the fault, but perhaps God fees it not good (for 
reafons beft known to himfelf) to give them any : of v/hich we 
have divers inftances both in facred and profane hiftory : and 
though the Almighty in the produ(5lion of nature, works by nat- 
ural means, yet where he withholds his blefTing, natural means 
are ineffecf uai, for, it is his blelfing, that it is the power and en- 
rgy by which nature brings her produdlions forth. 



243 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

Signs and Caufes of infuffidency in Men, 

One caufe may be fome vicioulnefs in the yard ; as if the fame 
be crooked, or any ligaments thereof diftorted or broken, where- 
by the ways and paflage, through which the feed (hould flow, 
come to be (lopped or vitiated. 

AnoAer caufe may be too much weaknefs of the yard and 
tendernefs tliereof. lolhat it is not ftrongly enough erected to 
injed the feed into the womb, for the ftrength and Ititfnefs of 
the yard very much conduce to conception, by reafon of the for- 
cible inje6tion of the feed. 

Alfo if the ftones have received any hurt, fo that they cannot 
exercif<& their proper giftin producingfeed ; or, if they are op- 
prefledwith any infiamation or tumor, wound or ulcer, drawn 
up within the belly, and not appearing outwardly, thefe are 
ligns of infullkiency and caufes of barrennefs 

Alfo, a man may be barren, by reafon of the defe(fh of his 
feed : as, Firit If he caft forth no feed at all or lefs in lubftance 
than is needful : or Secondly, if the feed be vifcous, or unfit for 
generation, as, on the one fide, it happens in bodies that aregrofs 
and fat, the matter of it being defective : and on the other fide, 
too much leannefs, or continual wafting or confumption of the 
body deftroys the feed, nature turning all the matter and fub- 
ilance thereof into nutriment of the body. 

Too frequent copulation is alfo one ^reat caufe of barrennefs 
in men for itattra^teth the feminal moifture from the ftones be- 
fore it is fufficiently prepared and conco6led, lo if any one by 
daily copulation do exhauft and draw out all the moifture ot his 
feed, then do the ftones draw the moift humors from the fupe- 
rior veins unto themfelves, and fo having but little blood in 
them, they are forced of neceffity to caft it out raw and uncon- 
co6ted ; and thus the ftones, violently deprived of the moifture 
of their veins, attradl the fame from the other fuperior veinSj 
and the fuperior veins, from all the other parits^ of the body for 
their proper nouriftiment, thereby depriving the body of its vi- , 
tal fpirits ; and therefore no wonder that thofe whp ufe immod- 
erate copulation are very weak in their bodies, feeing their 
whole body is thereby deprivedof its beft and pureft blood, and 
alfo of the vital fpirits, infomuch that many who have been too 
mvjch addicted to that pleafure have killed thejnfelves in the 
aift ; and therefore, it is no wonder if fuch uncooco^ied.and 
undigefted feed be unfit for generation. 

Gluttony and drunkennefs, and other exceffes, do alfo much 
hinder men from fruitfulnefs, and make them unfit for genera- 
tion. But amongft other caufes of barrennefs in men^;this alfo 
is one that makes them barren, and almoft of the nature of 
eunuchs, and that is the incifion, or cutting of the veins behind 
the cars, which in cafe of diftempers is oftentimes done, for ac- 
cording to the opinion of moft phyfjcians and anatomifts, the 
feedflows from the brain by thofe veins beliind the ears more 
than from any other part of the body : from whence it is very 
probable, the tranfmitfion of the feed is hinder«4by ctittiag ort^ 
the veins behiuci the.ears, fo thatit cannot de fee nd, at. all. to the 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 249 

tellicles, or comes thither very crude and raw. And thus much 
tor figns of barrc»nnels in men. 

Signs and Caufes oj Infujficiencyy or Bnrrennefs in Women* 

Although there are many caufes of barrennefs in women, yet 
the chief and principal are internal, refped:ing either the privy 
parts of the womb, the feed or the menftruous blood. 

Therefore Hippocrates faith (fpeaking of either the eafy or 
difficult conceotion in women) the hrft confideration ought to be 
had of their fpecies, for little women are more apt to conceive 
than great, ilender than grofs, white and fair than ruddy and 
high colored, black than pale and wan ; thofe which have their 
veins confpicuous are more apt than others ; but to be very flefhy 
is evil ; to have great fweliing breaftsis good. 

The next thing to be confidered is, the monthly purgations, 
whether they have them duly every month ; if they flow plen- 
tifully, are of a good color, whether they have them equally ev- 
ery month ; for fo they ought to be 

Then the v.omb or place of conception is to be confidered ; it 
ought to be clean and found, dry and foft, not retra(::led, nor 
drawn up, nor prone nor defcending downward, the mouth 
thereof turned away, nor too clofe (hut. But to be more partic- 
ular. 

The firfl parts to be Ipoken of are the Pudenda, or privities, 
and the v/omb ; when thefe are fliut andenclofed either by na- 
ture or againll nature, luch women are called hnperf orate ; for 
in feme women the mouth of the womb continues compreflTed, 
or clofed up, from the time of their birth, until the coming 
down of their courfes j and then of a fudden, when their terms 
prefs forward to purgation, they are molefted with great and 
-unufual pains : Some of thefe break oftheir own accord, others 
are diire(!:tedand openedby aphyfician ; others never break at 
all and then it brings dcatht 

All thefe Aetius particularly handles, ihewing that the womb 
is (hut three manner of ways, which hinders conception; firft, 
when the lips of the pudenda grow or cleave together ; fecond, 
when there are certain membranes growing in the middle part 
of the matrix within ; — third, when (though the lips andbofom 
of the Pudenda may appear fair and open) the mouth of the 
womb may be quite (liut up : all which are occafions of barren- 
nefs, in that they hinder both the ufe of man, the monthly 
courfes, and conception. 

But among all the caufes of barrennefs in women, the greated 
is in the womb, which is the Meld of gencrauon : and, if the 
field be corrupted, it is in vain to expe(^t any fruit, let it be ever 
fowell fown . — for it may be unfitfor generation, by reafon of 
many diftempers to which it is fubje6l, as forinffance, overmuch 
heat and overmuch cold, for women whofe wombs are too thick 
and cold cannot conceive, becaufe coldnefs extinguifheth the 
natural heat of the human feed- 

Immoderate moifture of the womb alfo deftroys the feed of 
man, and makes it ineffe<^tual, as corn fown in fens and marfhes ; 
and fo doth overmuch drynefs of the womb, fo that the feed per- 
iHieth for w^nt of nutriment. 



%99 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

Immoderate heat of the womb is alfo a caule of barrennefs , 
for it fcorcheth up the feed, as corn fown in the drought of fum- 
mer : for immoderate heat hurts all the parts of the body, and 
no conception can live to be nourifliedin that woman. 

Alfo when unnatural humors are engendered ; as too much 
phlc;;m tympanies, wind, water, worms, or any fuch evil hu- 
mors abounding, contrary to nature ; it caufes barrennefs, as 
does alfo the terms not coming down in due order, as I have 
already faid, 

A woman may alfo have other accidental caufes of barrennefs 
as fudden frights, anger, fear, grief, and peiturbation of the 
mmd ; too violent exercifes, as leaping, dancing, running, after 
copulation, and the like. But I will now add fome figns where- 
by we may know thofe things. 

If the caufe of barrennefs be in the man through overmuch 
heat in his feed, the mowan may eafily feel that in receiving it. 

If the nature of the womb be too hot, ^nd fo unfit for concep- 
tion, it will appear by having her terms very little, and their col- 
or inclining to yellownefs ; fhe is alfo very hafty, choleric, and 
craftv, her pulle beats, very fwift, and ihe is very defirous of 
copulation. 

If you would know whether the fault lies in the man or wo- 
man, fprinkle the man's urlneupon one lettuce leaf, and the wo- 
man's upon another, and that which dries away firft is unfruit- 
ful. Alfo take five wheat corns, and feven beans, put them in- 
to an earthen pot, and let the part^ make water therein ; let 
this ftand feven davs, and if in tliat time they begin to fprout, 
then the party is fruitful, but if they fprout not, then the party 
is barren, w^hether it be man or woman This is a certain fign. 

There are fome that make this experiment of a woman's fruit- 
fulnefs : Take myrrh, red ftorax, and fome fuch odoriferous 
things, and make a perfume of it, which let the woman receive 
into the neck of the w©mb through a funnel; if Ihe feel the 
fmoke afcend through the body to hernofe, then (he is fruitful, 
otherwife barren. 

Some alfo take garlic and beat it, let the woman lie on her 
back upon it, and if (he feels thelcent thereof afcend to hernofe, 
it is^a fign of fruitfulnefs. 

Culpeper and others, give a great deal of credit to the follov.- - 
ing experiment. 

Take a handful of barley and fteep half of it in the urine of a 
man, and the other half in the urine of a woman, for the fpace 
of twenty four hours, and then take it out, and fet the v/onian's 
by itfelf ; and the man's by itfelf ; fet it in a flowerpot, or lome 
other tiling where you may keep it dry ; then water the man's 
every morning with hisovvn urine, and the woman's with her's, 
and that which grows firft is the moft fruitful, and if one grow 
not at all that party is naturally barren. 

But now having ipoke enough of the difeafe, it is high time to 
adjgn the cure. 

If barrennefs proceeds from ftoppage of the menfes, let the 
woman fweat, for that opens the part, and the bqft way to fweat 
is in a hothoufe. Then let the v/omb be ilrengthenedby drmk- 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY 251 

ing a draught of white wine,wherein a handful of (linking ar- 
rack, firft bruifed, ha^been boiled, for by a certain magnetic 
virtue, it (Iren^thens the womb, and by a fympathetic quality, 
removes any difeafe thereof. To which add alfo a handful of 
vervain, which is very good to ftrengthen both the womb and 
the head, which are commonly affli(!:ted together by a fympathy. 

Having ufed this two or three days, if they come not down, 
take of calamint, pennyroyal, thyme, betony, dittany, burnet, 
feverfew, mogwort, fage, piony roots, juniper berries, half a 
handful of thefe, orfo many of them as can be gotten ; let all 
thefe be boiled in beer, and drank for her ordinary drink. 

Take one part of gentian, two parts of centaury, diflil them 
with ale in an alembick, after vou have bruifed the gentian 
roots, and infufed them well This water is an admirable reme- 
dy to provoke the terms. But if you have not this ^vater in 
readin^Ts, take a dram of centaury, and half a dram of gentian 
roots, beat them to powder, and take in the morning in white 
wine, or elfe take ahandful of centaury, and half a handful of 
gentian roots bruifed ; boil it in poffet drink, and drink a draught 
of it at night going to bed . Seed of wild navew beaten to pow- 
der, and a dram of it taken in the morning in white wine, is alfo 
very good. But if this doth not do, you mufl let blood in the 
legs And befure you adminifter your medicjne a little before 
the full of the moon, or between the new and full moon, but by 
no means in the wane of the moon -, if you do you will find them 
ineffectual. 

If barrennefs proceeds from the overflowing of the menflrues, 
then ftrengthen the womb, as you were taught before, and af- 
terwards anoint the reins of the back with oil of rofes, oil of 
myrtles, or oil ofquinces, every night, and then wrap a piece of 
white baize about your reins, the cotton fide next your (kin and 
keep the fame always to it. Kut above all, I Commend this 
medicine to you ; take comfrey leaves or roots, clowns, wound 
wort, of each one handful, bruife them well, and boil them in 
ale, and drink a good draught of it every now and then : or take 
caflia, cinnamon, lignea, opium, of each two drams : myrrh, 
white j)epper, galbanum, of eacn one dram; diffblve the gum 
and opium in white wine, beat the reft into powder ; then make 
them into pills, by mixing them together exactly, and let the 
patient take two pills every night going to bed ; but let not both 
the pills exceed fifteen grains 

If barrennefs proceed from a flux of the womb, the cure muft 
be according to the caufe producing it, or which the flux pro- 
ceeds from, which may be know by its figns ; for a flux of the 
womb being a continual diftillation from it for a long time to- 
gether, the color of what is voided (hews what humor it is that 
it oflFends ; in fome it is red, and that proceeds from blood 
putrefied ; and in fome it is yellow, and that denotes choler : 'in 
others white and pale, and that denotes phlegm. If pure blood 
comes out, as if a vein was opened, fome corrofion or knawin^ 
of the womb is to be feared. All of them arc known by theie 
figns. 

1 he place of conception is continually moift with the humors, 
the place is colored, the party loathes meats, and breathes >vith 



tot ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

difficulty ; the eyes are much fwollen, which is fometimes with 
pain. If the offending humor be pure blood, then you muft 
let blood in the arm, and the cephalic vein is fitted to draw back 
the blood, and then let the juice of plantain and comfrey be in- 
jeded into the womb, i f phlegm be the caufe, let cinnamon be 
rhe fpice ufed in all her meats and drinks; and let her take a 
little Venice treacle or mithridate every morning ; let her boil 
burnet, mugwort, featherfew and vervain in all broths. Alfo 
half a dram of myrrh taken every mci^ning is an excellent rem- 
edy againft this malady. If choler be the caufe, let her take 
burrage, feuglofs, red rofes, endive, and fuccory roots, lettuce 
and white popy feed, of each a handful ; boil thefe in white 
wine till one half is waOed ; let her drink half a pint every 
morning; to which half pint add fyrup of peach flowers and 
fyrup of chickory, ofeach one ounce, with a little rhubarb; 
and this will gently purge her. If it proceed from putrefied 
blood, let her blood in the foot, and then itrengthen the womb, 
as I have dire(!:l:ed, in flopping the menftrues. 

If barrennefs be occauoned by the falling out of the womb, as 
fometimes happens, let her apply fweet fcents to her nofe, fuch 
as civit, galbanum, flyraxcalamitis, wood of aloes, and fuch oth- 
er things as are of that nature, and let her lay flinking things to 
the womb, fuch as alafoetida, oil of amber, or the Imoke of 
her own hair burnt ; for this is certain that the womb flies from 
all flinking, and applies to all fweet things. But the moft infal- 
lible cure in this cafe is this; take a common burdock leaf, 
(which you may keep dry if you pleafe all the year) apply this 
to her head, and it will draw the womb downward. Bur feed 
beaten into powder, has alfo the like virtue ; for by a magnetic 
power it draws the womb which way you pleafe, according as 
it is applied. 

If barrennefs proceed from a hot caufe, let the party take 
whey and clarify it, then boil plantain leaves and roots in it, 
and drink it for her ordinary drink. Let her alfo inje6^ the 
juice of plantain into the womb with a fyringe : If it be in the 
winter, when you carmot get the juice, make a ftrong deco6tion 
t)f the roots and leaves in water, and injei5l that up with a fj^r- 
inge : but let it be blood warm, and you will find this medicine 
of great efficacy. And further, to take away barrennefs pro- 
ceeding from hot caufes, take often conferve of rofes, cold loz- 
enges made of tragacanth, the confe^lion of tricantelia, and ufe 
to fmeil camphire, rofe water, and faunders. It is alfo good to 
bleed the baiilica, or liver vein, and then take this purge ; take 
clertuarum de epithimo de fucco rofarumy of each two drams 
and a half, clarihed whey four ounces ; m'X them well together 
and take it in the morning fading : fleep after it about an hour 
and a half, and fafi: four hours after it ; and about an hour be- 
fore you eat any thing drink a good draught of whey. Alfo, 
take lily water four ounces ; mardrogar water one ounce, faf- 
fron half afcruple ; beat the faflVon to powder, and mix it 
with the waters and drink them warm in the morning i ufe this 
eight days together, 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. £53 

Here folloivethfome excellent Remedies againjl BarreriJieJSy and to 
caufe Fruitfulnejs . 
TAKE broom flowers, imallage, parfley feed, cum- 
min, mugwort featherfew, of each half afcrwple : aloes half an 
ounce ; India fait, fattron, of each half a dram, beat and mix 
well together, and put it into five ounces of featherfew water 
warm, flop it clofe, and let it ftand anddry in a warm place: 
and thus do two or three times one after anotlve r ; then make each 
dram into fix pills, and take one of them every other night be- 
fore fupper. 

A confection very good againil barrcnnefs. Take pifrachia, 
pingles, eringoes, of each half an ounce : faffrononc dram, lig- 
num aloes, gallingale, mace, caryophilla, balm flowers, red and 
white behen, of each four fcruples ; fhaven ivdry, caifia bar, of 
each two fcruples ; fynip of confecled ginger twelve ounces ; 
white fu^r fix ounces , deco6f allthefe well together, then put 
to it of muflc and amber, of each half a fcruple ; take thereof the 
quantity of a nutmeg three times a day ; in the morning and an 
liour before noon, and an hour after lupper. 

Butif the caufe of barrennefs either in man or woman, be 
through the fcarcity or diminution of the natural feed, thenfuch 
things are to be taken as do increafe the feed, and incite or fHr 
up venery and farther conception ; which I Ihall here fet down, 
and fb conclude this chapter of barrennefs. 

For this, yellow rape feed baked in bread is very good; alfo 
young fat flefh, not too much falted ; alfo faflron, the tails of 
iiincus, and long pepper prepared in wine : let fuch perfons ef- 
chew alfo four, Iharp, doughy and (limy meats, long fleep after 
meat, furfeiting and drunkennefs, as much as they can ; keep 
ihemfelves from forrow, grief, vexation and care. 

Thefe things following, increafe natural feed and flir up to 
venery, and recover the feed again when loft, viz. eggs, milk, 
rice boiled in milk ; fparrow's brains, fielh, bones and all ; the 
Hones and pizzles of bulls, bucks, rams, and boars; alfo cock 
(tones, lamb ftones, partridges, quail's and pheafant's eggs ; 
and this is an undeniable aphorifm, that whatfbever any crea- 
ture is addit:ted unto, they move or incite the man or woman 
that eats them to the like : and therefore partridges, quails, 
fparrows, &c. being extremely addicted to venery, they work 
the fame effect in thofe men and women that eat them, Alfo to . 
take notice, that in what part of the body tl\e faculty, which you 
would flrengthen lies, take the fame part of the body of anoth- 
er creature in whom the faculty is (tron^ for a medicine. As, 
for inftanc^, the procreative faculty lies in the tefticles ; there- 
fore cock ftones, lamb ftones, &c. are proper to ftir up venery. 
I will alfo ^ive you another general rule ; creatures that are 
fruitful, being eaten make them fruitful that eat them, fuch as 
lobfters, prawns, pigeons, &c. 

Authors have f^t down feveralways for the prevention of bar- 
rennefs ; to carry the herb St. John's Wert about them; 
which for that caufe was called by the ancients Fuga Demonum, 
or the oevil driver. Alfo to carry a load (tone about them, was 
accounted a great prefervative : as likewife a plailter of St. 



2if4 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

John's Wort laid to the reins. And laftly, the heart of a turtle 
dove carried about them ; but thefe are only for prevention. 
But you will fay, how if prevention come too late, and the mif- 
chiet be done already, and the man cannot give his due benevo- 
lence ? mull the aoor man remain helplefs, and the good wo- 
man go without what fhe is married for ? No, there is help even 
in this cafe alio ; and the cure is eafy, which though the reader 
.'•ray fcruple to believe, >;et it has been tried and found eftedlu- 
al ; it is no more than this, let the man only make water through 
the wife's wedding ring and the enchantment will be broke : 
and thus one piece of witchcraft is made to drive out another. 
But I will here put a period to this chapter. 
Of the pleafure and adi^anta^e of Marriages \ ivitb the unequa 
MatcheSy and ruinous effed ofunlauoful Lo've, 
WE have hitherto been treating of the generation of 
man which is eftedled by man and woman in the a<^l:ion of coi- 
tion or copulation. But thiscanbe noways lawfully done but 
by thofe who are joined together in wedlock, according to the 
inftitution of the Creator in paradifewhen he firft brought man 
and woman together : Which being fo it neceflahly leads to 
treat of the pleafure and advantage of a married life. 

And fure there is none that reafonably queftion the plealure 
and advantage of a married life that does but reflect upon its 
author, or the time and place of its inftitution. The author and 
inftitutor of marriage w^as no other than the great Lord of the 
whole univerfe, the Creator of heaven and earth, whofewifdom 
is infinite, and therefore knew what was beft for us, and whofe 
goodnefs is equal tohis wifdom, and therefore inftituted mar- 
riages, as what was bed for the man whom he had but jufl cre- 
ated, and whom he looked upon as fliort of that complete hap- 
pinefs which he had defigned him while he was alone and had 
not the help mate provided for him. The time of its inftitution 
v/as no lels remarkable ; it was whilft our firft parents were 
cloathed with that virgin purity and innocence in which they 
v/ere created ; it w^as at a time wherein they had a bleifed and un- 
interrupted converie and communion v/ith their great Creator ; 
and were complete in all the perfedlions both of body and mind, 
being the lively image of him that created them ; it was at a 
time when they could curioufly furvey the feveral incomparable 
beauties and perfections of eacli other without fin, andknew not 
whatit was to luft ; it was at this happy time the Almighty 
divided Adam from himfelf, and of a crooked rib made an help 
mate for him; and by inftituting marriage, united him unto 
himfelf again in Wedlock's facred bands. And this muil needs 
fpeak very highly in commendation of a married life. 

But we have yet confidered only the time ; now let us con- 
sider next what place it was wherein this marriage knot w as firft 
tied and we ftiall find the place was Paradiie, a place formed by 
^he great Creator for delight and pleafure : and in our ufual di- 
<ile(^t when we ftiould rhew the higheft. fatisfa6lion we take in, 
and give the greateft commendation to a place, we can afcend 
no higher than to affirm it was like a Paradife, There are many 
curioMS d«lii;acies and delights to pleafe the eye and charm the 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 255 

ear in the gardens of princes and noblemen ; but paradife did- 
certainly out do them all, the facred Scripture giving of its high 
encomiums. It was pleafant as the gardens of God. It was in 
the midft of Paradife, the centre of delight and happinefs, that 
Adam was unhappy while in a fmgle flate : and therefore mar- 
riage may properly beftiled the Paradifeof Paradife itfelf 

1 will ihew you the love of a good wife to her hulband in an 
illuftrious example of a queen to our ovrn nation. 

King Edv/ard the firft making a voyage to Pdefline, for the 
recovery of tlie Holy Land, in which expedition he was very 
victorious and fuccefsful, took his queen along Vv'ith him, who 
willingly accompanied him in all the dangers he expofed him- 
felfto. It fo happened that after feveral vit^fories obtained, 
which made him both beloved and feared, he was wounded by 
a Turk, with an impoifoned arrow, which all the king's phyfj- 
cians concluded mortal, unlefs fome human creature would 
luck away the po^fonous blood out of the wound : at the fame 
time declaring that it would be the death of thofe that did it : 
upon this tliC thing was propofed to feveral of the courtiers : 
but they all waved this piece of loyalty ; and as well as th.ey 
pretended to love the king, yet loved their own lives better ; ani 
therefore with a compliment declined it, which, when tlie no- 
ble queen perceived, and that the king mud die for the want of 
fuch a kind adiftance, fhe, with a bravenefs worthy of herfelf, 
declared fhe was refolved herlelf to undertake his cure, and 
Venture her own life to fave the kingher hufband ; and {q ac- 
cordingly fucked the poifonous matter from the wound, and 
thereby laved the king : and, Heaven which did infpire licr 
with that generous refohition, preferved her too, as a reward 
for her great conjugal aifeftion. 

But that which renders marriai;e fuch a mornio, and makes 
it look like fuch a bugbear to our modern (parks, are tliofe un- 
happy confequences that too often attend it, for there are few 
but lee what inaufpicious torches Hymen lights at every wed- 
ding ; what unlucky hands link in the wedding ring, nothing 
but fears and jars, and difcontents or jealoufies, a curfe as cruel 
orelfe barrennefs, are all the blcilings which crown the genial 
bed. But it is not marriage that is to blam.e for this, the things 
are only the effects of forced ai^d unequal matches; when 
greedy parents, for the tir.rft of gold, Vv-ill match a daugl^cr that 
is fcarce feventeen to an old miier that is above threelcore,, can 
any think they two can ever agree, whofe inclinations are as dif- 
ferent as the months of June and January ? this makes tlie wo- 
man (who fliil wants a hufoand, for the old mifer is fcarce the 
hhadow of one) cither to wifl^ orniay be to contrive his death, 
to whom lier parents thus againft her wiU, have yoked her ; 
or elle to fatisfy her natural inclinations, Cne throws lierfelfinta 
the arms of unlawful love, both of which are equally deftruciive, 
and which might both have been prevented, had her greedy in- 
confiderate parents provided her fuch a match as had been fuita- 
ble and proper. A fad truth of which an inftance follows. 

There lived in Warwickfhire a gentleman ofvery good eftate, 
v,ho being grown ancient at tlie death of liis firft wiiCj thought 



^5^ ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

of marrying his fon and heir, then at man's eftale, to the 
daughter of a neighboring gentleman, ofan ancient family and a 
fair eftate, \s ho approved of the motion, and agreed to give 50001. 
\v ith his daughter upon heriparriage with the young gentleman. 
No fooner had the father a hght of the young lady, but for- 
getting his fon, became a fuitor for himfelf ; and to obtain her 
ottered as much money for her (beiidesthe fettling h.er. 
- a good joinhire on her) as' her father had promifed to give with 
her to his fon. This liberal ofter fo wrought on her lady's fa- 
ther, that with perAiaiions, and with menaces, he forced his 
daughter unw illmgly to concert to be married to the old man. 
But as ihc was in a manner compelled to this unequal match, fo 
(he never lived contentedly with him : for lier ati'eCtions wan- 
dering after other men, ihe gave entertainment to a young gen- 
tleman of twenty two years of age, whom Ihe liked much better 
than her hulband, as one more fuitable to her young years ; 
that ilie grev/ impatient for her hufband's death therefore fought 
to cut that thread of life fhe was of opinion nature lengthened 
out too long : and to thai end having corrupted her waiting wo- 
iiian, and a groom belonging to the liable, ihe refolved by their 
alliitance, and that of her enamorato, to murder him in his bed 
l:y lhan;;,!ing him ; which refolution (although her lover failed 
her, and came not at the time Ihe appointed him recoiling at the 
difmal apprehenfion of a fa6t fo horrid) (he executed only by 
her ferVants. For watching till her hufband wasafleep, ifhe let 
in thofe aflalTms, and then calling a Ions towel about his neck, 
Ihe caufed the groom to lie upon him, uiat he might not ftruegle, 
w hilit Ihe and her maid, by draining the tow;el, flopped his 
breath. And now the next thing was how to prevent difcovery, 
and to that end they carried him to another room, where aclofe 
flool was placed, on which they fet him ; and when the maid 
and groom w ere both withdrawn and the coafl clear, flie made 
fuch a hideous outcry in the houfe, wringing her hands and 
pulling off her hair, and weeping fo extremely, that none ful"- 
pet5ted her ; for fhe alledged, that milling him fometime out of 
bed, file went to fee what was the matter he flaid fo long, found 
him dead fitting on his clofe (tool ; which feeming very plauli- 
ble, prevented all fufpicions of his death. And being thus rid 
ot^ her huibaad, Ihe fet a greater value on her beauty, and quite 
Ihook ott her former lover (perhaps becaufe he had implicitly 
icfufed to be an a^torin her hulband's tragedy) and coming up 
to London, made the beil market of her beauty that (lie could. 
But murder is a crime that feldom goesunpunifhed to the grave; 
iji two years after, juitice overtook lier, and brought to light 
tliis hornd deed of darknefs. Tlie groom (one of the actors of 
this fatal tragedy, being retained a fervaut .with tlie fon and 
Jieirof the old murdered Gentleman, for w horn the lady was 
fi rfl defigned) with fome other. lervants attending }um to Cov- 
entry, his guilty confcience (he being in his cups) forced him 
upon his knees to beg forgivencisof his niafter for the murder 
ut his father. And taking him afidc, acquainted h.'m with aU 
the circumlbncesof it. 
The gentleman, though flriKk with horror and amazement at 
•i-:" difcoverv of fo vile a fa--^ yet gave the groom good words, 



ARTSTOTLE's LAST LEGACY. ^5T 

but ordered his fervants to have an eye upon him, that he might 
not efcape when fober ; and yet efcape he did, for all their vig- 
ilance, and being got to the fea fide, he attempted three times 
to put to iea, but was as often torced back by contrary winds ; 
where being purfued and apprehended by his mafter, lie was 
brought back a prifoner to Warwick, as was foon after, the la- 
dy and her gentle woman alfo, who were all juftly executed for 
that horrid murder ; The lady w^as burned on Wolveyheath 
and the two fervants fuffered death at Warwick ; leaving the 
world a fad example of the difmal confequences of doting love, 
forced marriages and unequal matches. 

And though in many fuch like matches, the mifchief does not 
run fohigh, as to breaJc forth into adultery and murder, but the 
young lady from a principle of virtue and the fear of God, 
curbs her natural inclinations, and preferves her chaftity yet e- 
ven in this very cafe, her hulband, confcious of the abatement 
of hisyouthftil vigor, and his own weak imbecile performance of 
the conjugal rites, fufpe6fs his virtuous lady and watches over 
Jier with Argus' eyes, making himfelf and her unhappy by his 
fenfelefs jealoufy ; and though he happens lo have children by 
her (which may well be, havmg fo good ground to improve on) 
yet can fcarcely think they are his own. His very lleep is dif- 
turbed with the dreams of cuckoldum and homes ; nor dares- 
he keep a pack of hounds for fear A(^l:aeon^s fate fliould follow 
liim. Thefe are a few of the fad efFe(5ts of old men's dotage and 
unequal matches. 

But let us turn tlie tables now, and fee if it be better on the- 
other fide^ when a young fpark about two and twenty marries a 
granum of three fcore and ten, with a face more wrinkled than 
a piece of tripe. This I am fure is more unnatural : Here can 
be no increale, unlcfsof gold, which oftentimes the old hag (for 
one can call her no better) that marries a young boy to fatisfy 
her letcherous itch, conveys away before her marriage, to 
Iier own relations, and leaves the expelling coxcomb nothing 
but repentance for his portion. Pocket expenfes perhaps (he 
will allow him, and for thofe flender wages fhe is bound to do 
tlie bafeft drudgery. But it he meets with money, which was 
the only motive of tlie match (her gold being.the greateft cordi- 
al at the wedding fead) he does profufely fquander it away 
and riots in excels among'! his whores hoping^, ere long, his an- 
tiquated wife will take a voyage to another world, and leave 
him to liis liberty: whilil the old grandame, finding her money 
wafted and herfelf defpifed, is filled with thofe refentments 
that jealoufy, envy, and neglected love can give, lioping each 
day, to fee him in his grave, though (he has aimoft both feet 
in her own: thus they each day wifli for each otiier's death, 
which, if it comes not quickly, they often help to haften. 

But thefe are (till excrefences of marriage, and are the errors 
the people marrying, and not the fault of marriage itfelf. For 
kt that be what God at firft ordained, a nuptial of two hearts, 
as well as hands, whom equal years and mutual love has firfl 
united, before the perfons join their hands, and fuch will tell you: 
that mortals can enjoy no greater happinefs on this fide ofheav- 



258 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEG AC V. 

CHAP. IIL 

DlnB'iGJis to both Sexes^ hoi.o to matia^e thewfel-ues In the Ail of 
Coition y 6r Vcneral Embraces. 
HAVING fhevvedin the former chapter, the pleaf- 
nres and advantages of marriage, I will now give fome dire(blions 
to the new married perfons, how to manage' themfelves in the 
< xercife of one of the greatefl, moft natural and agreebfe pleaf- 
lires thereof, and that is their nocturnal or venera: embraces ; m 
I'leafiire peculiar to a married life, or at lead it ought to be fo, 
for it is not permitted to any bolides. And let not any think it 
(i range that we pretend to give dire;^tions to do what nature 
teaclieth every onejfmce it is well known, that nature has been 
aTided by art in fome of our moil noble obfervations ; befides, 
it is not the bare perforn\ing of iluit a6t that they are directed to, 
but tlie performing of it fo that it may be efticacious for the 
produ^^tion or generation ot man, which our great mafter Arif- 
totle^deHgns in th's lait lt=^acy to the world To w hichpurpofe, 
fome things arc to be obferved previous to this a6l, and (ome 
things confequent upon it. 

Firli, Things previous to it. 
When man ied perfons defign to follow the propenfions of na- 
ture for the production of the fair images of themfelves, let ev- 
ery thing that looks like care and bufmefs bebaniihed from 
tiicir thoughts, for 2fll fuch things are enemies to Venus ; and 
let their animal and vital fpirits be powerfully exhilerated by 
ibme brifk and generous relloratives ? and let them, to invigor- 
ate their fancies, furvey the lovely beauties ofeath other, and 
bear the bright ideas or them in their minds. And fome have 
thought it neceCfary, for the further heightening of their_ joys, 
for the brillt bridej^room to delineate the fcene of their ap- 
proachirig happinefs unto the amorous bride, in. fome fuch he- 
oical rapture as this ; ^ 

/ ivill erijcy thee no'zv myfairejl ; come, 
And fiy njoith me to lo've^s elyfium ; 
iVoTO my enfranchts' d hand on e'very Jide 
Shall d' er thy naked polijif d injoryjlide 
No'iv free as th" ambient air, I 'will behold 
"Thy braided fnonv and thy unbraided gold. 
No curtain no'U) though of tranf parent lanjon. 
Shall be before thy uirgin treafure draijon. 
Noiv thy rich mine, to my inquiring eye 
Expos^dfhall ready for my mintage lie. 
My rudder, ^duith thy bold hand like a try^d 
And fkilful pilot, thou fh alt fee r and guide 
My barkinto Lonje^s channel, ivhere itjhall 
Dance as the hounding ivanjes do rife and fall, 
Andfny tall pinnace in the Ciprianjlrait 
Shall ride at anchor and unlade her freight. 
Having by thele, and other amorous arts, which love can bet- 
rdi^late than my pen, wound up your fancies to the higheft 
pitch and deiire, 

Peiform thofe rites ^which mighty Lo=ve requires. 
And *v:hhtcich othev quench your Atn'rous fires ^ 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 259 

But then, in the I'econd place, when coition is over, fome fur- 
ther direclions are necelTary ; and therefore, let the bridegroom 
take heed how he retreats too foonout of the field of love, left 
lie (hould thereby leave an entrance too open, and cold (hould 
lirike into the womb. But after he has given time for the mat- 
rix toclofe up, he may withdraw and leave the bride in her foft 
repofe, which ought to be with all the calmnefs that the filent 
night, and a mind free from all difturbing care, can give, in- 
clining herto reft on her right fide and not removing, without 
great occafion, till fhe has taken her firftfleep. She alfo ought 
to have a great care of fneezing, and avoid coughing, if it is pof- 
fible, or any other thing that caufes a too violent emotion of the 
body : Neither (hould thefe amorous engagements be too often 
reiterated, till the conception be confirmed ; and even then the 
bridegroom (hould remember, that it is a market that lafls all 
the year and fo fhould have a care of fpending his ftock too lav- 
iflily. Nor would the bride like him at all the worfe for it ; for 
women rather chufe to have a thing well done, than to have it 
often, and well and often too can never holdout. 

CHAP. IX. 
The Mid'Wtfes^ Fade Mecum : Containing partiaiJar Dire^ions 
for MidixJi^veSy Nurfes, &€. 
THOSE who take upon them the office of a midwife, 
ought to take care to fit themfelves for that employment, with 
the knowledge of thofe things that are neceflary for the faithful 
difcharge thereof. And fuchperfons ought to be of the middle 
age, neither too young nor too old, and of a good hahitofbody, 
norfubje6lto difeafes, fears or fudden frights; nor] are the 
qualifications alTigned for a good furgeon improper for a mid- 
wife, viz a lady's hand, a hawk's eye, and a lion's heart: to 
which may be added, activity of body, and convenient ftrength, 
withcautionanddilligence, not fubjecMitodrowfinefs, nor apt to 
be impatient. She ought alfo to be fober, afiable, courteous, 
chafte ; not covetous, nor fubje6t to paffion, but bountiful and 
compalTionate. And, above all, fhe ought to be qualified as the 
Egyptian midwives of old, that is, to have the fear of God, 
which is the principal thing in every ftate and condition, and 
will furnifh her, in all occafions, both with knowledge and dif- 
cretion. 

When the time of birth draws near, and the good woman, 
finds her travailing pains begin to come upon her, let her fend 
for her midwife in time ; better too foon than too late, and get 
thofe things ready which are proper upon fuch occafions. When 
the midwife comes, let her firft find whether the true time of 
the birth be come, for want of obferving this hath fpoiled ma- 
ny a child, and endangered the life of the mother, or at leaft 
put her to twice as much pain as fhe needed. For unfkilful mid- 
wifes not minding this, have giventhings to force down the child, 
and thereby difturbmg the natural courfe of her labor ; whereas 
nature works beft in her own time and way, I do confefs, it is 
fomewhat difficult to know the true time of fome women's labor^. 
they being troubled with pains fo long before their true labor 
comes infome, weeks before, the reafonof which I conceive to 



260 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

be the heat of the reins, and tills may be known by the fwcHinjs; 
of their legs: and therefore when women with child find their 
legs to fwell much, they may be afTured that their reins are too 
hot. For the cure whereof, let them cool the reins before the 
time of their labor, with oil of poppies, and oil of violets, or wa- . 
ter lilies, by anointing the reins of their back with them : for 
llich women whofe reins are over h©t have ufually hard labor. 
but in this cafe, above all the remedies that I know, I prefer the 
deqiflion of pkmtain leaves and roots : you may make a (Irong 
deco6lion of them in water, and then havifng (trained and clerifi- 
ed it with the white of an egg, boil it into a fyrup with its equal 
weight in fugar, and keep it for your uk. 

There are two (kins that compafs the child in the womb, the 
one is the amnois, and this is the inner fkin ; the other is the al. 
antois, and this is the fkin that holds the urine of the child dur- 
ing the time that it abides in the womb : both thofe (kins, by 
the violent- ftirring of the child near the time of the birth, are 
broken : and then the urine and fweatof the child contained in 
tbem fall down to the neck of the womb ; and tliis is that which 
midwives call the water ; and this is an infallible fign that the 
birth is near ; fo the child is no longer able to fubfift in the 
womb, when thofe fkins are broken, than a naked man is in the 
cold air. Thefe waters, if the child comes prefently after them 
facilitate the labor, by makingtheir paffagellippery ; and there- 
fore the midwife mufihave a care that foe force not her water 
away, for nature knows better the true time of the birth than fhe 
and ufuall y retains the water till that time. 

Several Medicines to caufe fpeedy deli'very, 
A LOADSTONE held in her left hand, Take wild 
tanfey andbruife it, and apply it to the woman's noilrils. Take 
date (tones and beat them to powder, and let her take half a 
dram of them in white wine at a time. 

Take parfley, bruife it and prefs out the juice, and put it up, 
being fo dipped, into the mouth of the womb, and it will pref- 
ently caufe the child to come away, though it be dead, and af- 
ter burden alfo : befides. it cleanfeth the womb, and alfo the 
child in the womb of all grofs humors 

Let no midwife ever force away a child, unlefs fhe be fure it is 
dead. I once was where a woman was in labor, which being 
very hard her midwife fent for another midwife to aiiift her,, 
which midwife fending the fir ft down flairs, and defigning to 
have the honor herfelf, forced away the body of the child, and 
left the head behind, of which the woman was forced afterwards 
to be delivered by a man midwife. 

After the child is born, great care is to be taken by the mid- 
wives in cutting the child's navel ftring, which, though by fome 
is accounted but a trifle, yet it requires none of the leaft fkill of 
a midwife to do it with that prudence and judgment that it 
ought. And that it may be done fo, you muft confider as foon 
as the child is freed from its mother, whether it be weak or 
itrong (for both the vital and natural fpirits are communicated 
by the mother of the child by the navel ftring) if the child be 
weak, put back gently partof tlie vital and natural blood in the 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 261 

body of the child by its navel, for that recruits a weak child ; . 
but, if the child be llrong you may forbear. 

As to fhe manner of cutting the child's navel firing, let the 
ligature or binding be very ftrong, and befure do not cut it off 
very near the binding, left the binding unclofe You need not 
fear to bind the navel ftring very hard, becaufeit is void of fenfe 
and the part of the navel ftring v/hich you leave on, falls off in 
its own accord in a few days : the whole courfe of nature being 
now changed into the child, it having another way ordained to 
nourifh it. Itis no matter with what inlfrument you cut it oft, 
if it be ftiarp,and you do it cleverly. The piece of the navel 
ftring that fall be flire you keep from touching the ground : re- 
member what I have before told you ; and if you keep it by you it 
may beofufe. The navel ftring being cut off", apply a little 
cotton or lint to the place to keep it warm, left the cold enter 
into the body of the child, which it will be apt to do if it be 
not bound hard enough. 

The next thing to be done, is to bring a\Kray the after birth or 
fecundine, elfeit will be very dangerous for the woman. But 
this muft be done by gentle means, and without any delays, for 
in this cafe efpecially, delays are dangerous : and whatever I 
have fet down before, as good to caufe fpeedy delivery, and 
bring away the birth, is good alfoto bring away the after birth. 

And after the birth and after birth are brought away, if the 
woman's body be weak, keep her not too hot ; for extremity of 
heat weakens nature and diflolves the ftrength; but whether ftie 
be weak or ftrong let no cold air come near her at firft ; for 
cold is an enemy to the fpermatic parts. It cold get into the 
v/omb, it increafes the after pains, caufesfwellings in the womb, 
and hurts the nerves. 

If what I have written be carefully obferved among midwives, 
and fuch nurfes as keep women in their lying in, by God's blef- 
ftng, the child bed women may do very well, and both midwife 
and nurfe gain credit and reputation. 

For though thefe dire6tions may in fomc things thwart the 
common practice, yet they are grounded upon experience, and 
will infallibly anfwer the end. 

But there are feveral accidents that lying in women are fub- 
iect unto which muft be provided againft, and thefe I Ihall fpcak 
qf next. 

The firft I fliall mention are the after pains, about the caufe of 
^vhich authors very much differ, fome think they are caufed by 
thinnefs, fome by the thickneCs, fome by lliminef's, and fome by 
the (barpnefs of the blood ; but my own opinion is it proceeds 
from cold and water. But whatever the caufe may be, the ob- 
ferving of the foregoing dire^rtions will very much abate them, 
if not quite take them away. But in cafe they do happen, boil 
^n ^RoJ '^''^^i P^^^i'^^^i^ ^^i^ yolk of it, with which mix a fpooh- 
ful of cinnamon water, and let her drink of it ; and if you mix 
r.wo grains of ambergreafe with it, it will be better. 

The fecond accident lying in women are fubjecl to, is excoria- 

^:ointhc lower part of the womb. To help tliisj ufe oil of 



U^ ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

fweet almonds, or rather oil of St. John s wort, with which an- 
oint the parts. 

Another accident is, that fometimes through verv hard labor, 
and great draining to bring the child into the world, the lying 
in woman, comes to be troubled with the hemorrhoids or piles ; 
to cure this let her ufe polypodium bruifed and boiled in her 
meats and drinks. 

A fourth thing that often follows, is the retention of the men- 
fes ; this is very dangerous, and, if not remedied, proves mortal. 

But for this, let her take fuch medicines as (Iron^ly provoke 
the terms : and fuch are piony roots, dittany, juniper berries, 
betony, centaury, favory, pennyroyal, fage, feverfew. 

The lafl thing I fliall mention, is the overflowing of tlie menfes. 
This happens not fo often as the foregoing, but yet fometimes it 
does, and in fuch cafer> take the fhepherd's purfe, either boiled 
in a convenient liquor, or dried and beaten to powder, and you 
will find it very good to flop them. 

Having thus finifhed my Vade Mecum for mid wives, before I 
conclude, I will add fomethingof the choice and qualifications 
of a good nurfe, tliat thofe who have occafion for them may 
know how to order themfelves for the good of their children 
which they nurfe. 

Firft, then,if you would chufe a good nurfe, chufeoneofa 
fanguine complexion, not only becaufe that complexion is gen- 
erally accounted beft, but alio, becaufe all children in their 
minority have their complexion predominant. And that you 
may know fuch a woman, take the following defcription of her. 

Her f^atute of the middle fize, her body flefhy, but not fat, 
and of a merry, pleafant and cheerful countenance : a frefh rud- 
dy color, and her fkinfovery clear, that you may lee her veins 
through it. She isonethat lovescompany, and never cares to 
be alone ; never given to anger, but mightily to playing and 
ranging ; and which makes her the fittefl part for a nurfe, Ihe ve- 
ry much delights in children. In chufmg fuch a one you can 
hardly do amifs ; only let me give you this caution, if you can 
not get one exafily of this defcription, which you will find very 
difficult, get one asnear as you can to it. And let thefe rules 
further guide you m your choice 1. Let her age be between 2.0 
.-ind SO for then flie is in her prime, S, Let her be in liealth, for 
ricknefs infeds her milk, and her milk the child. 3. Let her be a 
prudent woman, for fuch a one will be careful of the child. -4. 
Let her not be too poor, for, if (he wants, the child muftwant 
too. 5. Let her be well bred, for ill bred nurfes corrupt good 
nature. 6. Ifit be a boy that is to be nurfed be fuch an one 
vvhofe laft child was a boy, and foit will be the more agreeable, 
but if it be a girl, let the nurfe be one whofe lafl: child was a 
girl. T. If the nurfe has a hufl^and, fee that he be a good likely 
man, and not given to debauchery, for that may have an influ- 
ence upon the child. 8 In the lal'l place, let the' nurfe take care 
Ihe be not with child herfelf; for iffo, (he mufl: of neceffity 
either fpoil her own child or yours, or perhaps both. To a 
nurfe thus qualified, you may put your child without danger. 



ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. ^65 

And let fuch a nurfe obfervethe following dire61ions, for the 
better governing and ordering herfelf in that ftation. 
DireSf ions for Nurfe s» 

1- LET her Life her body to exercife ; if Ihe hath 
nothing elfe to do, let her exercife herfelf by dancing the child ; 
for moderate exercife caufeth good digeftion ; and I am fure 
good blood mu ft needs make good milk, and goed milk cannot 
fail of making a thriving chdd. 2. Let her live in good air ; 
there is no one thing more material than this- The want of this 
makes fo many children die in London ; and even thefe few, 
that live, are none of the wifeft ; for grofs and thick air makes 
unwieldy bodies, and dull wit : and let none wonder at this, for 
the operation of the air to the body of man is as great as meat 
and drink, for it helps to engender the vital and animal fpirits ; 
and this is the caufe of ficknefs and health, of life and death. 3. 
Let her be careful of her diet, and avoid all fait meats, garlic, 
leeks, onions, and muftard, excelTive drinking of wine, ftrong 
beer or ale, for they trouble the child's body, with choler: 
cheefe, both new and old, afflicts it with melancholy, and all 
filh with phlegm. Let her never deny herfelf fleep when fhe is 
fleepy, for by that means ihe will be more wakeful when the 
child cries Let her avoid all dilquietsof mind, anger, vexation, 
forrow and grief, for thefe things very much diforder a woman, 
and therefore mud be hurtful to the milk — If the nurfe's milk 
happens to be corrupted by any accident, as fometimes it may 
be, by being either too hot or too cold, in fuch cafes let her diet 
be good, and let her obferve the cautions already given her. If 
her milk be too hot, let her cool it with endive, fuccory, lettuce, 
forrel, purflain, and piaintain ; if it be too cold, let herufe bev- 
erage, vervain, buglofs, mother of thyme, and cinnamon ; and 
let her obferve this general rule, whatfoever ftrengthens the 
child in the womb, the fame attends the milk — If the nurfe 
wants milk, the thriftle commonly called our lady thriftle is ex- 
cellent for herbreeding of milk ; there being few things growing 
(if any) that breed more and better milk than that doth; alfo, 
the hoof of the fore feet of a cow, dried and beaten to powder, 
and a dram ot the powder, taken every morning in any conveni- 
ent liquor, increafesthe milk 

Rem edies fo r tncreafing Milk, 

IF A nurfe be given to much fretting, makes her lean 
and hinders digeftion, and flie can never have ftore of milk, nor 
what ~(he has be good- Bad meats and drink, alfo hinder the in- 
creafe of milk, and therefore ought to be toreborn : and there- 
fore women that would increafe their milk, ' ftould eat good 
meat (that is if they can get it) and let her drink milk wherein 
fennel feed hath been (leeped. Let her drink barley water, bur- 
rage andfpinnage ; alfo, goat's milk, cow's milk, and lamb fod- 
den with verjuice ; let her alfo comfort the ftomach v>'ith con- 
fection of annis feed, caraway and cummin feeds, and alfo ufe 
thofe feeds fodden in water ; alfo take barley water, and boil 
therein green fennel and dill, and fweeten it with fugar, and 
drink it at your pleafure. 



k,- 



264 ARISTOTLE'S LAST LEGACY. 

Hot fomentations open the breads and attack tlie blood, as the 
decoction of fennel, fmallage, or fiamp^int aj)pHed. Or, 

Take fennel and parfley green, each a handful, boil and flamp 
them, and barley meal half an ounce, with feed a dram, ftorax, 
calamint two drams, oil of lilies two ounces, and make a poul- 
tice. 

Laftly, take half an ounce of deer's fuet and as much parfley 
roots, VN ith the herbs, an ounce and a half of barley meal, three 
drams of red llorax, three ounces of oil of fweet almonds ; boil 
the root and herbs well, and beat them to a pap, and then min- 
gle the other amongft them, and put it warm to the nipples, and 
it will increale the milk. 

And thus courteous Reader, I have at length finished v/hat I 
dedgned and promifed, andean truly aftirm, that thou halt 
here tlioie Receipts, Remedies and Diredlions given unto thee, 
with refpe^t to Child Bearing Women, Midwives, and Nurles, 
that they are worth their weight in gold, and will afTuredly 
with tiie blefiingcf God, anfwer the end, whenever thou halt 
occafion to make ufe of them, they bcins; things taken on 
trult from tradition or hearfay, but the refult and dictates of 
found reafon and long experience. 



FINIS, 



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